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Full text of "The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine"

' i 8 «U 




OCTOBER, 191 J 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 



For More Rapid Progress, - - - 

Willette A. Allen, Nina C. Vandewalker, Dr. TV. N. Hailmann, 31 

Aphorisms — The Kindergarten in the Pub- 
lic School - - - Dr. TV. N. Hailmann, 

The Bunny Rabbit, - - - Sara Josephine Albright 

The True Relation of the Kindergarten 

and Primary School, - - Mrs. TV. K. Linscott, 

Only a Black-Bird, ... Helen I. Castella, 

Aesthetic Development of Children at the 



32 
37 

37 

42 



Kindergarten Period, 
Kindergarten Daily Program, 
The Little Tree's Lesson, 
A Letter from the Choo-Choo to Tiny 

Boys and Girls, 
For First Gift, 
Play for Second Gift, 
Not Pedagogical, 
The Happy Family, 



Caroline Crawford, 
Norah Keogh, 
Helen I. Castella, 

T 

Helen I. Castella, 



42 
45 
51 

51 
51 
52 
52 
52 



Blanche C half ant Tucker, 

Lena F. Buck, 

Kindergarten Game— "The Fairy Hours," S.A. Turk and Jeannie Turk, 53 
How Anna Helped Two Little Boys, - Carrie C. Rennie, 55 

Memory Gems, -- - -- - --56 

News Notes, ----- . . 57 

Book Notes, -- - - - - - -59 



Volume*****, No. 2. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 



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OTHER TOURS to Washington 

Asbury Park, Lakewood, Atlantic 
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Write or 'Phone for Catalogues 

HENDRICKSON'S TOURS 

Y. 



343 Fulton St. 

Est. 36 Yrs 



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-Tel. 1803 flain 



Famous Poems Explained 

And Other Good Speakers 
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Patriotic Poems J.xplained 65 

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Three- Minute Declamations for College Men 1.00 

Three-Minute Readings for College Girls 1.00 

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Acme Declamation Book 50 

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Commencement Parts (and other occasions) 1.50 

Pros and Cons (complete debates) 1.50 

Instantaneous Parliamentary Guide 50 

HINDS, NOBLE & ELDREDGE 
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A Dann's Noiseless) postpaid 
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and a Pint Pkg. Rowles' Inkessence ; 

The above mentioned arti- 
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■Write tor CATALOG and WHOUSAI3 fSICM •< I 
8UPMJE8 ant f URKITURI. 

E. W. A. ROWLES. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS 6f AMERICA 



PITTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY^ 
KINDERGARTEN COLLEGF 

ALICE N. PARKER, Superintendent. 
Regular course, two years. Special ad- 
vantages for Post-Graduate work. Twen- 
tieth year begins September 27, 1911. For 
catalogue address. 

MRS. WILLIAM McCRACKEN, Secretary, 

3439 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

82 St. Stephen Street, Boston. 

Normal Course, two years. 

For circulars address 

Miss Lucy Harris Symonds 




Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For information, address 

HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

the Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 326 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

Two Years' Course. Terms, $100 per year. 
Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 

springfield — LONr.MEAnow. mass. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 

For information address 

MISS CAROLINE T. HAVEN, Principal, 

Central Park West and 63d St. 

NEW YORK. 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 

Two Years' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
C39 Peachtree Street. ATLANTA. GA. 



CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

1200 Michigan Boulevard, 
CHICAGO. ILL. 

Six weeks 

Summer School 

June 20 to July 28th, 1911. 

For Kindergarten and Primary 

Teachers. 

Mrs. J, . Crouse, Elizabeth Harrison, 

Principals 



-THE- 



New York Kindergarten 

ASSOCIATION 

Offers unusual advantages for gradu- 
ate study 

Season of 1911-1912 

PUBLIC LECTURES 

Prof. H. W. Holmes, Harvard ; Prof, Per- 
cival Chubb, Ethical Culture School; 
Joseph Lee, President Play Ground As- 
sociation of America; Hamilton W. Ma- 
bie; Miss Susan E. Blow. 

Graduate Course 
Program Making. Playground Training 
Kindergarten Gifts Great Literature 
Psychology Art 

Mother Play Games 

Sunday School Methods by Miss Susan 
E. Blow, Laura Fisher and others. 

Tuition free. Apply for prospectus to 

Mary H. Waterman, Supt. 
524 W. 42nd St., NEW YORK CITY 



Why not place a card 
of your training school 
in these columns? 



The Philadelphia Training School for 

KINDER.GARTNERS 

Mrs. m. L. van KIRK, Principal 



1333 Pine Street, 



Philadelphia, Pa. 



TRAINING SCHOOL 



The Buffalo indergarten Association 

Two Years' Course. 
Vor particulars address 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER, 
86 Delaware Avenue, - Buffalo, N. Y. 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Years' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
16 Washington St., East Orange, N. J. 



CLEVELAND KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with the 
CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

2050 East 96th Street 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Founded in 1894) 
Course of study under direction of Eliza- 
beth Harrison, covers two years in Cleve- 
land, leading to senior and normal courses 
In the Chicago Kindergarten College. 

MISS NETTA FARIS. Principal. 

MRS. W. R. WARNER, Manager. 



You Can Work Wonders 

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htiiIiI uiwfiiUfufiorT snhtatltntfMi 



Dr. Earle's N. Y. Froebel Normal 

INCORPORATED. 

KINDERGARTEN, PRIMARY CLASSES, PLAYGROUND AND 
SETTLEMENT WORKERS' COURSES. 

Graduate Courses in Supervision and for all New York City and State Licenses 
Lecturers Furnished for University Extension Courses. Dormitory Accommodations for Resident Students 



Address for circulars, 



Dr. and Mrs. E. Lyell Earle, Principals. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergarten 

Institute 



Students' Residence UCKIKllDfc HUlbt, 

54 Scott St., Chicago. 



Diplomas granted for each of the following: Regular Kindergar- 
ten Course [two years]. Post Graduate Course for Supervisors 
and Training Teachers [one year]. Home-making Course, non- 
professional [one year]. 



Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 

Chicago. 

Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 

For circulars apply to ^iss Frances E - Newton, 

Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 

Fall term opens Sept. 28, 1911. Directors, 54 Scott Street, CHICAGO 



GRAND RAPIDS KINlE M AR= 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Winter Term opens September 27th. 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 
MAY L. OGILBY, Registrar 

Jliepard Building, - 23 Fountain St. 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



Miss Hart's 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

Kindergar triers 



For 



1615 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 
Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Five practice Kin- 
dergartens. Opens September 28, 1911. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 
The Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 

OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 

FROEBEL KINDERGARTEN TRAIN- 
ING SCHOOL. 

Medical supervision. Persona] attention. 
Thirty-five practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MARY E. LAW, M. !>., Principal. 



The Teachers' College 

of Indianapolis 

For the Training of Kindergartners 
and Primary Teachers. Accredited by 
the State Board of Education in Classes 
A B and C. Regular courses, two, three 
and four years. Primary Training a part 
of the regular work. Classes formed in 
September and February. Free scholar- 
ships granted each term. 

Special Primary Classes in March, May. 
June, July. Send for catalogue. 

MRS. ELIZA A. BLAKER, Principal. 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Institute. 

23rd and Alabama Streets. 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

at CHICAGO COMMONS, Grand Ave. 
Mrs Bertha Hofer Hegner, Superintendent 
Mrs. Amelia Hofer Jerome, I'rineipal. 

FOURTEENTH YEAR. 
Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A course 
in Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar with the Social Settle- 
ment movement. Fine equipment. For 
circulars and information write to 
MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 

West Chicago, 111. 



INDERGJUtUN U MING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number of 

students. 

Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Higinbotham. Pres. 

Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 

SARAH E. HANSON, Principal. 

Credit at the 

Northwestern and Chicago Universities. 

For particulars address Eva B. Wliit- 

more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 

ave.. Chicago. 



The Adams School 

indergarten Training Course 

(Two Years) 

Nine months' practice teaching dur- 
ing course. Address, 

The Misses Adams 

26 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, Va. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training in Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. IPost- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

summer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co., Maryland. 



PRATT INSTITUTE 
SCHOOL OF KINDERGARTEN TRAINING 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Kindergarten Normal Course, two years 
Special Classes for Kindergartners and 
Mothers. Froebel's Educational Theo- 
ries ; Players with Kindergarten Mater- 
ials; Games and Gymnasium Work; 
Outdoor Sports and Swimming; Child- 
ren's Literature and Story Telling; 
Psychology, History of Education. Nat- 
ure Study, Music and Art. Model Kind- 
ergarten for Children. Classes for Oldei' 
Children in Folk Games, Dances and 
Stories. 

Alice E. Fitts, Director. 

Year of 1911-12 opens September 25th. 

THE HARIETTA MELISSA WEUS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 
For information address 

MISS HARIETTA M. MILLS. Principal 

New York University Building 

Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Course given for credit at 

New York University Summer School 



TO KINDERGARTNERS 

AND PRIMARY 

TEACHERS 

So strong is our belief that our list of 
publications will not only be of iuteuse 
interest to you, but to the children under 
your care and charge, that we urge you 
to secure our catalogue and examine it. 
Our JUVENILE and NURSERY BOOKS 
FOR BOYS, GIRLS and the LITTLE 
FOLKS are well worth your attention. 
Space prohibits details, but a POSTAL 
PLACES OUR LIST IN YOUR HANDS 
by return mail. 

Hurst & Co., Publishers, 
New York. 



KINDERGARTEN 

SUPPLIES 

And all kinds of Construction 

Material for Kindergartners and 

Primary Teachers. Catalogue 

Free. Address, 

Garden City Educational Co. 

no 3o. Wabash Ave., CHICAGO 




r 



V)\)Q, 3iin6er3arten ;p rimar T Mla^a^ine 



VOL. XXIV— OCTOBER, 1911— NO. 2. 



The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 

Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

Editorial Rooms, 59 West 96th Street, New York. N. Y. 

E. I.yell Karle. l*h. D., Editor, 59 W. 96th St.. New York City 

Business Office, 276-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 

J. H. SHX'LTS, Business Manager. 

MAMSTEE, MICHIGAN. 

All communications pertaining to subscriptions and adver- 
tising or other business relating to the Magazine should he 
addressed to the Michigan office, J. H. Shults, Business .Man- 
ager, Manistee, Michigan. All other communications to E. 
I.yell Earle, Managing Editor, 59 W. 96th St., New York City. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine Is published on the 
first of each month, except July and August, from 27S River 
Street, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable in advance. 
Single copies. 15c. 

Postage is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in 
the United States, Hawaiian Islands. Philippine Islands, 
Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, 
Cuba and Mexico. For Canada add 20c and for all other 
countries in the Postal Union add 30c for postage. 

Notice of Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a con- 
tinuance of the subscription is desired until notice of dis- 
continuance is received. When sending notice of change of 
address, both the old and new addresses must be given. 

Make all remittances to Manistee, Michigan. 



FOR MORE RAPID PROGRESS. 

In addition to the excellent letters from lead- 
ing kindergartners published in our last issue 
under this heading we are pleased to give space 
to three more which follow. Two other com- 
munications arrived too late for this issue. In 
a multitude of counsel there is usually wisdom, 
it and is hoped that the suggestions offered may 
assist in forming a basis for active operations 
later on. 

From "Just a Friend of the Kindergarten." 
I am just a friend of the kindergarten, not a 
kindergartner at all, hence I shall offer no sug- 
gestions at all but simply state that I am glad 
this movement has been started. I believe that 
much permanent good can be accomplished by 
intelligent, consistent effort, and that every kin- 
dergartner ought to be doing something to help 
along the cause. 

From Nina C. Vande walker. 
That a more definite knowledge of the status 
of the kindergarten in the different states is 
needed has been recognized by the Internation- 
al Kindergarten Union by the appointment of a 
Committee of Investigation. The committee 
will shortly send out a questionaire to school su- 
perintendents, to be answered by them or by 
those who can give the information called for. 
As the success of the committee's work will de- 



pend upon the care taken in replying to these 
questions it is hoped that the co-operation of 
those to whom the questionaire conies will be 
prompt and cordial. The committee is com- 
posed of Mary C. Shute, Boston Manual School; 
Anna H. Sillsel, Kindergarten Supervisor, Day- 
ton, O.; Marion S. Hanckel, Training Teacher, 
Charleston, S. C; AlmaS. Bingel, State Normal 
School, Winona, Minn.; Julia Baten, Kindergar- 
ten Supervisor, Helena, Mont.; Orietta S. Chit- 
tenden, Kindergarten Supervisor, Omaha, Neb.; 
and Mary E. Hannan, Geneva S. Bower, and 
Nina C. Vandewalker of Milwaukee, the last 
named being the chairman. 

NINA C. VANDEWALKER. 

From Willette A. Allen. 

In reply to your questions permit me to say 
that all indications in the south point to a 
steady progress of kindergarten. We believe 
a continuance of this growth will depend upon 
the ability of each kindergartner to supply the 
real needs of the special children for which 
she is responsible. Should the kindergarten 
fail to increase the child's happiness and to 
better his health; to develop his power to 
overcome or surmount difficulties; if the kin- 
dergarten fails to show the child morally 
stronger, from his supervised association with 
equals in age ; if higher ideals and stronger 
motive to realize these ideals have not re- 
sulted from kindergarten experience — then a 
long life for the kindergarten cannot be ex- 
pected. The kindergarten proving itself to be 
an invaluable aid to the mother in child train- 
ing: the kindergarten recognized by the edu- 
cator as embodying the early steps in a con- 
tinuous educational process and forming 
habits of physical and mental activity con- 
ducive to the best intellectual work in the 
grades ; the kindergarten proving an inspira- 
tion in daily living will never die though it 
may in time be merged into a larger form of 
true education. 

If publishers of kindergarten and other 
magazines having helpful articles on child 
culture could furnish back numbers for dis- 
tribution to mothers ; if the daily press would 
grant space for a child-welfare column ; if 
some publisher could afford to print leaflets 
at a low rate, much impetus would be given 
to organized effort to acquaint people with the 
purpose of the kindergarten. 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



APHORISMS: — THE KINDERGARTEN 
IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOL. 

BY DR. W. N. HAILMANN. 

1. The modern public school is the child of 
a new democracy that would accord to all its 
members equal rights and demand from them 
equal responsibilities on the simple basis of 
their common humanity. In America, where 
this school has so far attained its most con- 
sistent development, it is gradually reaching 
an organization that rests on a broad and uni- 
tary view of childhood and youth developing 
into many-sided generously beneficent life- 
efficiency whose mottoes are freedom, good 
will and joy. 

In closer detail, this ideal demands vigorous 
and self-reliant individuality, conscious social 
intro-ordination, a healthy public spirit, devo- 
tion to worthy human ideals, and fitness for 
some definite life-activity essential to the com- 
mon welfare. 

Not that these things are everywhere and 
at all times consciously and consistently fol- 
lowed is my meaning. All vital development 
is rooted in unconscious life-processes and 
struggles more or less painfully out of and 
through masses of hereditary and traditional 
hindrance. Yet an impartial analysis cannot 
fail to reveal to the patient student the cen- 
tral drift of the movement. It manifests itself 
in the utterances of leading minds, in halting 
legislation, in courses of study, in the shifting 
devices of the school. 

2. The very organization of public educa- 
tion clearly indicates this drift. Waiving con- 
sideration of the efforts of the home as the 
individualizing factor in the educational pro- 
cess, we find the state and the community in- 
terested successively in the socializing kinder- 
garten, in the conventionalizing primary 
school, in the nationalizing grammar school, 
in the idealizing high school and in the spe- 
cializing college. 

Vitally, this organization suggests the 
analogy of a river system. The source lies in 
the home. By and by the new individual 
streamlet is joined by the successive tributar- 
ies enumerated above. Each new tributary, it 
will be noticed, does not obliterate the inner 
character of the original streamlet, but simply 
adds to it new significance ; and the resulting 
stream issues forth in its lower course, a rich 
and effective self-poised individuality, broad- 
ened and deepened by the accessions it owes 
to its tributaries. 

3. The central spring in this developing in- 



dividuality, as in all vital development, is self- 
activity which in man is destined to become 
more and more consciously self-directive. This 
guided Froebel in his educational thought, as 
well as in his work at Griesheim, at Keilhar, 
at Willisaw and, ultimately, in the establish- 
ment of the kindergarten. Upon this princi- 
ple hinge the various corollaries of self-revela- 
tion, self-expression, self-adjustment and self- 
realization, as well as the requirements of in- 
terest and initiative in exploring and creative 
activity, of learning by doing, of purposeful 
social co-ordination in play and work on the 
pupil's part. Upon this hinge also the de- 
mands for "living with the children," and, 
consequently, for child-study, for suitable in- 
terpenetration of developing and didactic 
measures, of patient following and active lead- 
ing, of psychological and logical sequence, of 
analysis and synthesis in thought and action. 

4. It is important to remember in this con- 
nection that in the Froebelian unitary view 
of life and, therefore, of the new education the 
contrasts of analysis and synthesis, of interest 
and effort, of psychological and logical se- 
quence, of following and leading, of develop- 
ing and didactic measures, of perception and 
reflection, are conceived not as antagonistic 
but as polar contrasts, subject to the laws of 
mutual attraction and induction universally 
valid for polar forces. They are, indeed, not 
distinct entities, but mutually conditioning 
phases of a unitary entity. They are distinct 
only in thought, not in life. 

Other similarly polar contrasts enter into a 
vital consideration of educational procedure. 
Among these the following, at least, call for 
additional emphasis : the contrasts of indi- 
vidual and social, of actual and potential, of 
physical and psychical, of concrete and ab- 
stract, of natural and spiritual, of thought and 
feeling, of play and work, of initiative and dic- 
tation, of necessity and freedom. 

5. In the educational guidance of develop- 
ment, it is needful to maintain in healthy ten- 
sion of equilibrium the opposite factors of 
these polar contrasts. Neither the one nor the 
other can be over-emphasized or emphasized 
to the exclusion of its mate without incurring 
danger of impotent diffusion, without arrest 
or prevention of development. 

Thus, by the way of illustration, interest 
and effort are not hostile, but mutually sus- 
taining factors of life. Interest stimulates 
effort, dies in its absence; and effort can enter 
the pupil's life only through avenues opened 
by interest. The art of the. teacher consists 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



33 



in correlating- the two in such a way that they 
will ever co-exist in healthy mutual tension 
and serve the needs of unfolding, enlarging 
life; that, as they recede from each other, they 
will remain bound together by mutually in- 
creasing intensity. To confine the child to 
unguided interest is to arrest development; 
and constrained effort, not held in natural ten- 
sion by interest, prevents development. 

Similarly, abstract ideas rest, indeed, upon 
concrete experience ; yet, in turn, concrete ex- 
perience can extend its scope and deepen its 
hold upon life only on the basis of growing 
abstractions. In isolation, concrete experience 
will be crushed by its own weight into the 
stagnant pools of empiricism ; and abstraction 
will lose itself in the numberless blind alleys 
of vague speculation, unless it can find verifi- 
cation in the realms of concrete life. 

The education of our day more and more 
consciously seeks to follow this principle of 
unity in its measures. More and more fully 
it appreciates the meaning and urgency of 
Froebel's: "From life, through life, to life," 
i. e. from vital experience, through vital 
thought, to vital conduct Thus does man suc- 
ceed, as Froebel has it elsewhere, in achieving 
the purpose of conscious life which is to 
"make the external internal, the internal ex- 
ternal and to reveal the unity of both in life." 

(i. The same thought underlies also the 
unity, which is vastly more than harmony, of 
head, heart and hand. In harmony these are 
still conceivable as more or less distinct en- 
tities: it is still possible to speak of specific 
intellectual, moral and motor training; in 
unity they are but phases, different aspects, 
of one vital entity. The brain is a contrivance 
not only "to translate thought into action," 
but also to translate action into ever higher 
and deeper thought. 

In fact, the formulation of this trinity as 
head, heart and hand is apt to mislead. Con- 
scious life begins in motor phases of life 
whose symbol is the hand, is realized in 
thought, appreciated in feeling where, too, the 
attitudes and purposes of the will are born, 
and is led, again under the supremacy of 
thought to achievement in motor phases of 
life. 

Thus we see the flash of the conscious men- 
tal act in its wholeness running in this order: 
hand-head-heart-head-hand ; from exploring 
and discovering to achieving and adjusting 
motor activity, which again becomes a source 
of further discovery and so on indefinitely in 
ever-deepening insight, in ever-broadening 



purpose, in ever higher achievement and ever 
closer adjustment in the onward movement 
that constitutes individual and general human 
progress. 

7. Now in the educational stream (2), the 
kindergarten adds it's waves to the current of 
the child's unfolding" individuality at a time 
when, stimulated by the social features of 
home and neighborhood life, he has begun 
more or less consciously to yearn for assertion 
of his individuality in social intercourse with 
equals which the family cannot supply or 
guide adequately. Here he is to learn the arts 
of kindly leadership and patient following in 
the achievement of common social purpose in 
free and joyous organic intro-ordination with 
others. 

This is the central purpose of the kinder- 
garten. To this all its measures are more or 
less directly accessory. Its social games, its 
marches, its songs, its group-work, its garden- 
work, its festivals, its division of labor in mat- 
ters of room decoration, etc., all tend to this. 
Whenever it engages in more individual or 
mass-drill with gifts and occupations, in calis- 
thenics, etc., it would do so in socially related 
groups and with a view of utilizing the skill 
acquired or the outcome of the work in some 
social effort. 

8. Public opinion still is so far in arrear of 
the educational needs of to-day and much 
more so of the prophetic ideals of humanitar- 
ian education, that the actual school, in spite 
of much gratifying progress, still is inade- 
quately organized and equipped to meet these 
needs. Unavoidable conservative tendencies 
based upon waning social conditions, coupled 
with a not inexcusable parsimony in the ex- 
penditure of public funds, still continue as 
hindrances to progress in the adjustment of 
educational institutions to the requirements of 
new and dawning" educational ideals. 

9. That the kindergarten, too, — and more 
particularly the public kindergarten, must suf- 
fer under this unavoidable condition, goes 
without saying. Among its unfavorable con- 
sequences, some of which will be touched 
upon later on, I shall here confine myself to 
pointing out the serious drawback that comes 
to its work from the practice of overcrowding. 

It must appear on first flash, as it were, 
that the transfer of children from the intimacy 
of home and neighborhood life to the kinder- 
garten with its new and strange faces and im- 
pressions will come to them as an exciting 
event. Naturally, on entering the new envi- 
ronment, they will seek — some furtively, 



34 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



others boldly — some familiar face, some wel- 
coming feature with which they can feel at 
home. If they fail in this, they will be prone 
to shrink from contact, to withdraw into 
themselves and, in spite of endearing efforts 
on the part of the kindergarten or prospective 
comrades, to manifest their new isolation in a 
variety of ways, ranging from fear to ob- 
stinacy, from tears to boisterous self-indul- 
gence or fierce revolt. And the greater the 
crowd, the greater the mischief. 

The unprejudiced observer cannot fail to be 
filled with admiration for the ingenuity, tact 
and patient energy of the kindergartners in 
their by no means unsuccessful efforts to re- 
duce the retarding influence of the crowd 
upon their children. Yet, even where they 
succeed in securing a fair measure of intro- 
ordination and community of feeling, oppor- 
tunities for leadership and intelligent follow- 
ing on the children's part are much reduced, 
and the development of social tendencies as 
factors in the expansion, invigoration and 
liberation of individuality is constantly and 
greatly hampered by the persistent crowd. 

10. On the whole, however, one cannot 
fail to note the fact that the crowded condition 
of the kindergarten has brought into its work 
much that is artificial, much that borders on 
routine, that the kindergartner bears more 
than her legitimate share and the children less 
than is their due in the common life, that in- 
itiative and self-activity are clogged, that the 
freedom and joy of self-unfoldment are vari- 
ously hampered, and that constant effort is 
needed on the part of those entrusted with 
leadership in the conduct and development of 
educational institutions to lift public opinion 
into fuller and clearer appreciation of its re- 
sponsibility in the matter. 

11. Already in the family and still more in 
the kindergarten, the conventionalities of life 
in matters of conduct receive constant atten- 
tion ; they enter the habit-life of the children 
through imitation in play, as well as under 
direct training. In fact, from the point of 
view of the primary school, the value of the 
kindergarten is measured largely by the habits 
of formal attention, of promptness, of obedi- 
ence, of ready adaptation and self-reliance in 
common work, of politeness and regard for 
propriety which the children bring to their 
work. 

The children bring to the school, moreover, 
considerable familiarity with number and form 
relations and with things, fair control of the' 
fundamental conventionalities of language and 



manual dexterity, sympathetic interest in the 
life of nature and in the occupations of man 
in community life, and not a little apprecia- 
tion and command of the beauti es of song 
and rhythmic movement. 

12. Upon these foundations, the primary 
school, under the ideals of a new education, is 
to continue the work, taking care not only to 
avail itself of the children's habits of attitude, 
but to bring these more and more under the 
conscious control of growing insight and in- 
creasing deliberateness of will. 

Their play-work is to proceed less and less 
under the stimulus of caprice and more and 
more under that of the necessities of their 
tasks ; in their common work, co-operation is 
to be sustained decreasingly by the pleasure it 
affords and increasingly by a deepening sense 
of responsibility; as their outlook widens, they 
are to grow in spontaneous eagerness for in- 
struction and for the control of logical se- 
quence ; from the predominantly material 
thought symbolism of the kindergarten, they 
are to pass freely through a richer pictorial 
symbolism to increasing appreciation of the 
value of the conventional symbolisms of lan- 
guage and number that claim predominance in 
the work of the primary school ; the crystal- 
izations of concrete experiences in defining 
and classifying abstractions are to engage the 
children's spontaneous attention more and 
more, as they gain in realization of their value 
in the achievement of purpose in thought and 
action. 

In the details of method, for which there is 
no place here, this demands unbroken continu- 
ity, the avoidance of abrupt change in en- 
vironment and in measures of procedure, 
steady adhesion at every point to the desired 
outcome of the entire educational process, 
which is the development of rich and benefi- 
cently effective, self-poised individualities (2). 

In a large sense, the primary school is still 
a kindergarten, but with increasingly wider 
scope, larger opportunity, greater intensity 
and persistence of purpose, deeper joy of 
achievement. It still retains in a large meas- 
ure the social games, the marches and songs, 
the group and gardenwork, the festivals and, 
to some extent, even the occupations of the 
kindergarten, but increasingly nearer to the 
accuracies and intricacies, increasingly nearer 
to the compelling actualities in purpose and 
achievement of conventional social life. 

13. In the gamuts of mutual attitude be- 
tween teacher and taught — in which the teach- 
er is successively guardian, guide, exemplar, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



35 



leader, friend and companion, and the taught 
correspondingly yield implicit obedience, are 
spontaneously observant, fondly imitative, 
cheerfully following, affectionately and duti- 
fully co-operative,— there is steady advance. 

14. In the distribution of the work in 
courses in study, insofar as such courses are 
still imperative, this should afford at every 
point ample means and latitude for the stimu- 
lation of natural interest, of spontaneous pur- 
pose and independent achievement. No sub- 
ject should ever become wholly an end of 
study for the sake of mere knowledge, but 
should at all times constitute in some measure 
a means to some end in achievement. 

Number and form, e. g., should be consid- 
ered not so much for their own sake only, but 
rather and chiefly for the sake of better appre- 
ciation of the qualities, uses and relations of 
things and of the nature and needs of life; and 
these things, in turn, should serve not merely 
the gratification of even scientific curiosity, 
but the stimulation of thought and action with 
reference to the pleasing or useful expression 
of some kindly purpose through language or 
art, in work or deed. The children should be 
led not to mere information and the repetition 
of information, but to some degree of real 
efficiency in benevolent self-expression. 

In short, there is need not only for the ap- 
perception of ordinary pedagogic parlance 
which considers only the acquisition of addi- 
tional knowledge, but, all along and at the 
same time, for the deeper phases of this pro- 
cess by which knowledge enters attitude and 
purpose and which may be designated as its 
introceptive side. 

15. For this, social work is indispensable. 
Not only the ordinary games, marches and 
songs in which the children join, as a rule, in 
doing the same thing at the same time or 
which, frequently, have a clearly competitive 
character. These are by no means to be dis- 
continued : the former secure a desirable feel- 
ing of oneness ; and the latter are effective fac- 
tors in the development of individual power 
and self-reliance, and afford valuable practice 
for the exercise of individual freedom under 
the recognized law of the game. But, in addi- 
tion to these, there is needed social work in- 
volving division of labor with reference to 
common ends beyond the scope of individual 
achievement and requiring unity of effort on 
the part of each and all. In much of this, it 
is possible and desirable to organize tasks in 
which individuals of widely varying ability 
can contribute, each, their best, of which the 



orchestra presents a striking example and 
which I am tempted to gather under the term 
of orchestration. 

Such exercises derive their great educational 
value from the fact that, with reference to the 
end in view, the humblest and the proudest in 
skill are apparently of equal importance : none 
can be spared. Mutual appreciation, self-re- 
spect and self-confidence, mutual gratitude 
and whole-souled devotion to the common 
purpose, a sense of organic unity without loss 
of individual worth and freedom, are among 
the gains of such exercises. 

16. The familiar and, indeed, unavoidable 
slowness of the institutional phases of social 
life in their adjustment to the demands of 
progressive thought, even in public opinion, 
constitutes of necessity a retarding factor in 
efforts of the school to secure an organization 
and equipment that may satisfy these require- 
ments. 

Thus the parsimony, to which reference was 
made above (8, 9) in connection with the 
massing of children in the kindergarten, oper- 
ates detrimentally also in the primary school, 
encumbering attention to individual needs and 
effective grouping, compelling repression of 
initiative and natural self-activity and the sub- 
stitution therefor of constraint and artificial 
incentive. 

Here, too, we still meet crowds of children 
in relatively small rooms that peremptorily 
exclude freedom of motion, enrichment of 
environment and opportunity for varied so- 
cially organized self-expression. Here we find, 
moreover, much strict grading on the basis, 
not of essentials of interest, of developed 
power and earnestness of effort, but of certain 
externalities and conventionalities of informa- 
tion, more or less arbitrarily prescribed by 
administrative officialism that has only a 
vague and perfunctory interest in the children 
and, consequently, takes refuge in the so- 
called subjects of instruction. With teachers 
and pupils, therefore, regulation largely takes 
the place of life, passive submission the place 
of active good-will, patient endurance the 
place of the joy of achievement. 

17. Nevertheless, thanks to the persistent 
insistence of enlightened educational thought, 
reinforced by the scientific tendency of the 
age ; thanks, perhaps still more, to the spirit 
of universal motherhood that has assumed a 
beneficently aggressive attitude in social evo- 
lution, in associated effort and in the large 
share it is taking in the work and manage- 
ment of educational institutions and which is 



36 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



conferring upon the current age the title of 
"the century of childhood," these defects in 
the organization and equipment of the school 
and, more particularly, of the primary school 
are steadily yielding. 

Largely to this spirit is due the phenomenal 
development of the kindergarten in less than 
thirty decades and its acceptance as an integ- 
ral part of public education, as well as the 
gradual introduction into the work of the pri- 
mary school of the educational principles typi- 
fied in Froebel and sometimes designated as 
the kindergarten principles or as the kinder- 
garten spirit. 

18. Under the beneficent sway of this 
spirit, there are coming into the primary 
school, many tendencies which, in spite of the 
stolid hindrances of institutional sluggishness 
in matters of progress, are destined to vitalize 
its work. By way of illustration, I enumerate 
among these the following: 

It is teaching respect for the child's 
thoughts and feelings, his experiences and in- 
terests, as the groundwork for further devel- 
opment. 

It emphasizes the value of initiative and 
self-expression in every phase of the work and 
is beginning to assign to instruction its true 
place of service in the achievement of pur- 
pose. 

It is revealing the value of play and of the 
play-spirit in leading the children to earnest- 
ness, persistance and endurance in effort ; as 
well as the value of manual and other motor 
activity in the acquisition of knowledge, in 
the expression of thought, in the achievement 
of purpose, in the development of character. 

It is setting forth the stimulating value of 
beauty in sound, color and form; the value of 
song, rhythmic movement and artistic en- 
deavor in every phase of the child's develop- 
ment. 

It is showing the value and need of love of 
nature and of the sympathetic nurture of life 
in the unlocking of the deeper springs of the 
child's being; as well as the value and need of 
stirring and fostering of social tendencies and, 
thus, bringing into the school the sunshine of 
well-doing and banishing the mists of envy 
and greed. 

It is convincing parents that active and ag- 
gressive interest in the school on their part 
can never be wholly delegated and that its 
abdication to other interests means arrested 
development and, therefore, loss of life-effi- 
ciency and of happiness to the child and con- 
sequent deterioration of the community. 



19. Now, the very intensity of living on 
the part of earnest souls frequently exposes 
them to the dangers of a new one-sidedness in 
their work, when they come under the spell 
of new truth. Of this we meet a number of 
instances in the renovation of the primary 
school. 

Thus, the discovery of the heretofore ne- 
glected value of interest has led in some in- 
stances to the neglect of effort. Similarly, the 
discovery of the value of the child's initiative, 
of the leading importance of spontaneous de- 
velopment, of material and pictorial symbol- 
ism, of concrete experience and the rest, has 
led in many directions to damaging neglect of 
corresponding polar contrasts (4) which are 
so essential in the effective unfolding and ex- 
pansion of the child's life. And this has oper- 
ated as a new factor in the arrest of develop- 
ment, and is furnishing powerful weapons to 
the friends of established systems in the or- 
ganization and equipment of the schools. 

20. On the other hand, there has come to 
the kindergarten deterioration from another 
cause. Under the pressure of traditional en- 
cumbrances of current school systems, not a 
little reinforced by its efforts to render itself 
less obnoxious or more acceptable to these 
systems, the kindergarten fell in some respects 
into schoolish ways, more or less foreign to its 
spirit and not to be explained by the mere 
overcrowding of the rooms. 

Housed, usually, with the other departments 
of the school, in one of the large school pal- 
aces, of whose imposing magnificence a fool- 
ish civic pride makes so much, the kindergar- 
ten was compelled to submit in many ways in 
its work to the routine of an artificial exter- 
nal order. There came into its work, there- 
fore, a certain schoolishness, hostile to the 
eager, spontaneous life of the kindergarten. 

21. Prominent among the symptoms of this 
disorder is an excessive intellectualism, an in- 
ordinate haste to instruct, to furnish informa- 
tion for information's sake, rather, than as a 
welcome incident in meeting the needs of the 
children in the achievement of their purposes. 
Stories are told with this object, prematurely 
explaining natural phenomena, introducing the 
children to the verbiage of historic incidents 
and of literary productions, wholly beyond 
their grasp of appreciation ; games and songs 
of similar import are constructed by the 
teachers and taught like lessons in a book; 
much of the so-called art-work takes its points 
from grown-up conventionalism and ignores 
the child's ways of aprpoach to these modes 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Ay 



of self-expression ; the gifts and occupations, 
too, serve perhaps more frequently as subjects 
of study than they do as rich and flexible ma- 
terial for individual and social self-expression; 
even sympathetic intercourse with nature and 
the nurture of its life is not rarely trans- 
formed into "nature-study." 

Coincident with this, there is occasion to 
notice in the position and movement of the 
children, as well as in the attitude of teachers, 
evidence of much artificial constraint looking 
toward external order and over-direction, 
rather, than toward the spontaneous order of 
joyous development under social impulse and 
"living with the children." 

Children pass from the morning circle to 
the tables, from these to the game, etc., at 
stated intervals of time and in fixed order, as 
classes in the school pass from subject to sub- 
ject; in the work at the tables, imitation and 
logical sequence are the rule and initiative 
and psychological unfoldment comparatively 
rare ; even in the circle games, children are in 
many instances under the silent command of 
circles pointed on the floor; programs and 
timetables are often as binding and as much 
loaded with details as they are in the "well- 
regulated" school. 

22. These strictures are in no way to be 
interpreted as a criticism of the kindergarten 
as such, and much less of the kindergartners. 
These are not primarily, at least, responsible 
for the faults indicated. In the majority of 
instances they are the unwilling victims of 
conditions they cannot control, and earnestly 
labor to improve every opportunity to free 
the children from the schoolish fetters that 
hold them captive. This they must patiently 
and resolutely do, or abandon the high pur- 
pose and destiny of their mission. 

And liberation will surely come, is coming, 
in the measure in which established institu- 
tional factors succeed in adjusting themselves 
to the requirements of the educational insight 
and of the social evolution which the current 
centuries are revealing. 



THE TRUE RELATION OF THE 
KINDERGARTEN AND THE PRI- 
MARY SCHOOL. 



THE BUNNY RABBIT. 

The bunny rabbit came last night 

And laid some eggs for me; 

I made a nest down by the gate, 

He couldn't help but see — ■ 

And when he laid the nest all full, 

He ran away and hid! 

I'm sure I saw the bunny come — 

At least I almost did! 

— Sara Josephine Albright. 



By Mrs. W. K. Linscott, 
President of the Mobile City School Improve- 
ment Association. 

The kindergarten in the public school is 
an integral part of a system. It bears the 
same relation to the primary school as the 
primary bears to the secondary, and the 
secondary to the high school. Their relation 
is correlative. Each is a part of the whole. 
The kindergarten is the first part, of the 
beginning. 

The principles of the kindergarten are the 
principles of the fundamental educational 
laws. The kindly old gentleman who founded 
the kindergarten, had long since written 
"The Education of Man," in which he ex- 
pounded a philosophy of education so pro- 
found, so comprehensive, and yet so practical 
that its so-called "developing method" domi- 
nates all modern educational thought and 
experiment. The kindergarten is perhaps the 
best and most valuable exponent of this 
philosophy, and as such needs no defense. 

This paper does not concern itself with 
the relation of the home to the kindergarten. 
Obviously this relation is intimate and vital, 
being maintained by the child, his parents and 
his teacher. The kindergarten is the logical 
connecting link between the home and the 
school. It receives the child as he is; tests 
his physical, mental and moral ability; gath- 
ers valuable data concerning his parentage, 
home and community, and introduces him to 
life in the public school. Eventually the law 
will pay more regard to the heredity and 
early environment of the child, but at present, 
the state's work proper begins with the public 
school, where, with more or less success, it 
endeavors to give the child the trained ability 
to gain knowledge and to use it. 

There is great diversity in the quantity 
and the quality of preparation for education 
given the child in his home : Some, like 
Chesterfields gentleman were excellently pre- 
pared a hundred years before they were born ; 
others are somewhat prepared through the 
instinctive wisdom and honest endeavor of 
modern progressive parents ; still others, like 
poor Topsy, have "just growed" into the 
school entirely unprepared ; some, indeed, 
have been sadly retarded, hindered, and even 
marred in the making. No child's experience 



38 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



should be left entirely to chance, and from a 
purely pedagogical standpoint, it is the prov- 
ince of the kindergarten to receive this 
heterogeneous class of children, and by awak- 
ening and guiding their self activities, quick- 
ening their powers of observation and percep- 
tion, training their hands to some dexterity, 
and by leading their spirits towards appre- 
ciation, self control, self reliance, resource- 
fulness, fairness and co-operation, to prepare 
them for the work of the school. Primarily 
it is the work of the teacher in any grade 
to prepare the child to live his life; but 
secondarily she prepares him for the work of 
the succeeding grade, co-ordinating the cor- 
related studies, for as Froebel says ''That 
which follows is always conditioned on that 
which goes before," and "No new subject 
of instruction should be brought to the pupil, 
unless he at least feels vaguely that it is 
based, and how it is based, on previous work." 
Likewise, tho the kindergartner is trained to 
think primarily of the child himself, his life 
and his daily interests, yet the very nature and 
methods of her work of creating apperceptive 
centers prepares him for the work of the pri- 
mary school. Efficiency in this work of prep- 
aration for education demands a genuine 
and unsentimental love of children, natural 
ability, trained skill, experienced judgment, 
a progressive mind, and a faithful adherence 
to the fundamental laws of Froebel, coupled 
with a conscientious, intelligent, and unflag- 
ging industry. 

Story and song, play, work and pictures 
in the kindergarten give the child those clear 
mental images which alone make words alive 
and usable. The dictionary may be mem- 
orized, but the vocabulary contains only the 
words which bear the vivid image of the 
object, idea or action which they represent. 
The beginning of the phonics lies in the imita- 
tion of sounds of animals, machines, and tools 
in the songs and games of the circle. The 
custom of marking the child's daily work 
with his name, not only cultivates his sense 
of individual possession, but also incidentally 
familiarizes him with the form of the written 
word, and it is not uncommon for him to 
readily recognize his own and other names, 
and also, the titles of games and songs in 
the teacher's book. 

Drawing and designing begin with the 
crayola, brush, scissors and clay of the kinder- 
garten, where free drawing, painting, cutting 
and modeling are the actual self expression 
of the child'. Appreciation of his work neces- 



sitates the cultivation of the ability to see the 
object or the idea as the child sees it, for 

"He draws the thing as he sees it 
For the God of things as they are." 

The beauty forms, given him for busy work, 
good pictures upon the walls and observation 
of the endless charms of nature give him 
the requisite ideals for artistic production. 

Music in the kindergarten is what Hender- 
son calls "a human art." It is used as a 
means, not an end. It stimulates the will 
to do. It cultivates the senses and emotions, 
without which activities are mechanical. It 
commands, entreats, encourages, and inspires. 
It is a vehicle of expression to the child, who 
sings because he feels like singing, and who 
feels like singing because he is wholesomely 
happy. Many a little "shut up posey" opens 
wide its lovely petals under the witching 
spell of music. Not a single rudiment of 
music is taught in the kindergarten, yet the 
beginning is there. The ear is accustomed 
to accuracy of pitch and purity of tone, and 
the soul is brought into beautiful responsive- 
ness to musical rhythm and expression. 

Not only the foundation, but the ideal sys- 
tem for all physical training lies in the play 
and games of the kindergarten. To play — 
this is the child's own beautiful, unerring 
pathway to physical development. From 
free play to play and organized games ; from 
games to competitive sport and athletics, lead 
him on from kindergarten to college, from 
whence he enters upon his life work, sound 
of body, clear of brain, fair of mind, brave 
of spirit, and by "the rules of the game" 
trained to that quick obedience to law, and 
that cheerful co-operation with fellowmen 
which makes a good citizen. 

The number faculty appears to develop 
early in the child, and while formal number 
work in the kindergarten would be atrocious, 
yet the wise kindergartner takes cognizance 
of, and provides light exercise for this sense 
when it manifests itself. Counting the chil- 
dren on the circle, and the petals of the 
flower, or the times the ball is tossed, all 
such concrete number work seems to give 
positive pleasure to the child, and is the 
first logical step in number development. It 
is impossible to calculate the exact time 
required for the child to ascend from the 
perception of the concrete, to the perception 
of the abstract number conception. The steps 
may -be taken quickly and easily, or they 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



39 



may be slow and halting. The crime is to 
hasten the natural ascension. Why this in- 
exorable forcing of the child mind? Why 
pull him up by the roots from the kinder- 
garten to transplant him prematurely to the 
primary school, only to hurry him from 
grade to grade ever requiring of him some 
work which he has not the ability to perform 
until tomorrow, and which it is positively 
injurious for him to attempt today? Is it to 
get rid of him to make room for his little 
brother? Is it to prove the power and 
efficiency of the school machinery? Is it a 
competitive exhibition of the teacher's ability 
to keep him moving? Or is it but the foolish 
American habit of "Hurry Up?" Post a sign 
in the school house : "Stop ! Danger ! Go 
Slow!" What avails this eager pace? This 
boy has all his life in which to learn. If for 
economic reasons he may not tarry long in 
the school room, give him less work there, 
and that work better adapted to his future 
needs. Well meaning votaries of the kinder- 
garten are wont to claim that it is a time- 
saver to the State, but the State can well 
afford to give the child time if the time is 
well spent. What is needed is not faster 
zwrk, nor more work, but better work. The 
kindergarten child may not do his work any 
faster, but undoubtedly he does do it easier 
and more intelligently than the child who has 
not received the kindergarten training. 

Such is the brief suggestive outline of the 
pedagogical relation of the kindergarten to 
the primary school. In passing it should be 
remembered that any formal work in the 
kindergarten is not to be considered. 

The kindergarten follows, guides, and sus- 
tains the natural development of the child, 
and the work of preparatory training referred 
to, is purely incidental though none the less 
efficient. 

The philosophical or psychological relation 
of the kindergarten and primary school is 
more profound than the technical relation, 
yet equally vital and close. In its last analysis 
it is the theory that if a little is good, more 
is better. If the inherent principles of the 
kindergarten are correct and successful, why 
not apply them to every department of educa- 
tion? Hughes enumerates the distinctive 
characteristics of Froebel's philosophy to 
be as follows : Child study, unity, self activ- 
ity, early training of the sensations and emo- 
tions, the theory of evolution, individuality, 
co-operation, nature study, objective work, 
the educational value of play, the harmony 



between spontaneity and control, and symbol- 
ism. And he says "The principles upon which 
the kindergarten processes are based are 
fundamental principles which should guide 
the teacher in the work of teaching and train- 
ing the child throughout its school course." 
The kindergarten works according to the 
development method following the natural 
evolution of the soul of the child. It con- 
siders his interests, his needs, his individu- 
ality, and his happiness. In this regard the 
kindergarten bears the relation of a bright 
and successful example, not only to the pri- 
mary, but also to the other grades. If its 
methods were adopted on up to the univers- 
ity, the work of public education would be 
more delightful to teachers and pupils, more 
effective in attainment, and more popular 
with the taxpayer. The ideal school will 
project its course of study upward from the 
kindergarten, following, not an inflexible 
man-made program, but the child himself. He 
is a safe guide, for God made him in his 
own image, and handicapped by heredity, and 
bound by environment though he may be, 
yet in the main, he is true to his divinely 
implanted instincts, and unerringly follows 
the marvelous law of evolution. 

The kindergarten bears yet another rela- 
tion to the primary school, a personal, co- 
operative relation established by the teachers 
themselves, and thru them, extending- to the 
pupils of both schools. Mutually interested 
in the child himself, and his successful school 
career, the primary and the kindergarten 
teachers take friendly counsel together, devis- 
ing new ways and means of drawing their 
departments nearer together, that the child 
may be easily and happily ferried over the 
narrow river which flows between the little 
and the big school. The most perfect co- 
ordination and correlation of the kindergarten 
and the primary school may be effected by 
the modification of the primary methods and 
program, the projection of the kindergarten 
theory and work, and the interchange of 
training and work of the primary and kinder- 
garten teachers. 

It is sometimes said of the kindergarten 
child that he is difficult to manage and in- 
terest, and not inclined to hard work. But "O 
why should the spirit of mortal be proud" 
of some of the methods of managing the 
child, which are employed in even the most 
advanced primary school? In the bright 
lexicon of the kindergarten there is no such 
word as "discipline." Better than blind obedi- 



40 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



ence is free obedience. Better than coercion 
is control. Better than negativeness is pos- 
itiveness ; better than mechanical following is 
self direction. In the application of Froebel's 
methods, control and spontaneity work in 
perfect harmony. The child plays and works 
freely, but always within limitations and 
under the rules. Froebel called the kinder- 
garten the free republic of childhood, and 
claimed that "The will is strengthened only 
by voluntary activity. By striving to create 
the beautiful and the good, the feelings are 
developed, and by all lawful, thoughtful, free 
activity the mind is cultivated.'' The gradual 
comprehension of this thought has modified 
to a very great extent the so-called discipline 
of the schools. However, so long as one 
teacher is required to govern and to impart 
specified knowledge to forty pupils according 
to an inflexible program and schedule, there 
must of necessity be a somewhat different" 
regime in the primary from that in the kinder- 
garten. And as the kindergarten of today 
must prepare for the primary of today, per- 
haps it would be well during the last few 
months of his kindergarten training to give 
the child some instruction and drill in the 
rules which will regulate his study and con- 
duct in the primary. 

As for the allegation that the kindergarten 
child is difficult to interest and disinclined 
to sustained work, it would be well to dis- 
cover several things before passing judgment. 
In the first place, has the child in question 
ever attended a model kindergarten directed 
by a well-trained, practical kindergartner. 
Again, "has he remained in his kindergarten 
until he has located himself, and found his 
self expression. The educational process of 
the kindergarten fits every child, but it 
requires more time to succeed with some 
than others. A primary teacher recently 
asked a kindergartner "At what age do you 
think a child should pass from the kinder- 
garten into the primary school?" She replied: 
"When he has been fully awakened, even though 
he be ten years old." And the primary teacher, 
mentally comparing the work of the thor- 
oughly awakened kindergarten child with 
that of the child who had been taken too 
soon from the kindergarten to primary, said, 
"I believe that you are right." And again, 
have the real interest centres of this child 
been sought for and discovered, and has he 
been led by a skillful and tactful primary 
teacher to that productive self activity which 
sustains the new found interest. The truth 



is, that to keep this awakened little being 
■ happily employed is no small task. It re- 
quires the application of real thought and 
the expenditure of much nervous energy. But 
it pays. After all, this is the child's inalien- 
able glorious right — to be happy in congenial 
work. Henderson says, "It is of far greater 
importance that children should live sincerely; 
that they should put joy and heart into their 
occupations; that they should do well the 
things which they want to do, than that they 
should satisfy any pedagogical plan of older 
people's devising." 

Interchange of training of the primary and 
kindergarten teachers causes the scales to 
fall from their eyes, and each beholds the 
other's work with intelligence, fairness, and 
appreciation. The primary teacher then no 
longer looks upon the kindergarten as a day 
nursery, and upon its director as the holder 
of a sinecure. She understands that the kinder- 
garten is a scientific developer of appercep- 
tive centres, and that the kindergartner her- 
self, has spent several years in study and 
in practical training under the instruction 
and guidance of such scholarly friends of little 
children as Blow, Hill, Hofer, Harrison, 
Wheelock and Emilie Poulsson. The kinder- 
gartner no longer looks upon the primary 
school as a dark and gloomy prison into 
which her free souled little pupils must go, 
to bruise their tender wings upon the cruel 
bars. She knows that on the whole the 
modern primary school is a delightfully in- 
teresting place, the aims and methods of 
which are gradually and successfully being 
modified and adapted to meet the actual 
needs and interests of the child. 

If interchange of training and work is im- 
practicable, there still remains to the teacher 
the opportunities for consultation, comparison, 
and co-operation. Magazines, books, ideas 
and suggestions may be profitably exchanged, 
it being actually imperative that each care- 
fully consider the other's plan of work. Visits 
may be exchanged, the primary pupils enjoy- 
ing a skip or game on the circle, and a 
glimpse of their little brothers and sisters 
happily at work at the tables. 

And the kindergarten children may occas- 
ionly try fitting themselves to the fascinating 
little desks, and become familiar with the 
equipment, teachers, and work of the primary 
grades. The co-operative kindergartner will 
write a record of those about to enter the 
primary school, giving the teacher a working 
knowledge of the child, his physical and 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



4i 



mental ability, his leading traits of character, 
and present general condition of development. 
The thoughtful interested primary teacher 
will carefully and eagerly study this child 
chart, that she may steer clear of the rocks 
and shallows, making- a safe anchorage in 
his little heart. 

This co-operative relation of the kinder- 
garten and primary school is more eff ectively 
maintained when it is fostered and encour- 
aged by the principal himself, and thru his 
influence extended to the teachers and 
pupils of the entire school. The older chil- 
dren love to help the little ones, and the 
possibilities for co-operation between the 
kindergarten and the grades are limited only 
by the will and ingeniousness of the teachers. 

The subject of this paper is not devoid 
of interest to the primary teacher of the town 
and rural school. To know and understand 
the aims and work of the kindergarten and 
its relation to the school work is of real 
educational value. The kindergarten has come 
to stay, and in some form or other it is on its 
way to every school in the State, and when 
it comes it should be received, not as an 
interloper, but as a constituent. It s advent 
should be welcomed. Its methods appreciated, 
and it's co-operation solicited. Consolidation 
of schools means that the rural community 
will secure as good educational advantages 
as are possessed by city and town, and so 
the kindergarten is coming to the rural school. 
Then indeed it will come unto its own, for 
where will it find such beautiful opportunities 
for organic culture as are found in "the fields, 
the roads and rural lanes." "Sweet is the lore 
which nature brings." But the kindergarten 
is not selfish. All that it has it shares ; all 
that it discovers it proclaims; all that it 
hopes it expresses. An>d the rural teacher 
need not wait for the coming of the kinder- 
garten. She may even today reach out and 
pluck of its fruit to feed her little flock. 
Armed with a good kindergarten magazine, 
a little correspondence with a successful, 
practical kindergartner, and the wealth of 
m?terial lying on the very threshold of the 
school house, she may make a very ingenious 
and helpful adaptation of some of the games, 
manual training, and blocks of Froebel. A 
circle of the entire school in the yard may 
enjoy some of the rhythmic, symbolic and 
modified games of the kindergarten. A long 
table under the trees, with the yard benches 
around it, and the whole school may cut, 
paste, model and construct, working up the 



community interests, such as the truck farm, 
the dairy, the saw mill, the mine and the 
factory. Not one but several sand tables 
may be built by the large boys and used in 
connection with every branch of study. The 
children may bring refuse lumber from home, 
or it may be donated by some nearby mill, 
and by working before or after school hours 
the boys can build a doll house out in the 
yard. The furnishing of this house would 
supply busy work for many happy moments. 
Designing its wall paper and rugs, pasting 
and framing pictures, constructing cardboard 
chairs, beds, etc., all this would prove fas- 
cinating work for restless little fingers, giv- 
ing glorious opportunity for real creative self 
activities. The fifth and sixth Froebel gifts 
of building blocks, (in the large size) may 
be secured for desk work for the younger 
children, also the soft colored balls for sense 
games. Pine needles and cones, sweet gum 
balls, grasses and flowers, birds and animals, 
all this and more for the sense impressions 
and number work. Enviable indeed ! And 
best of all the flower and vegetable garden, 
dug and prepared by the older pupils, and 
planted and cultivated by the entire school. 
What, says the rural teacher, added burdens? 
No, not added burdens, but added zest, in- 
terest and joy. It is all in the day's work. 
What matter an added burden, so the work's 
well done. Today is life. To live freely, 
gladly and generously, this is success. Not 
to live and be done with it, but to live and 
to glory in it, this is power. 

With some special reading, permission 
from the proper authorities, and not with 
greater but more intensive effort, the rural 
school teacher possesses the most enviable 
opportunity for experimenting, not next year, 
but this spring, in organic education, apply- 
ing the kindergarten principles to the whole 
school. For the philosophy of Froebel is 
indeed applicable, not only in the beginning, 
but in every stage of human development. 
It is based and built upon the fundamental 
laiv of unity or inner connection, and the 
fundamental process of self activity* following 
the natural evolution of the body, mind and 
soul of man. 

It is good to be alive today. It is good 
to be a teacher. It is good to be going to 
school. It is good to have children to 
send to school. Something is doing in the 
educational world. Sons and daughters are 
prophesying. Young men are seeing visions 
and old men are dreaming dreams. And all 



A* 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



who run may read that education is coming 
to mean, not alone the seeking of knowledge, 
or the possession of knowledge, but the use of 
knowledge. Knowledge of truth is valuable 
only to make men true. Knowledge of history 
is useful only to make men wise. Knowledge 
of mathematics, to make men accurate. 
Knowledge of science to make men powerful, 
and knowledge of literature and the fine arts, 
to make men lofty, emotional and expressive. 
To be and to do, — these are imperative. To 
know is to help men to be better and to do 
more. And all these things shall be added 
unto you — to have, and to give, to gain and 
to lose, to love and to serve, to hope and to 
endure, to strive and to conquer. 

The time is approaching when educational 
theory will have become practice ; when effort 
will have become attainment and ideals will 
have been realized. And in that glad day, all 
will look hack and say, "In the beginning mas 
the kindergarten and the primary school." 



ONLY A BLACK-BIRD. 

The other night Elsie was sitting in the 
hammock, and something made such a loud 
noise in the woods back of her. 

"Oh, mother, mother, what is it, do you 
think?" 

"Only a doggie, I guess, dearie. Don't be 
afraid. Watch, and maybe you will see him 
come out." 

Elsie did watch. Her little heart went pit- 
a-pat, but not for worlds would she have said 
she was frightened. No indeed ! 

Such a noise ! Surely it must be something 
bigger than a dog. Elsie held her breath as 
the noise came nearer, and then — what do you 
think? Out he comes! A little black-bird, 
hunting - for worms in the cool of the evening! 

Everybody had to laugh at poor Elsie's dis- 
Comforture. 



Blessed is the memory of those who have kept 
themselves unspotted from the world! Yet more 
blessed and more dear the memory of those who 
have kept themselves unspotted in the world.— 
Mrs. Jameson. 



This above all: To thine own self be true; 
And it must follow, as the night the day, 
Thou cans't not then be false to any man. 

— Shakespeare. 



A good book is the precious life-blood of a mas- 
ter spirit, embalmed and treasured up on purpose 
to a life beyond life. — Milton. 



AESTHETIC DEVELOPMENT OF CHIL- 
DREN AT THE KINDERGARTEN 
PERIOD..* 

By Caroline Crawford. 

The change that has come about in the edu- 
cational viewpoint has affected not only the 
practical and scientific aspects of education, 
but promises to modify and reconstruct the 
aesthetic and cultural phases as well. 

We demand every branch of activity to 
prove itself with an emphasis never before 
realized in the educational world. The very 
term "fads and frills," seen so often in the 
daily papers, is significant, in a vague way, of 
the logical process at work in the socialized 
consciousness, and to no other subjects so 
much as to those which come under the gen- 
eral title of art do we find given this particular 
term of derision and reproach. This usage is 
in itself proof that we are no longer satisfied 
with the once accepted reasons for the teach- 
ing of the arts, nor have we, on the other 
hand, fully arrived in consciousness as to the 
practical everyday value of the arts in this 
work-a-day world. 

Such a statement as this often brings out 
a challenge from those who have given their 
lives to the support of the cultural factors in 
education, and who feel that to recognize the 
questioning attitude which is abroad begs the 
existence of any acknowledged value in the 
aesthetic side of life. It is not that the values 
of the arts have disappeared, — values like 
these do not disappear, — but they have 
changed their base ; and this shifting of the 
ground is due to the forces which are pushing 
us to justify the arts from the evolutionary 
aspect of life. 

From this standpoint, two conditions are 
demanded in the treatment of any subject, — 
first, its function must be stated in terms of 
the process of growth. It must be shown to 
be a necessary as well as a merely desirable 
feature in the life-history of the individual. 
As an isolated and insulated activity is 
a useless thing, its position and value can be 
determined only by finding its very definite 
and practical relations to all the other phases 
of experience. Second, every subject must 
be treated as dynamic. Somewhere it has a 
starting point as a psychological process. That 
beginning and the consequent phases of de- 
velopment become increasingly important as 
the shifted base is realized. 

Socially, we have become conscious of the 
first condition, and while we have gone far 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



43 



beyond Spencer's statement of the value of 
the aesthetic education, when he said that play 
and art were alike in that both were useless 
so far as the great ends of life were concerned, 
there remains a constant questioning of the 
nse and value of the arts. The position finally 
accorded them will depend upon a definite 
study of the second condition. We are still 
working upon the beginnings of the aesthetic 
instincts and their development in a most 
fragmentary way. We recognize vaguely 
some relation between play and art and we 
insist upon the child's right to play because 
such activity is instinctive; but we are yet 
attempting to define the process of develop- 
ment of these activities in such a manner as 
will unify the practical and aesthetic elements. 

Believing that the further defining and clari- 
fying of the second problem will cause the 
first to disappear, this paper is an attempt to 
show the beginnings of the aesthetic instincts 
and the phases of their development during 
the earliest years of life. The first period of 
growth represents a time when the child is 
mastering, in the sense that he is experiment- 
ing with, certain co-ordinations which give 
him a partial acquaintance with many things. 
His reaction is directly to the thing presented, 
and is usually of the duration of the presented 
object. When that disappears the response 
fades away, and not until the thing itself is 
again presented to the senses is there renewed 
activity. With the repetition of these experi- 
ences there gradually develops a control of 
the activity which is combined with the estab- 
lishing, through the continued functioning", a 
value which we call an image, and which is 
due to the qualities acquired through func- 
tion. These values, or images, change from 
day to day, year to year, according to the 
what and how of experience. 

But gradually another manifestation ap- 
pears. The response to the image is not so 
direct ; a part of an old experience will sug- 
gest all of it, then one image will suggest an 
activity related to it. A stick becomes a horse 
to mount. One broken dish will furnish the 
imagery necessary for an elaborate dinner. 
To a little child, one swallow almost makes 
a summer. Such a process as this goes on 
until all the activities which are prominent in 
the previous time of growth are tried in rela- 
tion to each other. The images are played 
together in many forms. The constructive 
instinct is seen at work in this tendency to try 
out and find relationships and values. All 
of the child's doings and all of the 



actions of the people about him are molded 
into plots. This second period of growth be- 
comes, then, a time when images are known 
as they are measured in proportion to each 
other. They become parts in related wholes. 
This constructive tendency which shows it- 
self in plot-making, or the building of a whole 
out of parts, has been misunderstood in the 
past, because we were not sufficiently familiar 
with the earliest form of expression. The 
child's first language is the use of the action 
itself with which to represent his image, then 
the most emphatic part of the movement is 
made the symbol of the activity. And this 
gesture language (if we use the term in its 
large sense) is deserving of far greater study 
than has yet been given to it. The child con- 
structs with movement language while he is 
gradually building up a translated language 
of sounds associated with these activities. All 
sorts of objects are used to help out the plots, 
and to keep his images before him. One 
recalls Stevenson's famous description in his 
essay, Child's Play : "We grown people can 
tell ourselves a story, give and take strokes 
until the bucklers ring, ride far and fast, marry, 
fall, and die; all the while sitting quietly by 
the fire or lying prone in bed. This is ex- 
actly what a child cannot do, or does not do, 
at least, when he can find anything else. He 
works all with lay figures and stage properties. 
When his story comes to the fighting, he must 
rise, g'et something by way of a sword, and 
have a set-to with a piece of furniture until 
he is out of breath." 

As he becomes more expert in his expres- 
sion the child drops the objects and carries 
his related images along with movements and 
sounds (words and tones). Rhythm then be- 
gins to play an important part. And this plot- 
making, which in its first forms we call the 
dramatic game, is the beginning of the ex- 
pression of relationship values. As such an 
expression, it is also the earliest art in the 
child's life. It is important to note that these 
related images are first chosen from the child's 
own experiences. It is here in the playtime of 
life that aesthetic education begins. 

This very important dramatic game has been 
looked upon with a varying degree of indif- 
ference by three different sets of teachers. In 
literature it was scorned as played by children, 
then teachers suddenly tried to make the 
jingle of Mother Goose rhymes, which repre- 
sent the dregs of folk games and dramas, 
stand for the beginnings of literature. Teach- 
ers of music discounted the old melodies 



44 



l'HE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



partly because they were considered too sim- 
ple for musical form, and partly because they 
were written in old modes and therefore not 
understood. And teachers of physical educa- 
tion in all forms of activity, have not even 
recognized any different end to be attained 
in the dramatic game than there is in the 
games of skill. 

It remained, therefore, for the kindergart- 
ners to preserve the older games for us, but 
even they have been forced by the social 
pressure to study the game, not as an art 
form, but as recreation and exercise. We find 
dramatic games classified, therefore, according 
to the form of playing or the subject, or even 
as exercises for the different parts of the body. 

We wish to suggest the principles in the 
arts of representation, as they are illustrated 
in the evolution of the dramatic game, and 
show how the composition of the plot develops 
in complexity of dramatic structure and mode 
of expression. When the images expressed 
reveal only the moods of a plot, we find the 
earliest forms of the dance. This representa- 
tion is through what we often call rhythm. 
The child walks and runs, leaps and hops and 
whirls. If we see these movements without 
relation to the mood invoked, it seems far- 
fetched to speak of a plot, but watch a child 
and you will always see cumulative effect in 
the repeated movement. The climax may 
come very soon, and the movement fade away, 
or there may be a whirling climax to the 
drama. The representation of joyful or sor- 
rowful moods is always found to have the 
same relations of beginning, middle, and end, 
that we find in the highly evolved dramas of 
grownups. 

Froebel's Mother Play is a fascinating study 
of the simplest plots in dramatic contrasts pre- 
sented through pantomime and gesture. Think 
of the plays in which the child relates such 
fundamental things as up and down, toward 
and away from, here and away, coming and 
going, fast and slow, sweet and sour, etc. Then 
we have representations in which the image 
is more closely defined by contrasting different 
parts of the body, as hands and feet, hands and 
head, etc. Many old folk games are to be 
found of these forms. 

The element of surprise enters into the plot 
in many ways. One of the most familiar is 
when one child suggests something to do. 
This is a new character in the story that 
comes and goes in most unexpected ways until 
the child's experiences are quite exhausted. 
Follow My Leader is a story told through 
movement. It begins with gusto, works up 



its climax, and may have either a tragic or a 
comic ending according to the leader's ability. 

As the child's imagery develops, we find 
a more and more definite presentation of ideas 
added to the moods. Sometimes this descrip- 
tion is in gesture, as in the "shoemaker's 
dance," sometimes in moods, as in many 
games beginning, "This is the way," etc. As 
the child plays on he begins to add words of 
quality as well as the descriptive terms. Types 
of well-developed plots are found in such 
games as Would you know how doth the 
farmer? Here the important parts of a year's 
life are related in the story and expressed in 
mere mental repetition. We find, on the other 
hand, as marked illustrations of highly develop- 
ed games built with contrasting elements. Be- 
tween such complex games as these, and the 
folk ballad, which was sung and danced by 
the group, there is no dividing line that can 
be drawn. We have touched the accepted 
beginnings of both literature and music in the 
history of the race. 

And this embryonic art is the nucleus from 
which all the arts develop, for the other two 
arts of movement — music and literature — are 
but more highly evolved representations of 
complex relationship of life. 

From the evolutionary standpoint, this first 
art represents the free relating of the values 
of experience in order to further define their 
value. And this greatest end of art, to repre- 
sent the values of life, calls for the plastic 
manipulation of the forces of daily struggle 
and enjoyment. Such manipulation can come 
about only when there is a better understand- 
ing of the beginnings of the artistic impulses 
in the life of the child, and when there is more 
definite knowledge of the evolution of art 
forms. The kindergarten must free itself from 
a few fixed types of games in order to study 
intelligently the child's normal growth in artis- 
tic representation, and the elementary school 
must begin to study the evolution of the arts 
from the earliest manifestations in the play 
period of the child's life. 

Art, from this point of view, is a necessary 
factor for the process of growth. Such a read- 
ing of the meaning of aesthetic education 
would teach children how to build the daily 
forces of life into forms of beauty, and would 
teach the values that are worth while, for the 
ability to choose and promote those activities 
which produce the most beautiful relationships 
comes from much experimenting with the re- 
lating of life's values, through forms which are 
beautiful because true. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



45 




KINDERGARTEN DAILY PROGRAM. 
NORAH KEOGH 



OCTOBER. 

Monday — 

Circle. Talk of spiders. 

Rhythm. One child weave in and out 
among other children on circle. 

Table 1st. Designs with 4th gift. Imita- 
tion. 

Table 2d. Clay modeling of ball and cube. 

Games. Sense games and pussy wants a 
corner. 

Tuesday — 

Circle. Story of Bruce and the spider. 
Rhythm. Same as above but more difficult. 
Table 1st. Sewing picture of spider's web. 
Table 2d. Designs with circular tablets. 
Games. As above. 

Wednesday — 

Circle. Re-telling of story. Begin talk of 
frogs. 

Rhythm. Marching introducing new fig- 
ures. 

Table 1st. Continue sewing of spider's 
web. 

Table 2d. Designs with colored sticks. 

Games. Ear test, telephone game. 

Thursday — 

Circle. Discussion of spiders and frogs. 
Spend circle time in taking a walk to see out- 
door creatures. 

Rhythm. Rest time to tell what our walk 
has given us. 

Table 1st. Drawing cat-tails with colored 
pencils. 

Table 2d. Designs with square tablets. 

Games. Telephone game and "I spy." 



Friday — 

Circle. Review week's talk and story. 
Rhythm. Review of all learned. 
Table 1st. Unfinished work. 
Table 2d. Free choice. 
Games. Free choice. 

Second Week. 

Monday — 

Circle. The fall season; the coming winter; 
its signs. 

Rhythm. Falling leaves and sleeping flow- 
ers. 

Table 1st. Free cutting of differently col- 
ored leaves. 

Table 2d. Clay modeling of leaves. 

Games. "I spy;" "How do you do." 

Tuesday — 

Circle. More signs. Special mention of the 
light and dark. 

Rhythm. Falling leaves, sleeping children 
and moon-beams. 

Table 1st. Free cutting of moon and stars 
for booklet of week's work. 

Table 2d. Pasting of first table work. 

Games. Color game for boys and girls. 
Red and blue in different ends of yard stick. 
Boys rise when red is up and vice versa. 

Wednesday — ■ 

Circle. Moon does not give enough light at 
night. Mention artificial lights used. Teach 
Winding the Clock from Gaynor I. 

Rhythm. Dramatization of three-days' circle 
talk; sleeping flowers, sunshine, moon and 
stars, sleeping children. 

Table 1st. Charcoal drawing of electric 
light hung between two tall posts. 

Table 2d. Rows of posts in peg-boards. 

Games. As above. 



4 6 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Thursday — - 

Circle. More about lights. Small places 
use street lamps. Use of candles and lamps in 
houses. 

Rhythm. Begin marching in fours. 

Table 1st. Make street lamp poster. Paper- 
cutting and pencil drawing. 

Table 2d. Sand table; make houses of sand 
and hang electric light (1st gift ball) between 
two yard sticks. 

Games. Competition game with 1st gift 
balls. 

Friday — 

Circle. Week's review. 
Rhythm. Week's review. 
Table 1st. Make book covers 
Table 2d. Unfinished work. 
Games. Free choice. 



Third Week. 



Monday- 



Circle. Getting ready for winter-in and 
out-of-doors. 

Rhythm. Nature rhythms all ready used to 
dramatize circle talk and continue marching 
in fours. 

Table 1st. Free cutting of trees on folded 
paper to make group of trees. 

Table 2d. Clay modeling of cylinder. 

Tuesday — 

Circle. Take walk and observe the trees 
and ground and all other signs that show 
Mother Earth's preparation for cold season. 

Rhythm. Use this time for rest and free 
talk. 

Table 1st. Brown crayon drawings of bare 
trees ; on narrow panels. 

Table 2d. Mounting these on larger dark 
mounts. 

Games. Bean-bag competition game. 
Throwing bags into circle. Choose sides and 
keep score. 

-Wednesday — 

Circle. Putting vegetables in the cellar. 
Mention them. Who helps? 

Rhythm. Wheel-barrow motive from An- 
derson's Characteristic Rhythms. 

Table 1st. Card-board modeling of wheel- 
barrow. 

Table 2d. Finish 1st table work or make 
wheel-barrow of triangular and circular tab- 
lets. 



Thursday — 

Circle. More about preparation; warm 
clothing. 

Rhythm. As yesterday. 

Table 1st. Cut articles mentioned from 
catalogue. 
' Table 2d. Paint ribbons. 

Games. As above- 

F-riday— 

Circle. Review week's talk. 
Rhythm. Review 
Table 1st. Free drawing. 
Table 2d. Free choice 
Games. Free choice 



Fourth Week. 



Monday- 



Circle. Brownies and Fairies. General 
talk of Hallow-E'en. 

Rhythm. Quiet marching. 

Use rest of session for Hallow-E'en party, 
with apples and pop-corn for lunch. 

Games. Bite apple hung from string; duck 
for apples; feed pop-corn blind-folded. 

Tuesday — 

Circle. Brownie story from Cat Tails and 
Other Tales by Howliston. 

Rhythm. Use this week for review of 
marching forms learned — all done quietly ..as 
brownies. 

Table 1st. Free cutting of pumpkin-faces 
from orange-colored paper with charcoal fea- 
tures. These make effective border for kin- 
dergarten. 

Table 2d. Clay modeling of pumpkins. 

Games. Brownie game from Gaynor I. 

Wednesday — 

Circle. Re-telling of brownie story. 
Table 1st. Making brownie poster of 
orange back-ground and black cutting paper. 
Table 2d. Finish posters and mount. 
Games. As above, 

Thursday — 

Circle. All about Brownies. Tell story 
from Kipling's Just So Stories. Teach Gay- 
nor's "The Fairies" from Songs and Scissors. 

Rhythm. As before and Jolly is the Miller. 

Table 1st. Free drawing. 

Table 2d. Free building with Hennessey 
blocks. 

Games. As before. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



47 



Friday — 

Circle. Review. 
Rhythm. Review. 
Table 1st 
Table 2d. Free choice. 
Games. Free choice. 



Free cutting. 



NOVEMBER 
First Week. 

Monday — 

Circle. The miller and how he helps us. 
Rhythm. Marching as wheel. 
Table 1st. Second gift as a mill. 
Table 2d. Clay-modeling of Bear story. 
Games. Jolly is the Miller, from Mari 
Hafer's Singing Games. 

Tuesday — 

Circle. The bags of corn and wheat the 
farmer brings to miller. The way farmer 
helps. 

Rhythm. Farmer carrying bags on his 
back. The wheel marching. 

Table 1st. Fold and paste picture of mill. 

Table 2d. Build mill with third gift and 
cylinder of second gift. 

Games. As above. 

Wednesday — 

Circle. Last two days' talks reviewed and 
the story of The Three Little Pigs begun. 

Rhythm. As before. 

Table 1st. Make pin-wheel and fasten on 
stick. 

Table 2d. Build mill with Hennessey ■ 
blocks in sand-table and make river. 

Games. Running with pin-wheels. 

Thursday — 

Circle. Story reproduced so far and con- 
tinued. 

Rhythm. Continued as before. 

Table 1st. Sew picture of coffee-mill. 

Table 2d. Build mill with fourth gift. 

Games. Sense games. Blind-fold and 
touch child on circle. Guess who it is by 
sense of touch. 

Friday — 

Circle. Review week's talks and story. 

Rhythm. Review. 

Table 1st. Unfinished work. 

Table 2d. Free choice. 

Games. Free choice. 



Second Week. 

Monday — 

Circle. Introduce subject of the Indians. 
Rhythm. Ten little Indians from Mari 
Hofer's singing games. 

Table 1st. With sticks, tents and trees. 
Table 2d. Clay-modeling of tents. 
Games. Out-door games; ball; tag. 

Tuesday — 

Circle. Habits of the Indians. 

Rhythm. Ten little Indians. 

Table 1st. Gift work with slats — making 
bow and arrow. 

Table 2. Free drawing of what we know 
about the Indian ; wigwams, trees, etc. 

Games — More as above. 

Wednesday — 

Circle. Clothing of the Indian. 
Rhythm. As above. 

Table 1st. Cutting picture of Indian from 
black cutting paper. 

Table 2d. Mount same on red mounts. 
Games. Out-door games — hide and seek. 

Thursday — 

Circle. Story of Hiawatha — selected parts. 

Rhythm. Indian march with shooting- 
sound of arrow through the air. 

Table 1st. Cut and fold canoe. 

Table 2d. Sew sides of canoe with Raffia 
and draw pictures on it. 

Games. Indian games. 

Friday — i • 

Circle. Review talk. 
Rhythm. Review. 
Table 1st. Unfinished work. 
Table 2d. Free choice. 
Games. Free choice. 



Third Week. 



Monday — 



Circle. The pilgrim story. Leaving Eng- 
land because they wanted to go to their own 
church. The Mayflower— 2 babies born. The 
landing in the cold. Their thankfulness. 

Rhythm. Indian march. 

Table 1st. Drawing— picture of moat on 
water. Mount. 

Table 2d. Make boat with tablets. 

Games. Dramatization of circle talk. 



48 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Tuesday — 

Circle. Their hard winter. Building houses 
and church in the cold and snow. Their 
hardships. The kindness of the Indians. 

Rhythm. Pilgrim march with guns and 
shooting. 

Table 1st. Fold picture of house and 
mount. 

Table 2d. Build church with Hennessey 
blocks. 

Games. Further dramatization. 

Wednesday — 

Circle. How the Pilgrims taught the In- 
dians to grow corn in the Spring. Their 
mutual helpfulness. 

Rhythm. Indian and Pilgrim march. 

Table 1st. Girls make aprons and boys 
make collars — like Pilgrims wear. 

Table 2nd. Free-cutting of Pilgrim scene; 
trees, houses. Pilgrims. 

Games. March with aprons and collars on. 

Thursday — 

Circle. All the week's talk and story of 
the Gingerbread-boy. 

Rhythm. Bears, Indians, Pilgrims. 

Table 1st. Slat-work — make gate. 

Table 2d. Build log-house with clothes- 
pins. 

Games of Indians and Pilgrims suggested. 

Friday — 

Circle. Review. 

Rhythm. Review. 

Table 1st. Unfinished work. 

Table 2d. Free choice. 

Games. Free choice. 

Fourth Week. 

Monday — 

Circle. The Pilgrims' Thankfulness. Their 
first Thanksgiving Day. 

Rhythm. Bears, wind, blowing trees. 

Table 1st. Cutting and mounting turkeys. 

Table 2d. Tables set for dinner — peg- 
boards ; pegs with Hailmann beads for legs. 
Set with Hailmann cubes and cylinders. 

Games. Dramatization of Pilgrims inviting 
the Indians and the dinner made and eaten. 

Tuesday — 

Circle. Our Thanksgiving Day. What we 
can do to show our thankfulness. 

Rhythm. Song Mr. Duck and Mr. Turkey 
from Neidlinger. 



Table 1st. Making envelopes to send in- 
vitations. 

Table 2d. Clay-modeling of turkey and 
platter. 

Games. Blind man's buff, hide and seek. 

Wednesday — 

Circle. How we intend to celebrate 
Thanksgiving Day. Free talk among chil- 
dren. What they will have. Who will be 
with them, etc., etc. Let circle last as long 
as needs be. Make cranberry sauce on circle, 
all helping to stir, etc. After the cranberry 
sauce is finished, have a party. Girls help 
with table-setting. Boys invite the Indians. 
Pilgrims in collars and aprons. Indians with 
beads and feathers. Children have brought 
their lunches to-day to help with the party. 
The cranberry sauce is served with the rest. 



PICTURE STUDY OUTLINE. 



All children are interested in pictures of 
animals with which they are familiar, or in 
pictures that tell some story of child life. 

Children are ready to meet us more than 
half-way in picture study, but it is neces- 
sary that a picture chosen for study in the 
primary grades should tell a story, should 
convey a message. 

First — Let the children find out what there 
is in the picture. 

Second — Make them see why it is chosen 
to be there. 

Third — Let children and teacher tell a story 
which is suggested by the picture (this step is 
interpreting the thought which the artist 
wished to express). 

This plan gives first place to the material 
side, and leaves the art side to follow as it 
mar. 

Residts will vary according to the bright- 
ness or dullness of the pupil, and the bright- 
ness or dullness of the teacher. 

Fourth— Ask what made us give the story 
about (some certain part of the picture). 
This will bring out the choice of chief figures. 

Fifth — Mount the picture on a stiff card. To 
do this, locate it on the card, making the 
places for the two upper corners with a 
pointed pencil ; touch the upper corners with 
a little paste, and press them down with 
a soft cloth, being careful to keep them in 
place. 

Relative to the teacher's study, we advise 
that she would be familiar with the' leading' 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



49 




CAT FAMILY— By Jules Adam. 



facts in the line of the artist's life and be 
able to tell them simply to primary children. 
She should bring out such incidents as will 
best interest the particular pupils in her 
class. Concentrate the attention of the chil- 
dren on one picture, if it is large enough, or 
have copies of small ones for each child. Both 
ways are desirable. 



Cat Family. 

By Jules Adam. 

[Jules Adam, a German artist, inherited his 
talent and tastes from his father, Albrecht 
Adam, who was a famous painter of battle 
scenes. Almost nothing can be learned of 
the son's personal history. His best-known 
paintings are of animals.] 

This picture appeals to the little ones be- 
cause it touches their own possessions. 

The serious old tabby is aroused by the 



mischief of her kittens. She has lain in quiet 
and at rest, as is shown by her hind legs ; 
but she is disturbed, as may be seen by her 
rumpled fur and tail. 

One mischievous kit has been silenced by 
her paw ; notice her lips, open as if she were 
speaking to him in cat language. While she 
holds him in check, another kitten is making 
ready for a scramble over her body. 

In the background are two more kittens, 
engaged in rough-and-tumble play. The ray 
,of light is so placed as to necessarily be 
almost hidden. The hay and the rude room 
suggest an outbuilding of some sort. 

How many cats are here? 

What are they? 

How can you tell? 

What is each one of the kittens doing? 

What is their mother saying to them? 

Tell about your own kittens. 



5Q 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMACY MAGAZINE 




STORIES, GAMES, PLAYS 

RECITATIONS, MEMORY GEMS, ETC. 



THE BARNYARD. 

MAUDE EDWARDS 

Willie was a little boy who lived in the city. 
One summer his mamma said, "Willie, would 
you like to visit your Uncle Hiram who lives 
in the country? He has a great, big farm, 
where there are lots of trees,— and, oh, ever 
so many animals !" Of course Willie wanted 
to go and one day Uncle Hiram came with a 
big wagon that made a funny loud noise on 
the street, and took him out to the farm. 

What do you suppose was the first thing 
Willie met? It was a great, big, black dog 
called Fido, who came running out and say- 
ing, "Bow, wow, wow!" That meant "How 
do you do, Willie?" you know. Willie was 
too sleepy and tired to see ?ny of the other 
animals that night, but the nc.t morning he, 
Uncle Hiram and the dog Fido, went to the 
barnyard, — the place where all the animals 
lived. Uncle Hiram opened the big gate and 
in they went. Right near the gate there was 
a great big brown thing with horns, which 
nodded its head to Willie, and said "Moo-oo." 
What do you suppose it was? Yes, a cow! 
We have all seen cows haven't we?— but Wil- 
lie hadn't, for you know he lived in the city 
where the cows never go on the streets. And 
he was very frightened when he saw this one, 
and caught hold of Uncle Hiram's hand. Un- 
cle Hiram laughed and said, "It's only Molly, 
the cow, who gave us that nice, warm milk 
you had for breakfast." After that Willie 
wasn't quite so much afraid. 

Standing near the cow was another strange 
animal — all white and woolly. When it saw 
Willie and Uncle Hiram, it went "Baa baa," 
which meant "Good morning, Willie, good 
morning." "That is a sheep or lamb," said 
Uncle Hiram. "Feel how soft its coat is. 
Your stockings and sweaters and all the warm 
things you wear in the winter are made from 
it." Willie put his hand on the sheep's back 
and it was so nice and soft and curly! 

"Gobble, gobble, gobble!" Willie looked at 
Uncle Hiram when he heard that funny noise. 
Uncle Hiram laughed. "That's what the tur- 
key says," he told Willie. "See, there he is!" 
Now, Willie had eaten turkey on Thanksgiv- 



ing and Xmas, but he had never before seen 
one with all its feathers on. And it was so 
funny. It had a great big tail of feathers 
which opened out just like a fan, and a queer 
red thing under his mouth that wiggled when 
he said "Gobble, gobble." Willie liked the 
turkey and he laughed to see how proudly he 
walked around the barnyard — (for turkeys are 
very proud birds, you know). 

There was a funny white bird waddling in 
a pool of water near the turkey. It was a very 
ugly bird Willie thought, for it had a very 
long red mouth, and its feet were very queer; 
they made it walk so funny! just as if it were 
going to fall over on one side, and then the 
other! "Quack, quack, quack," it called when 
it saw Willie and Uncle Hiram. What do you 
suppose it was? Why, yes, a duck! How 
many have ever seen a duck? They aren't 
very pretty birds, are they? Well, Willie 
didn't like this duck, so Uncle Hiram said, 
"Come over here and I'll show you something 
very nice." What do you suppose it was? A 
rooster, a hen, and some of the prettiest yel- 
low chickies you ever saw! "Oh, oh," cried 
Willie, who had never, never seen chickens 
before you know. "Aren't they pretty, Uncle 
Hiram?" The rooster stood up straight and 
tall, — he was a very handsome bird — and 
crowed "Cock a doodle doo o !" very loudly; 
then mamma hen called all her little babies, 
like this, "Cluck, cluck, cluck, cut, cut," and 
the little yellow chickies all hid under her 
wings, crying "Peep, peep, peep!" 

Willie liked the chickens so well that he 
asked Uncle Hiram if he could stay and play 
with them for awhile. "Well, just watch 
them, Willie," said Uncle Hiram, "and when 
you leave the barnyard, be sure to push the 
gate shut, for if you don't all the animals will 
get into the garden and eat up my plants." 
"Oh, yes, I'll remember," said Willie, and 
Uncle Hiram went off leaving him and Fido 
with the animals. 

Willie had a very nice time watching the 
proud turkey and the funny duck, and the 
handsome rooster and the pretty yellow chick- 
ies, and he stayed there a long time. Then 
he heard Aunt Mary calling, "Willie, Willie," 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGA7INE 



and he remembered she had promised him a 
large piece of cake. So he and Fido ran 
quickly out of the yard, through the big gate, 
and on towards the house. Willie had for- 
gotten all about the gate, children ! But Fido 
hadn't, and when he saw all the animals 
crowding towards it, to get out, he knew 
that something was wrong. And what do you 
suppose he did? He ran right back to the 
gate, and barked just as loudly ss he could, 
until Uncle Hiram heard him. Uncle Hiram 
hurried to the gate and closed it before any 
of the animals got out. Then he patted Fido 
on the head and said, "Good dog, good Fido." 
And after that, children, whenever Willie 
went to the barnyard, Fido, always went with 
him, "to help him remember," as Uncle Hiram 
said. 



THE LITTLE TREE'S LESSON. 

Helen I, Castella, Clementon, New Jersey. 

The little tree pushed it s head up through 
the moist, rich earth for it s first glimpse into 
the world. There had been lots of rain, and 
the weather was so warm that perhaps the 
little tree grew faster than it should have 
done, for it grew so tired presently that it put 
out it s arm toward a friendly old pine which 
towered high up in the sky. There was just 
room, by stretching out, to touch it, and the 
support felt so good that it was not long be- 
fore the little tree was leaning it s whole 
weight comfortably against the friend in need. 

But the farmer and his boy were taking a 
walk down through the orchard one after- 
noon, and what the kindly old gentleman saw, 
made him stand still and shake his head. 

"Run and get me the axe, Joe boy, there's 
a little tree here that bids fair to be a fine 
specimen when it grows up straight and tall 
by itself. It has started to lean against this 
dead branch of the pine." 

When the farmer had chopped away it s 
support, and the little tree was left depending 
on itself, so far away it could reach nothing 
to help it to stand, it began to cry and moan. 

"Oh, I shall die, I shall die! My back aches 
so badly I cannot even try to stand up any 
more." 

But it soon found that the more it bent over 
to the ground, the more it ached, and raising 
it s head a little, it heard the friendly pine call- 
; to it. 

'Look up, little brother, look up. If you 
will try to stand up straight, and grow about 
three feet taller, perhaps I can reach you with 



this arm, and give you something to lean 
against up here." 

The little tree did try. It resolutely turned 
it s head upward, and endeavored to hear 
what the big trees were talking about, way up 
in the air, and presently it found, to it s de- 
light, that it s back had ceased to ache, and it 
could toss it s leaves in the air as proudly as 
anyone. 

"Now, little brother," said the old pine 
slyly, some weeks later. "Just put out your arm 
toward me, and I think I can catch you, and 
pull you up." 

But the little tree had learned it s lesson. 
"No, thank you," it said promptly. "Since I 
have learned to depend on myself I have 
grown better looking, and straighter and 
stronger. I am going to try and be what the 
old farmer prophesied for me, a fine speci- 
men." 



A LETTER FROM THE CHOO-CHOO TO 
THE TINY BOYS AND GIRLS. 

Helel I. Castei.la, Clementon, New Jersey. 

"Choo-choo-choo, get off the track, every- 
body. I've had my orders to carry all these 
hot, dusty people down to the seashore, and 
to go straight through, without any stopping, 
till I get there. 

That is why, when little girls and boys do 
not heed my loud, screeching whistle, some- 
times they get run over. 

A railroad has it s orders, and like the boys 
and girls, it must obey, or something is sure 
to happen. Never try to cross when you hear 
me hooting in the distance,- cause maybe I was 
told not to stop, and then, if you try to cross, 
and I cross at the same time, there is sure to 
be trouble. 



FOR FIRST GIFT. 



My dear balls in colors bright 
Red and yellow, orange, too; 

Three, that makes, but here, three more, 
Come to play a game with you. 

Green, blue, violet, make six 
Colors like the rainbow clear; 

Let us hide them — quick, away! 
They will not come back, I fear. 

One is gone, now two, now three, 
They are hiding far from me; 

Four, five, six have joined the rest, 
We must call them back, I see. 

Come! red, orange, yellow, green. 

Blue and violet — Come! we say. 
In this basket, safe and sound, 

They must rest' from their fine play. 



52 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



PLAY FOR SECOND GIFT. 

Three new playthings, hard and cold; 

Cube quiet, never moving, 
O! Sphere away from me has rolled, 

He surely needs reproving. 

The other one is Cylinder, 

Of all, the most obliging; 
For he stands still or moves about 

But always, he needs guiding. 

Now with this string, I'll hold Sphere up 
And swiftly send him twirling 

As round he goes, he's never changed 
Still Sphere though he is whirling. 

But if I hold Cube by a string 

Put at the edge or corner; 
He changes sometimes to a cone, 

Sometimes two together. 

With Cylinder, I'll do the same, 
Again two cones are showing 

But string at face will show a sphere, 
All this is well worth knowing. 

Because the three are different; 

Yet, twirled are like each other. 
J think the string a fairy is 

Do you not think so, mother? 



NOT PEDAGOGICAL. 

BY BLANCHE CHALFANT TUCKER. 

When Baby goes to bed at night, 

(She's such a little tot) 

I always keep a light turned low, 

E'en when she's in her cot. 

For Baby doesn't like the dark; 

Mayhap, in this, she's right, 

As all things sweet and lovely thrive 

Far better in the light. 

Sitting beside my darling's bed, 

I bid her go to sleep, 

When, truly, 'less I sing a song 

Doth she begin to weep! 

] am not pedagogical 

You say? Oh, no, no no!!! 

We're foolish mothers, coddling them, 

The birdlings, 'fore they go. 

But, sometime when we're lonely, 

And nights are still and long 

We'll want our birdlings back again 

To coax us for a song! 



When wealth is lost, nothing is lost; 
When health is lost, something is lost; 

When character is lost, all is lost! 

— German. 



THE HAPPY FAMILY. 

Lena E. Buck. 

In the treetops up so high 
There is something that I spy. 
Open wide your eyes of blue 
Then I'm sure you can see, too. 
Can you guess what I can see 
As I look up in the tree? 

It is something round and brown, 
The cosiest house in all the town. 
Mother bird is sitting there 
And there's something 'neath her care. 
If you wait then you shall see 
Some tiny birds up in the tree. 

Now the mother lifts her wings, 
Do you see the babykins? 
Here comes father to the nest, 
He is gay Robin Red Breast. 
Now he looks at you and me 
Then to the nest in the tree. 

He has been to get some food 
For the hungry little brood. 
See them stretch their necks so high 
They know father bird is nigh 
With a worm for them, you see 
They are hungry as can be. 

Now we see them all together 
bather, baby birds, and mother 
And their home that's up so high 
In the tree tops near the sky. 
Don't you think that they must be 
A most happy family? 



As you live so will you die, 
As the tree falls so will it lie. 



St. Louis, Mo. — A feature of the management of 
the schools this year will be the development of 
the kindergarten-primary section of the schools. 
Mr. Blewett proposes to use the kindergarten rooms 
in about thirty of the schools for afternoon ses- 
sions, as well as forenoon kindergarten session. 
This, he says, will enable the schools to accommo- 
date about 900 more children in kindergarten and 
primary work than were accommodated during the 
last term, without additional room or the employ- 
ment of additional teachers. About thirty kinder- 
garten directors and paid assistants, who have been 
engaged only in the forenoons, will be busy all day 
under the new method. The development of this 
branch follows on the heels of the measure by 
which 5-year-old pupils were admitted to the 
schools. Under this rule 1,912 children under 6 
years old were enrolled during the last term of 
school, the new rule being adopted about the mid- 
dle of the term. 

Marshalltown, Iowa. — Miss Nellie C. Morey of 
Ottumwa, a graduate of the University of Chicago, 
is in charge of the kindergarten in the Anson 
building. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



53 



KINDERGARTEN GAME 

"THE FAIRY HOURS" 

For Juniors, with Music. 

Composed by S. A. Turk and Jeannie Turk, head 
mistress College Trained Certificated for Kinder- 
garten, etc. 

In Honor of the Coronation. 
(All rights reserved.) 
Gipsy (dressed with red cloak with hood, dark 
hair and crooked stick) : 

"Why are you here my little friend? 

I suppose to find out what the fairies send!" 

Child (dressed in smart clothes): 
"Yes, good dame, I wish to know 
Whether my degree will he high or low, 
If I shall in a carriage ride, 
And of all my friends be their joy and pride. 

Gipsy: 
"Child, you are vain, you seek for a life 
Of ease and pleasure, where temptations rife. 
Time will pass for you on laggard wings; 
To the hours move round yuar measure smgs. ' 

Child: 
"Dame, you speak very unkind. 
Just because I want a nice fortune to find." 

(Child steps inside the ring of the 1 '-' little girls 
dressed as fairies who represent a clock and move 
round to suitable accompaniments). 

Gipsy: 
"Here comes a sweet and gentle face 
What brings you here my hut to grace.'" 

Child: 
"Dame, I am poor, my mother is weak, 
I wish a brighter fortune to seek, 
Tell me, 1 pray you, where can 1 find 
Rest for her body, peace for her mind, 
Gipsy, be kind, ask the fairies to send 
Some of their gifts our poor lot to amend." 

Gipsy: 
"Child you are rich, your heart is gold, 
A parent can never feel the cold, 
In a love, so rich, it gilds the hours. 
They must pass as if in fairy bowers." 

(Child goes inside circle. Lively music, mazurka 
step). 

Gipsy: 
"And you, my fine fellow, what do you ask? 
That you come my powers ot foresight to task. 

Boy (Generosity) : 
"Dame, I am here to know, if 1 can 
Be of any use to my fellow man. 
I am lonely, I have no father or mother. 
And I yearn to help some sister or brother." 

Gipsy: 
"A philanthropist great, and grand, 
You will one day, in your country stand. 



Honoured, and with that honoured name 
Will come the memory of the gipsy dame." 

(Hoy goes inside the circle while the circle of 
fairies move round to a march). 

Gipsy: 
"Lo, who comes here with his head bent low, 
An idler, a lazy one, all the world may know." 

Lazy Boy: 
"Old woman, I pray you, tell me where 
1 may find rest, and pleasure, no dreary care, 
All things come to hand without any toil, 
I do not care these white hands to soil." 

Gipsy: 
"Fie then for shame, thou lazy loon, 
Hold yourself up and begone very soon, 
Or I'll send a legion of fairies to chase 
Your fat body on, in a long hilly race." 

(Gipsy chases lazy boy round the circle twice, 
fairies dancing round to a gallop with tambourines). 

Gipsy: 
"Here's another frail one who longs for a peep 
Into the future. I'll not her long keep." 

Girl: 
"Old woman, I've come to know if you will 
Give me a proof of your wonderful skill, 
I do not of course believe your old tales 
Still there's the fun and amusement it always 
entails." 

Gipsy (shaking child): 
"Be off, Miss Impertinence, and manners learn, 
Or you will find little respect in the end you'll earn. 
I'll shake you if you stand there laughing at me. 
Your hours will in worthless pleasure flee. 

Girl: 
"You are very angry with me, good dame, 
And I must tell you I do not at all like my name, 
Miss Impertinence." 

(Girl goes inside circle and fairies dance round 
polka). 

(iipsy: 
"You, my son, are a scholar profound. 
Yet your eyes are seldom raised from the ground." 

Boy (with books and spectacles, dressed like 
student, college cap): 

"Yes, good dame, I have studied deep 
The Sciences, while others sleep, 
And now I seek my proper sphere, 
Will you, old friend, whisper it here?" 

Gipsy: 
"A schoolmaster some day you'll be 
Then there's better times you'll see 
Useful, your hours will pass each day 

A noble, unselfish life will be yours on the way " 
Boy: 

"Thank you, good dame." 

Boy goes inside (March). 



54 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Gipsy: 
"You are an honest son of the soil, 
In healthful labour you daily toil." 

Boy, with flower pot, dressed as gardener: 
"Dame, I work from morning till night 
I love the toil, so the labour seems light 
I love to watch the brown earth give 
Life to my plants, as they bloom and live." 

Gipsy: 
"Simple pleasures bright and fair, 
Ever with your life will pair. 
Contentment, rest within your hours 
Brighter than your sweetest flowers." 

Boy goes inside circle (Gallop). 

Gipsy: 
"Here comes a rogue, his laughing eyes 
Are full of mischief and surprise." 

Boy, with saw and apron, dressed as a carpen- 
ter, whistling: 

"Yes, I am a carpenter, good dame, 

They call me Mr. Mischief, I don't mind the name. 

I like a bit of fun as well as any lad 

I don't think, after all, you'll call that very bad." 

Gipsy: 
"You are a hard worker, you deserve fame, 
Be an upright tradesman and all will respect your 

name, 
Don't let your fun ever carry you astray 
And the hours as they move will pass merrily 

away." 

Boy: 
"Thank you, good dame, T wish you the same." 

(Boy goes inside circle, hours dance round 
Schottische). 

Gipsy: 
"Now then. Miss Sulks, what have you to say? 
Nothing, then I'll wish you a very good day." 

Sulky Girl: 
"Old woman, don't talk to me in that style 
T never heard anyone scold such awhile. 
You are like all the rest, nasty and cross, 
If I hear nothing from you, it will not be much loss." 

Gipsy: 
"Get thee gone, thou suky maid. 
Fairy hours, I call your aid, 
Chase this naughty child a mile. 
Till you win from her a smile." 

(Girl runs round circle and fairies buffet her 
lightly with tambourines. Gallop). 

Gipsy: 
"Here comes a little girl tidy and fair 
A bright ribbon is on her dark brown hair." 

Tidy Girl: 
"Yes, dame, I love to wear nice clean dresses, 
To keep in place with a ribbon my dark brown 
tresses, 



A nice clean apron to finish it all, 

A bright clean home, if my friend should call." 

Gipsy: 
"Child, you will a careful housewife make, 
If many your example then would take 
Their hours would pass in useful pleasure, 
Joy, and gladness in moments of leisure." 

Girl: 
"Thank you, good dame, fortune is kind 
I'll try to keep your good advice in mind." 

(Girl goes inside circle. Waltz). 

Gipsy: 
"Here comes a warrior brave and bold, 
You come to have your fortune told." 

Two boys, dressed as soldiers, with gun, and as 
sailors: 

"Yes, good mother, you see a soldier here 
A gallant brave, who knows no fear, 
A Tommy Atkins now you see 
Will I ever higher be? 

Gipsy: 
"Why, you must a general rise, 
And your honour you must prize, 
Ever, then, be brave and true, 
And great honours come to you." 

(Song by soldier boy: at the end fires; sailor boy 
falls). 



Gipsy: 
"Now, my bonny sailor boy 
I declare, you are looking coy." 

Sailor Boy: 
"Yes, good mother, I come to see 
What kind fortune will bring me." 

Gipsy: 
"A naval captain you will be, 
Because you love the deep blue sea, 
And the hours will quickly fly 
'Mid the stirring scenes of going by." 

(Both soldier and sailor go inside circle. Mili- 
tary March). 

Gipsy: 
"You, my lad, are a jolly miller, 
You're the boy who can earn the siller." 

Miller, with sack on back, and cap: 
"Yes, dame Grump, please take off that hump 
Oh, fie, did I not spy you take a lump 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



55 



Of my hay, from the stable close by? 
And that bump is a lump of my hay you took on 
the sly." 

Gipsy, dropping her hump: 
"Be silent, sir, and I cast on you this spell 
That you'll never to anybody tell 
My secret, my fun, not by any chance my name 
For this is only, after all, a Kindergarten Game." 

Miller: 
"And a very pretty one, now join us in the dance 
With gay and sprightly music, our audience we'll 
entrance." (Schottische.) 

Then Gipsy, and Miller behind, lead off, and all 
follow into a serpentine march. 

March off stage, each child bowing and beating 
tambourines. 




NOTE— Dotted line indicates manner of marching 
off the stage. 



Burlington, Iowa. — Miss Ruth Brooks has resign- 
ed her position as teacher in the Burlington pub- 
lic kindergartens. 

Brookline, Mass. — The new Michael Driscoll 
school building, now nearly completed, will have 
accommodations for two kindergartens. 

Geneva, Neb. — Public school kindergartens are to 
be established in this place. R. W. Eaton, the 
superintendent, is making the necessary arrange- 
ments. 

Portland, Ore. — Mrs. Samuel Norton, an experi- 
enced kindergarten teacher, has been engaged by 
the Irvington Club to carry on the kindergarten 
branch of the playground movement. 

Hyde Park, Mass. — Public school kindergartens 
have been established here this year. There are 
six classes, one each in the Grew, Greenwood, Da- 
mon, Hemingway, Trescott and Weld schools. The 
teachers are Miss Helen Mooar, Miss Florence 
Damon, Miss Henrietta Starke, Miss Evangeline 
Boggs and Miss Mary L. Hersey. There are about 
175 children in the classes. 



ETHICAL CULTURE 

HOW ANNA HELPED TWO LITTLE 
BOYS. 

BY CARRIE C. RENNIE. 

One bright day in June, Anna arose early 
that she might go out in the country to see 
her little cousin who was sick in bed and had 
been sick for three weeks. 

She helped her mother fix a nice basket of 
goodies that sick people could eat, then she 
put on her hat and with the basket in her 
hand she ran and kissed her mother good-bye 
as the ear was coming and she had to catch it 
or else she wouldn't be on time at the drug 
store where the carriage was to meet her to 
take her to the country home. 

"Good-bye, mother." 

"Good-bye, my little girl, take care of your- 
self and don't be any trouble to any one." 

"No, mother, I'll try not to." 

Waving and kissing her hand she stepped 
on the car. 

As she took her seat on the car, what do 
you think she saw in the seat in front of her? 
A little boy who was crying. She waited for 
a few minutes to see if she could tell what he 
was crying about, but she couldn't see any- 
thing around him to make hir cry, so she 
leaned over and said, "Hello, little boy, what 
are you crying about?" 

"I'm crying because I've lost Frisky." 

"Well, who is Frisky?" asked the little girl. 

"Frisky is my little dog and I loved him ; 
he started out with me to take a walk and be- 
fore we had gone very far, he started to run 
after another dog and I called and called him, 
but he went so fast that he couldn't hear and 
I haven't seen him since he turned the corner 
by that yellow house." 

"Well, don't cry. I'll help you find him ; 
he'll come home when night comes, because 
all little dogs like to come home at night, just 
like boys and girls do." 

By this time Anna was almost in sight of 
the drug store, so she asked the little boy if 
he wouldn't like to go to see her little cousin 
who was sick. 

"I would like to, but I have to go home be- 
cause mother doesn't know where I am." 

"John will drive by your house and I can 
ask your mother to let you go." 

"What is your name and where do you 
live?" 

"My name is Harold and I live two squares 



56 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



from the drug store on the same street." 

"That is fine ; we go right by your house 
any way, and I can ask your mother — oh ! 
here is the carriage waiting for us, come on 
quick, I am so happy." 

"Let me help you with your basket." 

"No, I thank you, it has some custard in it, 
and I know better how to carry it because I 
have carried it before." 

"Good morning, John." 

"How do you do, little Miss?" 

"I am right well, thank you, — John, this is 
a little boy named Harold, and he is very sad 
because he has lost his dog so you will drive 
us by his home, to ask his mother to let him 
go with me, wont you?" 

"Yes, certainly, jump in, — where is the 
house?" 

"Just two squares up this street," said Har- 
old. "Yonder it is, that white house." 

"All right. Get up, Sadie, these little people 
want to have a nice ride." 

And Sadie surely did hurry ; before they 
knew it they were in front of this cottage 
where Harold lived. Harold jumped out of 
the carriage and there was his mother water- 
ing the flowers to keep them from dying. He 
told her about meeting this little girl, and 
asked if he might go with her to see the little 
sick boy in the country. 

"Yes, you may go, but wait a minute; I 
have two roses in bloom and I would like for 
you to take them to the sick boy ; it will make 
him so happy," said his mother. 

Harold called to Anna to wait just a min- 
ute until his mother could cut some flowers. 

Holding the flowers very carefully they rode 
on. 

Every now and then Sadie would pick up 
her ears as if she was getting frightened, but 
John said she was looking out for her colt 
which she left at home and that they could 
see the colt when they got to the barn. 

Sure enough, just as they came to the house 
there was the colt, looking for his mother to 
come, and as soon as he saw her he began 
to neigh so his mother would know he was 
glad to see her. As they drove up in front of 
the house they saw Harry at the window. 
Anna was so glad to see him sitting up that 
she could hardly wait to get to him. John 
helped them out of the carriage and drove on 
to give the horse something to eat, becasue 
she had been so kind to bring the little chil- 
dren such a long way. 

Harry was so glad to see the children that 
it made him feel so much better just to see 



them and they sat down by his chair and be- 
gan telling him all about their trip down and 
how good everybody had been to them all the 
way. Harold immediately began to tell about 
losing his little dog, but Anna talked about 
something else because it made Harold feel so 
bad to think about it. 

After they had told Harry all about their 
pets at home, he told them about the pets he 
had on this large farm. Just about that time 
Harry's mother walked in and told them that 
dinner was ready. Anna said, "Aunt Mary, I 
brought Harry some goodies for his dinner 
because I knew he was sick." "And I brought 
him these flowers," said Harold. "Oh ! I'm so 
glad," said Harry, "and I am so much obliged 
to you both for thinking about me." 

After dinner the children went down to see 
the pigeons first, then the chickens, and right 
behind the hen house was a pen and in this 
pen some dear little rabbits had a home. Oh ! 
they were so pretty, it looked like they had 
on brown dresses with white collars. 

Last of all they went to see the little colt 
and after feeding it some nice clover they 
came back to the house, put on their hats and 
got ready to go back home. 

"Good-bye, Harry," said the children. "I 
hope you will be entirely well in a few days." 

"Thank you, I hope so," said Harry, and 
they closed the door to find that Sadie was all 
hitched up ready to take them home; she 
must have heard them say it was time to go. 

The children took their turn about to drive 
back and it was so much fun, that they soon 
found themselves in front of Harold's home, 
and as he told Anna good-bye, and thanked 
her for taking him for such a nice trip, what 
do you think happened when he stepped out 
of the carriage? Frisky jumped up on him 
and barked as if to say "I'm so glad to see 
you." 

Harold was so happy he couldn't say any- 
thing more, so John drove on to the drug 
store, — helped Anna into the car, and very 
soon she was at home telling her mother all 
about her trip and how nice everybody had 
been to her. 



MEMORY GEMS 

CAUTION. 

Caution is the parent of safety. 

A grain of prudence is worth a pound of craft. 

All things belong to the prudent. 

Too great a leap falls into the ditch. 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 
behavior. NEWS NOTES 



57 



Levity of behavior is the bane of all that is good 
and virtuous. — Seneca. 

What is becoming is honorable, and what is hon- 
orable is becoming. — Tully. 

Never put off till tomorrow what you can do 
today. 

Never trouble another for what you can do 
yourself. 

Never spend your money before you have it. 

Never buy what you do not want because it is 
cheap. 

Men resemble the gods in nothing so much as 
in doing good to their fellow creatures. — Cicero. 

The truly generous is the truly wise. — Home. 

BUSINESS. 

The man who minds his own business will al- 
ways have business to mind. 

Despatch is the soul of business. — Chesterfield. 

Drive thy business; let not that drive thee. — 
Franklin. 

Keep thy shop and thy shop will keep thee.— 
Spanish. 

Business neglected is business lost. 

BOOKS. 

There is no friend so faithful as a good beok. 

There is no worse robber than a bad book. — 
Italian. 

No book is worth anything which is not worth 
much. — Ruskin. 

Choose an author as you choose a friend. — Earl 
of Roscommon. 

BORROWING. 

Who goeth a borrowing, 
Goeth a sorrowing. — Tusser. 

Borrowing is the mother of trouble. — Hebrew. 

The borrower is servant to the lender. — Bible. 

That is an empty purse that is full of other men's 
money. 

If you would know the value of money, try to 
borrow some. — Franklin. 

CONSCIENCE. 

A clear conscience is a soft pillow. 

A good conscience makes a joyful countenance. 

He that loses his conscience has nothing left that 
is worth keeping. — Izaak Walton. 

To live with no conscience is to live like a beast. 



Abington, Mass. — A kindergarten has been open- 
ed by Mrs. Margaret Gigger. 

Waterbury, Vt. — Miss Florence Morse has a posi- 
tion as kindergartner in New York. 

Paris, Ky. — Mrs. E. L. Harris has opened a pri- 
vate kindergarten at her home in this city. 

Athol, Mass. — Miss Esther C. Beane, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass., will teach in the kindergarten here. 

Hamilton, O. — The Federated Clubs have opened 
a free kindergarten at East avenue and Grand 
boulevard. 

Montreal, Vt. — Miss Margaret E. Gingham of St. 
Albans will have charge of the public school kind- 
ergartens here. 

Green Bay, Wis. — A new kindergarten is being 
conducted at the Dousman school with Miss 
Loraine Wilse in charge. 

'Saginaw, Mich. — The Stone kindergarten has 
opened with a good enrollment. The Misses Owen, 
Floyd and Ferguson are in charge. 

Minneapolis, Minn. — Dr. Jordan has recommend- 
ed a number of new kindergartens for this city, 
and it is thought that the Board of Education will 
grant them. 

Spring Hill, Mass. — The private kindergarten 
here opens Oct. 2 with Miss Grace Clevenger in 
charge. Miss Marie Williams, a senior of the 
Training School, Boston, will be assistant. 

Bismarck, N. D.— The kindergarten which was 
successfully conducted last spring, has opened for 
the year, the classes convening in the kindergarten 
rooms of the First Baptist church. Miss Emma 
Bartel has been employed as teacher. 

Beverly Farms, Mass. — The kindergarten depart- 
ment of the Farms Baptist Sunday school held a 
picnic recently at West Beach, being in charge of 
the various teachers. Refreshments were served 
and the children had a pleasant time. 

Little Rock, Ark. — Miss Eliza Barnett, director 
of City Park kindergarten, has gone to her for- 
mer home in Louisville, Ky., to be absent indefi- 
nitely. On account of ill health she will not be 
able to take charge of the school this year. 

Baltimore, Md. — A new building has been put up 
for resident pupils of the Afferdby Kindergarten 
Normal School. Misses Laura M. Beatty and 
Elizabeth Silkman are the principals. Dr. John 
F. Goucher is on the advisory board. The school 
opens October 2. 

Wilmington, Del. — The Peoples Settlement Kind- 
ergarten is now in charge of Miss Jennie Gadd of 
Philadelphia. Because of the many requests from 
parents the Ursuline academy has decided to es- 
tablish a kindergarten department which will be 
an integral part of the school. 

St. Louis, Mo. — Ben Blewett, superintendent of 
education, announced with the opening of the 
public schools Tuesday that kindergartens had been 
added in 25 schools, as follows: Baden, Bates, 
Clark, Crow, Des Peres, Dozier, Field, Gardenville, 
Gratiot Harrison, Hempstead, Hodgdon, Irving, 
Longfellow, Lyon, Mann, Marquette, Marshall, 
Meramec, Monroe, Mt. Pleasant, Riddick, Rock 
Spring, Sherman and Washington. 



58 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Salt Lake City, Utah. — The free kindergarten 
has opened at 758 West First South with an en- 
rollment of twenty-four pupils. This number over- 
taxes the capacity of the small building, in which 
the school is now located, but it is hoped to have 
the new building which is being constructed just in 
front of the old one, completed by the last of Oc- 
tober. 

Augusta, Me. — A new public school kindergarten 
has been established in the Webster school. Miss 
Blanche A. Libby, a former assistant at the Wil- 
liams kindergarten, will be principal of the kinder- 
garten. Equipment has been placed in the Web- 
ster school for 30 pupils. Special attention will 
be given to instruction in the English language in 
this kindergarten. 

Cincinnati, O. — Educational activities of the 
Elizabeth Gamble Deaconess Home will be in full 
swing about September 20, when the kindergarten 
training school opens. The Wesley Avenue kinder- 
garten opened Monday, with 85 little ones in at- 
tendance, and the neighborhood house, on Sixth 
avenue, began its work Tuesday. — Cincinnati 
Times-Star, Sept. 12. 

Lindale, Ga. — The Lindale public schools and 
free kindergarten will open Oct. 2. The latter will 
have twelve weeks school before Christmas at the 
expense of the Massachusetts Mills Company. Miss 
M. J. S. Wyly, formerly of Atlanta, will again su- 
perintend the school, with Miss Mary Adamson, 
of Rome, as principal. Miss Lillie Williamson will 
have charge of the kindergarten. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. — Following is a list of the 
public school kindergartners of this uty: Edith 
Smith, Stella Daft, Crescent Smith, Hilda Brown, 
Hattie Waples, Martha Smith, Myrtle Wallace, 
Helen Denny, Flora McCanne, Mildred Krebs, li- 
ma Fenton, Naomi Deal, Vera Fuegar, Beda Nord- 
vall, Marie Cushing, - Zora Morse, Gwen Parry, 
Ruth Wilcox, Glen Thomas, Jennie Gray, Ethel 
Firman, Alvira Cox, Bessie Jones, Cora Bassett. 

Florence, Ala. — The Florence Free Kindergarten 
Association has purchased a lot near the Brandon 
city school in East Florence and will build a hand- 
some kindergarten building for the accommodation 
of the kindergarten, which has heretofore occupied 
the basement of the Brandon school. Miss Maud 
Lindsay, the teacher, has through her books and 
her lectures on kindergarten work, gained a world 
wide reputation and has refused most nattering 
offers, preferring to labor with the factory district 
of East Florence, and it is through appreciation of 
her work that the Kindergarten Association has 
planned to build. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. — The old association kinder- 
garten which for a number of years has been op- 
erated at 168 Ellsworth avenue has been abandoned 
by the board of education. The school for the lit- 
tle tots will be conducted in a room at Smith 
Memorial church building, Wealthy avenue and 
Finney street. This church building will come into 
the possession of the board of education just as 
soon as the present owners succeed in clearing up 
the title. The Ellsworth avenue kindergarten_ was 
established originally as a purely charitable insti- 
tution to take care of the children of the poor fam- 
ilies in the neighborhood. The litle tots were too 
young to go to school. The kindergarten also be- 
came the center for considerable settlement work 
by a number of philanthropic organizations. Final- 
ly the board of education took over the kinder- 
garten work. It is expected the settlement activi- 



ties will follow the kindergarten to the new loca- 
tion. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Miss Hart's Training School 
for Kindergartners, located at 1615 Walnut street, 
happily combines the junior kindergarten training 
with normal training for teachers, who have every 
opportunity to complete their instructions and 
make them practical by actual teaching in five 
kindergarten classes which are set aside for their 
practice. Miss Caroline M. C. Hart, the Pines, 
Rutledge, Pa., is the principal of the school, which 
has had signal success, especially in its training of 
teachers. There are junior, senior, graduate and 
normal courses offered in the school and numerous 
special branches are taught. 

Murray, Utah. — The women of this place are 
making a determined fight for a public school 
kindergarten. Thus far they have not been suc- 
cessful, although the state law requires it. It is 
now proposed to marshal the children of proper 
age— there will be approximately sixty of them — 
and demand that they be enrolled at the Central 
school. They will knock at he doors of the school- 
rooms, which, according to law, should be open 
to them, and ask for admittance. If it is refused 
the little ones will wait in the halls. As things 
are now, it looks as if the Murray board would 
expect them to wait there until they were suffi- 
ciently grown to enter the first primary. But this 
would embarrass the proper conduct of school af- 
fairs and something would have to be done. If 
the kindergarten resulted, well and good. The 
women would lay down their arms and co-operate 
with the school board in maintaining the best 
kindergarten in the state. But if that move failed, 
then the women propose to have recourse to the 
law. They could force the board of education to 
show cause why they have not installed a kinder- 
garten. 



During the past year the New York Kindergarten 
Association has developed its educational work 
into a complete, free department of graduate study. 

This has been done in the interests of kinder- 
garten education and for the inspiration of teachers 
who have been several years at work. 

Miss Susan E. Blow and Miss Laura Fisher will 
continue to lecture this year. Their subjects will 
be the philosophic bases of the kindergarten, and 
the aim of the courses is to subject it as a system 
of education to every modern scientific test, and 
to enable kindergartners to meet and overcome the 
objections which imperfect practise arouses, and to 
stimulate them to a broader vision of the relation 
of Froebel's work to the modern world. 

Miss E. I. Cass, who has been studying English 
folk dancing at the Shakespearean Festival at 
Stratford-on-Avon during the past summer, will 
conduct the classes in games and Morris and 
English country dances. 

The Association has co-operated with the vari- 
ous Play Ground Associations in New York and 
intends also to offer courses in theory and practise 
for Play Ground Workers. 

The interest in the work of the Graduate De- 
partment last year was so great that not only 
Kindergartners, but supervisors and training teach- 
ers from other cities took leave of absence from 
their work and came to avail themselves of the 
opportunity. 

Certificates were awarded to all students who 
passed the required tests. 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



BOOK NOTES. 

Mother Carey's Chickens. By Kate Douglas 
Wiggin, illustrated in color by Alice Barber Stephens; 
cloth, 353 pps, price |1.25; post paid, $1.37; published 
by Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, New York and 
Chicago. 

In "Mother Carey's Chickens" Mrs. Wiggin has cre- 
ated the ideal American mother, just as in "Rebecca" 
she created "the nicest child in American literature.'' 
It is the story of a critical period in the life of a naval 
officer's family, in which the love and tact and example 
of Mother Carey leads her four children to adapt them- 
selves to the conditions of their new country home 
after the loss of their father. Readers of all ages and 
all tastes will love Mother Carey and symphathize in the 
trials and rejoice in the victories of her interesting 
brood. Every one will pronounce it Mrs. Wiggin's best 
story. 

A Dicken's Reader. Arranged by Ella M. Powers. 
Cloth, 158 pps., price 40c, Houghton Mifflin Co., Pub- 
lishers, Boston, New York, Chicago, 

Designed to present a few brilliant examples from 
the many which abound in the works of the eminent 
English novelist, Charles Dickens, and to induce a 
profound interest in his writings. Preceding each se- 
lection is a note regarding the book from which the 
extract has been made. It is a work especially use- 
ful to persons of adult age who have not the leisure 
to read the entire works of this great author. 

The Teacher's Practical Philosophy. By George 
Trumbull Ladd. D. D„ LL. D., Ex- Professor of Mental 
and Moral Philosophy, Yale University. 12mo, cloth, 
339 pp. Price, $1.25, net; by mail, $1.36. Funk & 
Wagnalls Company, Publishers New York. 

This book is so thoroughly practical and helpful that 
we advise every teacher to secure a copy. 

Tommy Sweet-Tooth and Little Girl Blue. By Jo- 
sephine Scribner Gates, illustrated by Esther V. Chur- 
buck; boards, 64 pages, price 50c; published by Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co., Boston, New York and Chicago. 

A book of charming stories for little people. Several 
full page color plates and many other illustrations. 
Beautifully bound in boards. 

Kittens and Cats. By Eulalie Osgood Grover, 
author of "The Sunbonnet Babies" Book, "The Overall 
Boys." etc. Cloth, 78 large pps, price 75c net. Pub- 
lished by Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston, New York and 
Chicago. 

This beautiful book contains 52 charming stories 
of a special interest to children of the kindergarten 
age. The illustrations will prove especially attractive 
to the little ones. 

The Enchanted Mountain. By Eliza Orne White, 
with illustrations by E. Pollak Ottendorff. Cloth, 107 
pps., $1.00. Published by Houghton Mifflin Co., Bos- 
ton, New York and Chicago. 

As interesting as the fairy stories of old, with an evi- 
dent desire to strengthen character as well as entertain ; 
teaches the value of contentment, industry and obedi- 



ence, A visit to High Wall Lodge by a trio of runaway 
children who are required to build each a part of a stone 
wall before getting a good dinner, while an old man 
keeping tab compels them to work five minutes longer 
for each word spoken, At Farewell Palace they are 
kept prisoners till they have learned to like all foods 
previously refused. Their last visit is to No Work 
Castle, where they all were made to feel that idleness 
does not bring happiness, 



Oshkosh, Wis., — Miss Elizabeth Young, a graduate 
of Teacher's College, has been placed in charge of the 
kindergarten department of the State Normal School 
here in place of Miss Henley, resigned. 

Chicag-o, III,, — Miss Mary L. Morse of Teacher's 
College, Columbia University, is to be a member of the 
Chicago Kindergarten Institute. The Chicago Froebel 
Association and Alice H. Putman have joined with the 
Institute. 

Milwaukee, Wis.,— Miss Geneva L, Bower, a gradu- 
ate of Teacher's College, is now a member of the Mil- 
waukee State Normal School faculty, teaching Kinder- 
garten Theory and assisting in the Supervision of the 
practice teaching. 

Worcester, Mass. — Upon petition of 10 parents in 
the school district, the board of educa- 
tion have recommended a new public school 
kindergarten in that section. Each petitioner 
promised to send one or more children to the new 
kindergarten. Transfers of kindergarten teachers 
were made as follows: Fanny M. Hamilton, Eliz- 
abeth street school, kindergartner, to Salem street 
school, kindergartner; G. Hazel Swan, Upsala 
street school, kindergartner, to Elizabeth street 
school, kindergartner. These resignations were re- 
ceived and accepted: Minnie G. Casey, Salem street, 
kindergarten; Emmaline A. Devlin, Upsala street, 
grades 4-3; Alzaleen M. Sampson, Classical high, as- 
sistant to principal. These requests for leave of ab- 
sence were granted: Ruth L. Allen, Dix street, kinder- 
garten assistant, to Sept. 1, 1912; Lydia W. Ball, 
Belmont street grade 7, to Sept. 1, 1912; Elizabeth 
H. Coe, South high school, to Sept. 1, 1912; Agnes 
T. Hart, Millbury street, grade 1, to March 1, 1912; 
Teresa E. Kerns, Dartmouth street, grade 1, to 
Sept. 1, 1912; Edith J. Jones, Gateslane, grade 8, to 
Sept. 1, 1912; Ellen C. Murphy, sewing, to Sept. 1, 
1912, and M. Rose McGowan, Adams square, grades 
3-2, to Jan. 29, 1912. 

There is not in nature 
A thing that makes a man so deform'd, so beastly, 
As doth intemperate anger. 

—Webster's Duchess of Malp. 



Vessels large may venture more, 

But little boats should keep near shore. 

— Franklin. 



To read and not to know, 
Is to plow and not to sow. 



Cheap and Excellent Books 

SONG KNAPSACK, 142 songs for schools, 10c; $1 
dozen. 

"PAT'S P T --, 124 pp. All the music to the KNAP- 
SACK songs. Sweetest, sanest, jolliest song 
book made. Cloth, 50c. 

PRIMER OF PEDAGOGY, by Prof. D. Putnam. 
Just what the times demand. Cloth 122 pp. 25c. 

MANUAL OF ORTHOGRAPHY AND ELEMEN- 
TARY SOUNDS, by Henry R. Pattengill. Up-to- 
date. 104 pp., 25c. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF U. S., by W. C. Hewitt. 

118 pp., complete, new, cloth, 25c; $2.40 per doz. 
MEMORY GEMS, 1000 GRADED SELECTIONS, by 

H. R. Pattengill. 143 pp., linen morocco finish, 

25c. 

MORNING EXERCISES AND SCHOOL RECREA- 
TIONS by C. W. Mickens. New, 267 pp., 50c. 

PRIMARY SPEAKER FOR FIRST AND SECOND 
GRADES, by Mary L. Davenport. Fresh, 
elegant. 132 pp., 25c. 

OLD GLORY SPEAKER, containing 80 of the 
choicest patriotic pieces written. 126 pp., 25c. 

HINTS FROM SQUINTS, 144 pp. Hints comical, 
hints quizzical, hints pedagogical, hints ethical, 
hints miscellaneous. Cloth, 50c. 

SPECIAL DAY EXERCISES, 165 pp., 25c. 

Best medicine ever to cure that "tired feeling" 
in school. 

HENRY R. PATTENGILL, Lansing. Mich. 



WANTED- A copy of the Kindergarten-Primary Maga- 
zinefor October, 1904. Address, Jennings & Graham, tSZi 
W. Fourth St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



WANTED— Position as kindergartner. Graduate of a 
good training school. Address, W. 278 River Street, Man 
istee, Mich. 



WANTED— Back numbers of the Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine, as follows: February, May. June, September, 
1889- December, 1890; January, March and April, 1891. Ad- 
dress Mrs. Helen B. Paulsen, Buckhannon, W. Va. 



WANTED— Back number of Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine for Februarv, 1910. Address, A. Cunningham, 
Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind. 



WANTED— September and October numbers of the 
Kindergarten Primary Magazine for 1904. Address 
C. M. T. S., care of Jennings & Graham, 222 W. Fourth St., 
Cincinnati. Ohio. 



WANTED— Kindergarten-Primary Magazine for Janu- 
ary and October, 1894, and October, 1897. Address G. Dunn, 
& Company, 403 St. Peter Street, St. Paul, Minn. 



WANTED— One copy each of Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine, as follows: June and September. 1894; January, 
April and May. 1895; October, November and December, 
1863- February, 1898; September to December, 1905; January 
to February, 1906. Address, The University of Chicago 
Press, Library Department, Chicago ,111. 



WANTED— Back numbers of Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine for September, 1909, and February 1910. J. H. 
Shults, Manistee, Mich. 



FOR SALE— 7 Kindergarten Tables at $5.00 each ; 3 doz- 

6th Gifts at 25 cents each ; fdozen 5th Gifts at 25 cents each ; 

2 dozen 4th at 10 cents ; 1% dozen 3rd at 10 cents ; 1 dozen 

2nd at 30 cents; lYz dozen peg boards at 90 cents per dozen. 

Address, Sue W. Frick, York, Pa. 



American Primary Teacher 

Edited by E. A. W1NSHIP 

Published onthly Except July and August 



An up-to-date, wide awake paper for tbe grades. Illustrated 
articles on Industrial Geography, New Work in the Grades, 
Drawing, Fables in Silhouette and other school room work. 

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NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING CO. 

299 BE AXON STR.EET, BOSTON 

Dutch Ditties 

FOB 

CHILRDEN 

FIFTEEN SONGS 

WITH PIANO ACCOMPANIMENT 

Words and Music 

by 

ANICE TERHUNB 

Pictures by Albertine Randall Wheelen 

71.25 net 

NEW YORK: G. SCHIRMER 

BOSTON: BOSTON MUSIC CO 

LONDON: SCHOTT & CO. 




A , 
Magazine 
for Young 
Children 

that stands In a 
class by itself 



Have You a 
Child? 

If so, you can (Jo 
nothing better than 
to send $1.00 for 

CHILD LORE 



IT IS A REAL EDUCATION IN ITSELF 

™, t, „ „. IT APPEALS 

To Every Mother 

Because it contains genuine child literature. 
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purpose. 
To Every Kindergarten and Primary Teacher 

Because it contains the sort of stories that she can 

use in her daily work. 
To Every Superintendent and Principal 

Because it is a magazine of genuine educational 

value. 
To Every Lover of Children 

Because, on account of its beautiful stories and 

dainty illustrations, it makes an ideal present. 

CHILD LORE COMPANY 

1427 UNION STREET BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Send for Sample Copy 



Books for Kindergartners 

Kindergarten in the Home 

By V. M. Hillyer, Headmaster Calvert 
School, Baltimore, Md. Based on exper- 
ience; admirably concise. This will make an 
invaluable aid to Kindergartners and mo- 
thers. Fully illustrated with diagrams and 
line drawings. Svo. $1.25 net. 

Tales Come True 

By Margaret Coulson Walker, author of 
Lady Hollyhock and her Friends, Bird Le- 
gend, etc. A book designed as an aid to 
mothers and kindergartners. A delight also 
to the child itself. Fully illustrated in col- 
or and black and white. Square, Svo. $1.25 
net. 

Lady Hollyhock and Her 
Friends 

By Margaret Coulson Walker. An estab- 
lished favorite; on many library lists and 
in many school libraries. Lavishly illustra- 
color and black and white. Square; Svo., 
$1.25 net. 

Portrait catalogue, containing 33 
portraits of authors, will be sent free 
on request. 

THE BAKER & TAYLOR CO. 



33 East 17th St. 



New York 




THE TEACHERS HELPERS 



S ie .If a ^i?.',y elpers are with °u* question the finest 
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Four books In the series; named Autumn, Winter, 
bpnng, and Summer respectively. The Summer 
number covers work for the whole year and is larger 
than the others. Cover designs done in beautiful 
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who Is not more than satisfied. > 
PRICES: Each Number(except Summer) $ .35 
Summer No. [larger than others] .50 
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Teachers' Helper, 

Department .. Minneapolis. Mlon. 



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LITTLE PEOPLE 
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A new series of Geographical Readers 
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Kathleen in Ireland (Fourth year) 
Manuel in Mexico (Fifth year) 
Ume San in Japan (Sixth year) 
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CARNEGIE COLLEGE 

Home Study-Free Tuition 

Carnegie College gives Free Tuition 
by mail to one representative in each 
county and city. Normal, Teacher's 
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Applicants for Free Tuition should 
apply at once to Dept. C. 

CARNEGIE COLLEGE 

ROGERS, OHIO 




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FOR CHURCHES 

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The subscription price of most profes- 
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©he gfcbool (ftxehanse, 

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The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 

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FIRST STEPS TO A LITERARY CAREER 

A Primer for Writers. Tells How to Write; 
What to Write; How to Prepare Copy for the 
Printer and How to Turn Failure into Success. Do 
you want to learn? Subscribe for 

THE BOOKSELLER AND LATEST 
LITERATURE 

and read the series of articles of interest to every 
aspiring writer. All who are interested in current 
literature will find this magazine desirable. An 
epitome of Books, Authors and Magazines of the 
day. $1.00 a year. Sample copy free. Address, 

The Bookseller and Latest Literature 

208-10 Monroe Street, Chicago, Ills. 

Three and Five Cent Classics 

We will send sample and our graded catalogue to 
■any teacher or superintendent. 

BEST AND CHEAPEST SUPPLEMENTARY 
READING 

They find friends everywhere and are used north, 
west, south and east, everywhere in the United States, 
and even in the far away Philippines. 

D. H. KNOWLTON & Co., PUBLISHERS, 

Farmington, Man?*. 



REMARKABLE CLUB OFFERS 



FOR 



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pr j ( Educator Journal 

I Primary Education 



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NOVEMBER, 1911 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 


- 61 62 


More Rapids Progress, 


Mary E. Law, 


Danger Signals in Young Children, - 


Maximilian P. E. G 


rossmun, 63 


Dr. Montessori's New Method in Infant 






Education, 


. 


63 


A Problem Solved, 


- 


67 


Picture Study, 


- - 


68 


Kindergarten Daily Program, 


Norah Keough, 


- 69 


The Every Day Adventures of Albert 






and Annabel, 


Lelia A. Reeve, 


71 


About Bobbie and Sally and Winifred, 


Garrett Williams, 


76 


Winifred at Kindergarten, 


Garrett Williams, 


77 


" Thanksgiving Song, 


. 


79 


God Bless Our Father Land, 


0. W. Holmes, 


79 


*■ A Thanksgiving Recipe, 


- 


79 


Thank You Day, 


. 


- 79 


A Thanksgiving Letter to Grandma, 


. 


79 


William Cullen Bryant, 


... 


- 78 81 


Kindergarten Growth, 


- 


82 


News Notes, - 


. 


- 83 


Book Notes, - 


- 


86 

* 



Volume XXIV^ No. 3. 



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Patriotic Poems Explained 65 

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RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



PITTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY 
KINDERGARTEN COLL EGE 

ALICE N. PARKER, Suparintendent. 
Regular course, two years. Special ad- 
vantages for Post-Graduate work. Twen- 
tieth year begins September 27, 1911. For 
catalogue address. ., t u 

MRS. WILLIAM McCRACKEN, Secretary, * 
3439 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

82 St. Stephen Street, Boston. 

Normal Course, two years. 

For circulars address 

Miss Lucy Harris Symonds 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For information, address 

HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

the Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 326 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

Two Years' Course. Terms, $100 per year. 
Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 

SPRINGFIELD — LONGMEADOW. MASS. 
Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 

For information address 

MISS CAROLINE T. HAVEN, Principal, 

Central Park West and 63d St. 

NEW YORK. 

Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 

Two Years' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
G39 Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, GA. 




CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

1200 Michigan Boulevard, 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



Fall Term opened September 12th, 1911 

One year Primary Course, 
Two year regular Kindergarten Course. 

Mrs. J. N. Crouse, Elizabeth Harrison, 

Principals 



for KINDERGARTEN and 
PRIMARY TEACHERS 

Spool Knitting. By Mary A. Mc- 
Cormack. Directions are clear and ex- 
plicit, accompanied by photographs. 
Price, 75 cents to teachers. 

Practical and Artistic Basketry. 

By Laura A. Pinsley. Illustrated. 
Price |1.00 to teachers. Stitches are 
taken up in the order of their difficul- 
ty. Cud work is given a place. Care- 
fully graded. 

Outlines for Kindergarten and 
Primary Classes, in the study of 
Nature and Related subjects. By E. 
Maud Cannell and Margaret E. Wise. 
Price 75 cents to teachers. 

Memory Gems. For school and 
home. By W. H. Williams. Price 
50 cents to teachers. Contains more 
than 300 carefully chosen selections. 

Send for Catalogue 

The A. S. BARNES CO. 

381 Fourth Ave., New York 



TRAINING SCHOOL 



The Buffalo Kindergarten Association 

Two Years' Course. 
Vor particulars address 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER, 
86 Delaware Avenue. - Buffalo. N. Y. 

Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Years' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
16 Washington St., East Orange, N. J. 



CLEVELAND KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with the 
CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

2050 East 96th Street 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Founded in 1894) 
Course of study under direction of Eliza- 
beth Harrison, covers two years in Cleve- 
land, leading to senior and normal courses 
in the Chicago Kindergarten College. 

MISS NETTA FARIS. Principal. 
MRS. W. R. WARNER. Manager. 



CARNEGIE COLLEGE 

Home Study-Free Tuition 

Carnegie College gives Free Tuition 
by mail to one representative in each 
county and city. Normal, Teacher's 
Professional. Grammar School, High 
School, College Preparatory, Civil Ser- 
vice, Bookkeeping, Shorthand, Tvpe- 
writing, Greek, Latin, German. Spanish. 
Italian, Drawing and Agricultural 
Courses are taught by correspondence. 
Applicants for Free Tuition should 
apply at once to Dept- C. 

CARNEGIE COLLEGE 

ROGERS, OHIO 




BOWLDEN BELLS 

FOR SCHOOLS 

From $8.00 to $25.00 

FOR CHURCHES 

From $'J5.00to 8125.00 

Write for free 

catalogue. 

AMERIGflN BELL & 

FOUNDRY CO. 

Northvillc, Mich. 



Dr. Earle's N. Y. Froebel Normal 

INCORPORATED. REGISTERED STATE REGENTS. 

KINDERGARTEN, PRIMARY CLASSES, PLAYGROUND AND 
SETTLEMENT WORKERS' COURSES. 

Graduate Courses in Supervision and for all New York City and State Licenses 
Lecturers Furnished for University Extension Courses. Dormitory Accommodations for Resident Students 

Address for circulars, Dr. and Mrs. E. Lyell Earle, Principals. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergarten 

Institute 



4 



Diplomas granted for each of the following: Regular Kindergar- 
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professional [one year]. 



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Students' Resi 



54 Scott St., Chicago. 



Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 

Chicago. 

Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 
Miss Frances £. Newton, 
Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 

Directors, 54 Scott Street, CHICAGO 



For circulars apply to 
Fall term opens Sept. 28, 1911. 



GRAND RAPIDS KINtER6AR= 

TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Winter Term opens September 27th. 

CERTIFICATE, DirLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 
MAY L. OGILBY. Registrar 

.thrnarri Building, - 23 Fountain St. 
GRA>D RAPIDS. MICH. 



Miss Hart's 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

For Kindergartners 
3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 
Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Five practice Kin- 
dergartens. Opens September 28, 1911. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 
The Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 



OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 

FROEISEL KINDERGARTEN TRAIN- 
ING SCHOOL. 

Medical supervision. Personal attention. 
Thirty-five practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MARY E. LAW, M. D., Principal. 



The Teachers' College 

of Indianapolis 

For the Training of Kindergartners 
and Primary Teachers. Accredited by 
the State Board of Education in Classes 
A B and C. Regular courses, two. three 
and four years. Primary Training a part 
of the regular work. Classes formed in 
September and February. Free scholar- 
ships granted each term. 

Special Primary Classes in March, May. 
June. July. Send for cataloeue. 

MRS. ELIZA A. BLAKER, President. 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Institute. 

23rd and Alabama Streets. 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

at CHICAGO COMMONS, Grand Ave. 
Mrs Bertha Hofer Hegner, Superintendent 
Mrs. Amelia Hofer Jerome, Principal. 

FOURTEENTH YEAR. 
Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A course 
in Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar with the Social Settle- 
ment movement. Fine equipment. For 
circulars and information write to 
MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 

West Chicago. 111. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number of 
students. 
Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 
H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 
Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 
SARAH E. HANSON, Principal. 
Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago Universities. 
For particulars address Kva B. Whit- 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 
ave., Chicago. 



The Adams School 
Kindergarten Training Course 

(Two Years) 

Nine months' practice teaching dur- 
ing 1 course. Address, 

The Misses Adams 

26 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, Va. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training in Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. IPost- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

Bummer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua--— Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co., Maryland. 



PRATT INSTITUTE 
SCHOOL OF KINDERGARTEN TRAINING 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Kindergarten Normal Course, twoyears 
Special Classes for Kindergartners and 
Mothers. Froebel's Educational Theo- 
ries ; Players with Kindergarten Mater- 
ials; Games and Gymnasium Work; 
Outdoor Sports and Swimming; Child- 
ren's Literature and Story Telling; 
Psychology, History of Education. Nat- 
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Children in Folk Games, Dances and 
Stories. 

Alice E. Fitts, Director. 

Year of 1911-12 opened September 25th. 



THE HARIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 

For information address 

MISS HARIETTE M. MILLS, Principal 

New York University Building 

Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Courses given for credit at 

New York University Summer School' 



NBW 
"A POTPOURRI OF RHYTHM," 

For Kindergarten, Home 
and School 

Composed of music for clapping, skip- 
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loping horse and song; by 
MABEL ROGERS. 
author of ".Large Rhythmic Movements 
for small Children" and "Kindergarten 

Marches and other Music." 
Price, 60 cents postpaid. Other books 

53 cents each, postpaid. 

Kindly remit with money order or 

check. Address 

M. S. ROGERS, 

87 Prince St. Rochester. N. Y 



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And all kinds of Construction 

Material for Kindergartners and 

Primary Teachers. Catalogue 

Free. Address, 

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VOL. XXIV— NOVEMBER, 1911— NO. 3. 



The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 

Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

Editorial Rooms, 59 West 96th Street, New York. N. T. 

E. I.yell Earle, Ph. D., Editor, 59 W. 9Gth St., New York City 

Business Office, 276-278-380 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 

J. H. SHUI/TS, Business Manager. 

MAMSTEE, MICHIGAN. 

All communications pertaining to subscriptions and adver- 
tising or other business relating to the Magazine should be 
addressed to the Michigan office, J. H. Shults, Business Man- 
ager, Manistee, Michigan. All other communications to E. 
Uyell Earle, Managing Editor, 59 W. 96th St., New York City. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine Is published on the 
first of each month, except July and August, from 278 River 
Street, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable In advance. 
Single copies. 15c. 

Postage is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions In 
the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, 
Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, 
Cuba and Mexico. For Canada add 20c and for all other 
countries in the Postal Union add 300 for postage. 

Notice of Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a con- 
tinuance of the subscription is desired until notice of dis- 
continuance is received. When sending notice of change of 
address, both the old and new addresses must be given. 

Make all remittances to Manistee, Michigan. 



FOR MORE RAPID PROGRESS 

We publish several communications this mouth 
in addition to those which appeared in the 
September and October numbers. Many helpful 
suggestions have been brought out through this 
correspondence. We hope other kindergartners 
will express themselves. The subject is a vital 
one and should interest every kindergartner. In- 
difference is not a quality that makes for pro- 
gress in any cause. If the kindergarten is a good 
thing for children anywhere it is a good 
thing for children everywhere, and the friends 
of this cause cannot consistently cease their la- 
bors while a vast number of the little ones are 
deprived of this blessing. A private correspon- 
dent said to us: "I am not a kindergartner, but 
I believe in the kindergarten. The indifference 
of some of these kindergartners in regard to the 
advancement of the cause leads me to suspect that 
they do not believe in it themselves, or else that 
they are kindergartners merely for a job." 
This statement may be severe and perhaps un- 
just, but the kindergartner who does not have a 
real live interest in the progress of the kinder- 
garten cause is certainly not living up to her 
privilege and may be in danger of "dry rot." Let 
us wake up, and be alive to the needs, and let 



each kindergartner resolve to do some one defi- 
nite thing at least to bring about greater progress 
not only in the establishment of public school 
kindergartens but in the advancement of the 
cause in general. Let kindergartners at all times 
be able to give a reason for the faith that is with- 
in them, and each in her little corner earnestly 
endeavor to demonstrate by the test of actual re- 
sults that it is "well with the child" who has 
been entrusted to her care and culture. 

From "Just a Kindergartner" 

I am just a kindergartner in a small city and 
hence would prefer not to have my name pub- 
lished but I am greatly interested in the kinder- 
garten cause . It seems to me that many young 
girls who take a course in the training schools 
are not fitted by nature for the position of a kin- 
dergartner. They do not seem to comprehend 
the sacredness and importance of the work. I 
am afraid that not every training school would 
advise applicants who do not possess the adapta- 
bility for the work to take up some other calling. 
I hope your magazine will agitate the subject un- 
til every city in America is provided with kinder- 
gartens in connection with the public schools at 
least. In fact, it seems to me that every child is 
entitled to the blessings of kindergarten training 
and that we as kindergartners have no right to 
rest content when so many children are deprived 
of this advantage. A KINDERGARTNER. 

Not a Kindergartner 
While I am not a kindergartner I am neverthe- 
less very deeply interested in this cause. It 
seems to me that one hindrance to more rapid 
progress lies in the want of natural adaptability 
of some kindergartners for the work they have 
undertaken. Doubtless there are in every city 
hundreds of young women who are by nature and 
culture admirably adapted to the work but who 
are themselves unaware of their talents in this 
direction. Is it not possible for the International 
Kindergarten Union to adopt some plan by which 
these young women can be sought out and so far 
as possible enlisted in the work. Having plenty 
of competent kindergartners the work of estab- 
lishing public school kindergartens is not difficult 
if it is undertaken in a. systematic,, business-like 
way. 



62 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



From Mary E. Law, Toledo, O. 

Toledo, O., September 22, 1911. 

I am much interested in the effort you are 
making to have the kindergarten situation - 
analyzed and elucidated by its sponsors, the 
training teachers. Your inquiry came while 
I was out of the city, but I am only too 
happy to accede to your request and tell you 
what, in my opinion, is the trouble with the 
kindergarten, if trouble exists, for I assure 
you your letter took me by surprise, as did 
the replies of many of the training teachers 
who responded. 

I will say in the beginning, that Madame 
Krause-Boelte, in her reply, explains the situ- 
ation from my point of view : "A departure 
from Froebelian principles in the first place 
and too many ill-considered and superficial 
articles in the kindergarten press and else- 
where in the next place." 

As I shall have opportunity to touch upon 
only a few of Froebel's great principles in 
this article, I shall make a practical applica- 
tion of one "co-operation." For those who 
have not read Judge Grosscup's article per- 
mit me to quote a few parag'raphs only : 

"Success in enterprise depends on giving 
the men whose thought is behind the enter- 
prise room to work out their thought. Give 
them that room. It not only helps them — it 
helps everybody. 

"These men, however, are not entitled to 
harvest out of it all the profit that concen- 
tration puts into their hands. They could 
not do that without the aid of the right to 
incorporate. And the right to incorporate is 
not theirs by natural right, but by corporate 
charters given them by government. 

"Limit them, then, to a fair return that 
they can take out when, through this govern- 
ment giving them right to incorporate, they 
have thrown off competition. In other words 
put ,no obstruction in the way of what men 
may do for mankind industrially, but put a 
limit on what they may take out as their 
individual share when what they do is done 
through the instruments put in their hands 
by corporate charter.'' 

What does he mean? Simply that individ- 
uals must voluntarily co-operate for the good 
of the whole and that as the government 
gives them legal right to combine by incor- 
poration it must also retain the right of 
supervision, so that all may benefit instead 
of the few, This is one of the underlying 



principles of the kindergarten. "Individual 
development and voluntary cooperation." 
There is no competition, rivalry and emula- 
tion in the kindergarten. 

The child is taught to excel his own past 
efforts, not another childs. An effort is con- 
stantly made to lead the child to voluntary 
obedience. He makes with his mates a circle 
on the floor, each co-operating with all to 
make it round. The painted circles, where 
little feet were forced to toe the mark and to 
walk upon little paths is a survival of the 
early kindergarten era before the great prin- 
ciples were understood. 

The conservation of forests and mines is in 
line with Froebel's great ^principle of individ- 
ual freedom and equality of opportunity. See 
how skillfully he makes the little child 
acquainted with his own powers and limita- 
tions. The kindergartner, like nature, furn- 
ishes the material and each child is entitled 
to the product of his own labor. He owns 
the mat he weaves, the boat he folds, the 
image he models. 

Roosevelt, our greatest modern sociologist, 
would combine the two principles just men- 
tioned. He would have the government own 
the coal, wood and water, conserve and sell 
the same to the individual at a small per cent 
above the actual cost of production. When 
we begin to study Froebel as a great sociox 
logist as well as a great educator, we shall 
have little time to discuss minor differences. 
Froebel based his scheme of educational de- 
velopment upon a scientific, not a literary 
foundation, and unless kindergartners them- 
selves know something of physics, biology, 
natural history and other sciences, they can 
not teach the children under their care. Here 
are a few questions a little boy has asked me 
within the last few days and he is not in a 
kindergarten either. He has just returned 
from the seaside: "What is water made of?" 
"Is air lighter than water?" "Why do boats 
stay on top of the water?" "Why do people 
drown?" "What makes balloons go up?" Is 
it possible there are people in the kinder- 
garten ranks who do not know that the prin- 
ciples are as applicable to the University as 
to the kindergarten, that it was "founded and 
taught for years by three university-bred 
men? AYhat was there in it to interest them? 

I should as soon expect to hear that Her- 
bert Spencer's theory of evolution is being 
repudiated by the leading minds of the world 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



as to hear that the kindergarten was losing 
ground. Study Herbert Spencer if you would 
understand Froebel. 

Mary E. Law. 



DANGER-SIGNALS IN YOUNG 
CHILDREN. 



Dr. Montessori's New Method in 
Infant Education. 

As many kindergartners in America are dis- 
cussing Dr. Montessori's work at this time it 
may be well to call attention to the fact that 
this magazine published a general outline of 
this new method in a series of articles by Dr. 
Jenny B. Merrill, which began in the December 
number, 1909, and were concluded in the 
March number, 1910. 

While there is much of interest in Dr. Mon- 
tessori's work, it appears to fail to recognize 
the value of imaginative dramatic play and 
of self-expression . Creative self-activity gives 
way to humdrum object lessons long ago 
discarded. 

While it may be necessary in Italian day 
nurseries to teach children to dress themselves 
in America we still believe the mother has that 
privilege. If necessary to counsel the ignor- 
ant mother, the kindergartner or school nurse 
does so, or "Little Mothers Leagues" are or- 
ganized for big sisters. 

We disapprove of the introduction of writ- 
ing and reading under the age of six years. 
Incidental reading of a few words as for 
example sign boards may be allowed. After 
criticizing the Froebelian occupations as in- 
jurious to the eye, has the good doctor for- 
gotten the fixed attention of the eye necessary 
in reading? Touch can only be used slightly. 
It is the eye that reads. 

Children in America beginning at six, surely 
soon enough, read a half dozen little books in 
the first term of five months and read them 
intelligently. 

The best authorities claim that early phonic 
work tends to make stutterers. Valuable as 
it is in proper season, at four years of age it 
will prove injurious. 

The kindergarten is right in excluding read- 
ing and writing. Dr. Montessori is wrong- 
on this point. Interest has been aroused on 
this subject by a popular magazine, and we 
purpose to reprint selections from Dr. Merrill's 
four articles on the subject in a future issue. 
We believe these were the first articles on the 
subject which appeared in America. 



Maximilian P. E. Grossman 

Educational Director of the National Association for 

the Study and Education of Exceptional 

Children, Plain field, N. J. 

It is one of the wholesome results of child 
study that teachers and parents are becoming 
aware of the necessity of observing symptoms 
of exceptional development in their children so 
as to adjust educational measures to individual 
conditions. We are gradually, although still 
very slowly, outgrowing the conception of a 
child as a being which can be handled and 
molded at will. 

We are beginning to understand that mani- 
festations which may be displeasing to us are 
not necessarily expressions of a child's evil 
genius. The entire idea of discipline and pun- 
ishment is undergoing a change. We are learn- 
ing that many of the so-called naughtinesses 
of children may be merely danger-signals indi- 
cating disturbance somewhere. Apparent dis- 
inclination to obey may be due to imperfect 
hearing; aversion to reading and writing, to 
imperfect vision. Ugliness and irritability may 
be caused by astigmatism which in its turn 
produces eye-strain and persistent headaches. 
Laziness may be a symptom of anemia or neu- 
rasthenia, or it may be caused by malnutrition, 
overexertion at home, lack of sleep, or of ven- 
tilation in the child's sleeping-chamber. Fret- 
fulness may have its cause in a great number 
of various conditions, notably indigestion. 
Educators are oftentimes inclined to feel very 
much vexed when a child makes grimaces, is 
inclined to giggle and babble, and to disturb 
the artificial discipline of the schoolroom by 
whispering. And yet these manifestations, as 
well as others, like sniffing, coughing, restless- 
ness, and inattention, may be, and almost al- 
ways are, symptoms of nervous disease. They 
may be enumerated among the socalled habit 
tics or habit spasms, like twitching, shrugging, 
shuffling, grinning, sighing, yawning, echolalia 
(the repetition of words spoken by another, as 
for instance repeating a question before an- 
swering), uttering curious sounds such 
as chirping, etc. Again, momentary in- 
attention and absentmindedness may be 
due to a mild form of petit mal, i. e., 
epilepsy. Sudden attacks of excitement, out- 
breaks of temper, destructiveness, hitting other 
children, and the like, suggest the presence of 
psychic epilepsv. Then there are the manifold 



6 4 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



movements characteristic of chorea; and while 
true hysteria is a disease which does not de- 
velop before the adolescent age, there are quite 
a number of conditions in children which may 
be counted among hysterical symptoms. An 
emotional temperament is one of them, and 
the instability of will and irresponsibility, an- 
other. These symptoms are very often found 
in young girls who seem to be predestined to 
develop true hysteria unless preventive meas- 
ures are taken at the right time. It has been 
observed by many that an exaggerated imagin- 
ation and selfishness, or rather self-centered- 
ness, go with these symptoms ; and that devia- 
tions from the truth and often surprising fabri- 
cations are characteristic of this condition. 
Children's lies are a chapter in themselves. 
Books have been written on the child as a wit- 
ness, showing how unreliable are the state- 
ments of children, even of those who are usu- 
ally considered truthful. Stubbornness and 
disobedience, qualities which are usually 
judged in the sense of disciplinary conditions, 
may reveal themselves to the careful observer 
as danger-signals indicating disease of some 
kind. 

For the sake of completeness of statement it 
is necessary to add that the conduct of children 
exhibits, in too many cases, conditions which 
are danger-signals not so much in the develop- 
ment of the child himself as in the manner of 
his education. The wisdom and judgment of 
the educator are in question when all is told. 
Very few of us have as yet a clear knowledge 
of the physical and psychical life of the child, 
and a faulty reaction on the part of the child 
may simply mean that we have handled him 
incorrectly. In normal schools and college 
courses, teachers are now receiving a better 
preparation for the management of these bud- 
ding souls. But parents are, as a rule, sadly de- 
ficient in the wisdom and training required for 
the education of their children. I say this in 
spite of the fact that we have hoav mothers' 
clubs in all cities of this broad land ; for moth- 
ers come together in this way only after they 
have made their fundamental mistakes in re- 
gard to their own children. And fathers' clubs 
there are none. What is needed is to put false 
modesty aside and to consider no man or wo- 
man fit to marry who cannot give evidence of 
a training in parental functions. There are 
laws which prevent persons to marry who are 
physically unfit. The next step is to prevent 
those who are educationally unfit. 

To make a more detailed study of danger- 



signals, we must first develop the observational 
attitude of the diagnostician, and train our- 
selves to consider as a symptom everything 
which we cannot readily explain. And for 
every symptom we must train ourselves to look 
for a cause. Proper observation implies a care- 
ful distinction between the facts observed and 
the explanation we may give them. It is a 
very common error to substitute our interpre- 
tation of a fact for the fact itself, and thus re- 
cords of children are often vitiated. And only 
who can inspire a child with confidence, and 
who puts the subject under observation abso- 
lutely at its ease, will gather reliable data. 

The list of symptoms enumerated before will 
put many parents and teachers on their guard 
and point the way toward a better understand- 
ing of a child's real condition. But some more 
specific suggestions may be made. 

A normal type may be conceived as repre- 
senting all functions in proper poise, all poten- 
tials of complete personality being present and 
unimpaired in growth and development. On 
this basis, we may say that any perversion of 
function which shows a tendency to persist is 
a danger signal, be it in the province of the 
physical or the mental life of the individual. 
Occasional indigestion, an isolated error of 
judgment, or an outbreak of anger or some- 
thing like that means nothing; but as soon as 
any of these perversions become persistent, 
they will destroy the equilibrium of the per- 
sonality and must be studied as to cause and 
relief. 

Poise is established by having the different 
aspects of human personality well related. 
Human life is determined by principles of 
growth and development : growth as to siz,e 
and weight, and development as to organiza- 
tion, differentiation, and function. There is 
first the size and weight of the body as a 
whole ; then there is the evolution of the bony 
skeleton, of the muscles and organs, of the 
central and peripheral nervous system, not to 
forget the so-called sympathetic system which 
regulates the functions of the viscera. Upon 
the growth and development of the nervous 
system depends the development of the func- 
tions of the intellect and will. Abnormalities 
of growth and development are distinct dan- 
ger-signals. 

In determining growth periods there has re- 
cently been made the very helpful distinction 
between the chronological, anatomical, physio- 
logical, and psychological age of children. A 
boy of twelve in years is not necessarily a boy 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



65 



of twelve in development. Even if his anatom- 
ical growth be normal for his age, his physio- 
logical function or his psychological evolution 
may lag behind, so that he is actually only nine 
or ten years old. Or it may be the other way; 
he may be mentally normal or even precocious, 
and backward in weight and size. Any such 
discrepancy will cause a tension fraught with 
danger. 

Our first care must be therefore to discover 
whether or not the anatomical structure and 
the physiological function in a child correspond 
to the age standard. This will imply body 
measurements and a number of tests and ob- 
servations, some of which may be made in the 
home and in the schoolroom while others re- 
quire the co-operation of a physician. 

Child study, it will be remembered, implies 
the strictest co-operation of educator and phy- 
sician. 

In the matter of body measurements, it is 
more important that the figures for height and 
weight should correspond than that a 
child be average in these measurements. 
In other words, a child may repre- 
sent a smaller (or larger) type with- 
out danger to his development. But if he 
should weigh less than the average boy of his 
age, and his height be average or even above 
the averag'e, or vice-versa, there is reason to 
investigate. Excessive or distinctly stunted 
growth are of course also abnormal. 

X-ray pictures of the developmental state 
of the small bones of the wrist, according to 
the method of Professor Thomas N. Rotch, of 
Harvard, promise to become a scientific test 
for the anatomic age. 

Further observation can be made in the 
various provinces of physiological functions. 
Facts of respiration and heart action, of appe- 
tite and of digestion, of headaches and dizzi- 
ness, of muscular strength and grip, enter into 
this group of observations. It has been found, 
for instance, that the grip of the hand is a good 
index of intellectual development. Feeble- 
minded children, even those who exhibit much 
muscular strength under excitement, have a 
"much lower grip figure than normal children. 
The element of control enters here, and it is 
seen that some of these tests, which appear to 
be simply physical, have a psychic element. 

Frequent urination is an important symp- 
tom. It means either a distinct disease, or lack 
of volitional control, in other words a psychic 
defect. It suggests itself therefore that regular 
examinations of the urine of children be made 



for disease of kidneys, diabetes insipidus, in- 
testinal intoxication, etc. There might also be 
examination of the blood for anemia, leukemia, 
parasites, i. e., malaria, inflammatory states, 
etc.; also of the feces, for ability to digest vari- 
ous foods, intestinal parasites, etc. 

The so-called growing pains in children are 
a rather suspicious element. They are often 
rheumatic in nature and require special atten- 
tion. Rheumatism of childhood is dangerous 
for the reason of its insidious onset and never 
very active acute manifestations. 

It might seem needless to say that any weak- 
ness of the special senses must be considered a 
danger-signal. Yet even defects of vision and 
hearing are often overlooked, and what is 
caused by inability to see and hear distinctly 
is ascribed to inattention and unwillingness. 
The acuteness of these two most important 
senses should be determined by the ordinary 
tests which are so simple that they can be em- 
ployed anywhere. As has been said before, 
eye-strain is very frequently accompanied by 
headaches ; chronic headache is therefore a 
danger-signal. The other special v senses — 
taste, smell, and touch — not to speak of the 
muscular sense, rarely receive the attention 
they deserve. Yet we often find curious de- 
fects which may be considered as indicative of 
incomplete potentials and consequently of in- 
complete sensation. If 'we remember that 
under certain circumstances we may have to 
fall back upon one or more of these neglected 
senses, as in the case of Helen Keller, we may 
well be reminded of their importance. Speak- 
ing of sense tests, it must not be omitted to 
state that certain illusions of sense are charac- 
teristic of the normal mind, and their absence 
consequently is an indication of abnormality. 
Let us be reminded of the various optical illu- 
sions, and of the well-known weight tests. 
There are, however, illusions, and, further, 
what have been called hallucinations, which 
are distinctly pathological. They may be ob- 
served even in young children. 

Defective teeth are invariably a danger-sig- 
nal. They may prove the existence of various 
functional diseases, hereditary or acquired, 
which prevent their proper formation and 
growth ; or they may point to malnutrition 
and other temporary causes. In every instance, 
defective teeth interfere with the proper masti- 
cation and digestion of food ; with the protec- 
tion of the nasal-pharyngeal cavity; and with 
proper articulation. 

It has often been suggested that left-handed- 



66 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



ness is a danger-signal. It certainly indicates 
a deviation from typical conditions. Right 
handedness is a very ancient characteristic of 
the human race and even primitive peoples are 
practically right-handed. Left-handedness is 
therefore not to be considered in the light of a 
primitive trait. As a matter of fact, left-hand- 
ed individuals are found among the very intel- 
ligent and skillful; left-handedness is, then, 
not in itself a danger-signal unless it is coupled 
with other defects. It has been shown that 
the usual right-handedness may have one cause 
in the arrangement of the blood supply from 
the heart which favors the right arm ; left- 
handedness would, therefore, mean a reversion 
of this arrangement. 

Another cause of the right-handedness of a 
great majority of men, however, is the stronger 
development of the left hemisphere of the 
brain. When, therefore, left-handedness is 
connected with speech-defects, as it often is, it 
would reinforce a diagnosis of defective central 
condition ; for speech-defects, unless caused by 
anatomical defects in the organs of speech 
can be explained only by underdevelopment or 
lesion in the speech-centers of the left hemis- 
phere. Speech defects are most pronouncedly 
danger-signals. 

Here we come to the large number of dan- 
ger-signals in the development of the nervous 
system. And this is at the same time the pro- 
vince of psychological disorders. It must, 
however, again be stated that there is a con- 
stant interaction between bodily and psychic 
conditions, and that it is impossible to separate 
absolutely the psychical from the physical. 
Bodily symptoms will indicate psychic defects, 
and psychic symptoms will indicate disturb- 
ance of physiologic functions. Some of the 
danger-signals in this province are changes in 
temperament (crying or laughing readily) and 
unwarranted attacks of temper; rapid fatigu- 
ing and disinclination for effort; drowsiness; 
excitability ; insomnia. Of the habit spasms I 
have already spoken. Then there are defects 
of memory and judgment as well as lack of 
determination and decision. A mechanical 
memory alone is not a sign of intelligence, and 
is found in remarkable development even 
among imbeciles. Precocity is another sign 
of eventual nervous strain and derangement. 

Some very complete measuring scales for in- 
telligence have been recently suggested by 
such men as Dr. Sante de Sanctis, of the Uni- 
versity of Rome, Italy, and the famous French, 
psychologist, Dr. Binet. They combine motor, 



sense, and intellect tests, so graded that we 
may determine the psychological age of a child 
by applying them systematically. As they 
have been tried with a great many children 
they may be considered fit to give truthful re- 
sults. If, for instance, a child of nine years 
•cannot respond properly to all the tests sug- 
gested for children of this age, but only to 
those prescribed for children of eight or even 
seven, we have a grave danger-signal in the 
matter of intellectual development. 

In the sphere of will we must consider signs 
of weakness and indecision, of wavering and 
changeability; and any perversion of will and 
moral defects, like persistent lying and steal- 
ing, are plain indications of pathological de- 
velopment. 

A complete system of observations and tests 
would embrace all the elements touched upon 
in this paper. Experiments along these lines 
have already been made in certain school sys- 
tems, and in psychological laboratories and 
clinics. But the number of children so tested 
is small and most of them had already been 
found distinctly deficient. 

To make the status of the child still more 
evident, it will be necessary to include data 
from the earliest history of the child; and as 
much of the family history as can be ascer- 
tained. Only a complete tabulation of all these 
data will show all the danger-signals which we 
ought to know about, in their perspective so 
that we may neither underestimate nor over- 
estimate. It is evident that any single fact may 
mean little or nothing unless it is taken in con- 
nection with other facts. And a consensus 
of various observers will eliminate the element 
of personal error or emotional bias. 

Altho I may say that I have in my own 
practical experience proved its feasibility to a 
large extent, a complete system such as it has 
been my privilege to suggest may not be very 
readily introduced anywhere. Nevertheless, it 
is to be hoped that these suggestions will open 
the eyes of many teachers and parents to what 
should be observed and what the educator must 
be on the lookout for. We may hope for a 
more universal realization when the time comes 
that the family physician will be the hygienic 
adviser of parents rather than the unwillingly- 
called-in healer of diseases; and when every 
school will be a pedagogical clinic with the co- 
operation of the medical, psychological, and 
pedagogical expert. My suggestions of today 
will at least affect, I hope, the disciplinary at- 
titude of educators, so that teachers and par- 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



67 



ents will learn to consider themselves students 
of child nature and of the individual children 
under their care, rather than their tamers and 
drill-masters. And the time may come when 
each child will he as carefully observed as the 
breeder of horses or chickens observes his 
brood; when there will be a science of educa- 
tion, a science of parenthood, a science of teach- 
ing; when it will not be considered stupendous 
and preposterous to give each child such min- 
ute care and study as will establish his fail 
status. 

Some day the beautiful words of Froebel : 
''Lasst uns unseren Kindern leben !" (Let us 
live with our children!) will become a reality, 
and we shall learn to appreciate the full sig- 
nificance of the ancient Roman proverb: "Prin- 
cipiis obsta!" Resist the beginnings! 

A PROBLEM SOLVED. 

One Friday afternoon, as we were deeply 
interested in the fate of Robinson Crusoe, the 
principal brought a new pupil to the room. 
"See what you can do with this hoy," he said 
impatiently. The other children surprised at 
the unusual tone of Mr. Twadwell's, looked 
up quickly, while 1, with a sinking heart, went 
forward to greet the new arrival. 

I can recall him yet, as he stood watching 
me defiantly — a little, red-haired, freckle-faced 
boy of ten — dirty, ragged, and uncouth. As I 
assigned him a place, I offered a prayer that 
I might have patience to see what I could do 
with him. I felt this unkind introduction, 
however much deserved, was unjust and could 
do no good. For several days Frank did very 
little to annoy ; but, as he became less strange, 
the mischief planned in that one small brain 
was marvelous. Like a will-'o-the-wisp, he 
was never idle, and in whatever part of the 
room I placed him, there was trouble. I had 
about come to the conclusion that for the sake 
of the class, he should leave the school, when 
a slight incident occurred which again brought 
order to my little world. 

It was the morning after Hallowe'en, and, 
as the children came trooping in, I saw Frank 
among them — hair uncombed, streaks of red 
paint on his face, and both shoe strings gone. 
Waiting until it was time for the noon dis- 
missal, I quietly laid my hand on his shoulder 
and said, "Frank, can't you fix up a little this 
afternoon? See what soap and water will do 
to the red paint, and see if you can't find some 
pieces of string for the shoes." 

The afternoon session brought a different 



Frank, in both appearance and manners. His 
face and hands fairly shone, and as he came 
close to me, he said, "I done the best I could, 
but I haven't any better ones." I knew to 
what he referred, and as I drew him closely 
to nu.', looked down at the neatly tied and 
blackened .dioes, I assured him that now they 
were plenty good enough. From this time I 
had very little trouble with him, and he 
passed with honor to the next higher grade. 
What the trouble was I do not know, but he 
scon left, and I lost sight of him for almost a 
year. ( )ne day the door was suddenly pulled 
open, and the little freckle face of Frank ap- 
peared. Before I could reach the door he 
called out, "Good morning, Miss Williams," 
and dashed out of the hall. I never saw him 
again, but since that time I have tried to 
study more earnestly each child, and to gain 
obedience through love rather than by force. 

M. T. L. 



It may be well to remember the dangers of vo- 
cational training at this time when the subject is 
receiving so much attention. The ability to per- 
form certain kinds of labor which may be used 
as a means of gaining a livelihood later on is cer- 
tainly a desirable possession, but this training 
must not be secured at the expense of the mental 
and heart culture necessary to the development 
of a good citizen. The natural result of kinder- 
garten culture is to so develop the child that 
vocational training follows easily and naturally, 
but kindergarten culture develops the child so- 
cially, mentally and spiritually as well, and un- 
der no circumstances should vocational training 
K e substituted for the culture of the kindergar- 
ten. 



Good the more communicated, the more 
abundant stows. : — Milton. 



There's a dance of leaves in that aspen bower, 
There's a titter of wind in that beechen tree, 
There's a smile on the fruit and a smile on the 

flower, 
And a laugh from the brook that runs to the sea, 



. A man should never be ashamed to own he has 
been in the wrong, which is but saying in other 
words, that he is wiser today than he was yester- 
day. — Pope. 



True courage scorns 
To vent her prowess in a storm of words, 
And to the valiant action speaks alone. — Smollett. 



68 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 
T 




PICTURE STUDY 
PILGRIM EXILET— Boughton. 

This picture is one of four Pilgrim pic- 
tures which have given George H. Bough- 
ton a reputation in America as the paint- 
er of American Puritanisim. 

Although Mr. Boughton is English born, 
he came to this country in early childhood 
where he was reared. Soon after reach- 
ing manhood he made a sketching trip 
through England and an exhibition of his 
paintings was first made in New York. 

His Puritan pictures are the best known 
of all his paintings in America, but a 
legendary picture entitled "Love Conquers 
all Things" is very popular in Europe. 
His pictures are American in style and we 
claim him as an American. 

The style of his Pilgrim scenes is shown 
in the picture illustrated on page 60. 

It is thought Mr. Boughton's best figure 
painting is shown in his representations of 
women, revealing gentleness and patience. 

The longing for the old home in Eng- 
land is plainly revealed in the faces and 
attitude of the man and the woman who 
is seated. But the central figure reveals 
a desire to comfort and encourage her 
companion, notwithstanding her yearnings 
for the land of their birth. 

The rocky land and vegetation are 
characteristic of a New England shore. 
The surf is seen rolling into the beach. 

Tell the Pilgrim story and let the child- 
ren tell — 

Who are in the picture. 

Who the Pilgrims were. 

Where they are. 

Notice the dress — cloaks, caps, shoes, 
and collars— of these people: Would you. 
think them poor, or just lonely? 



Squirrels — Landseer. 

(The characteristics of the squirrel are 
well shown in his claw-tipped feet, sharp 
ears, bushy tail. His manner of life in the 
tree and his peculiar upright position also are 
pictured.) 

The picture shows the home of two squir- 
rels. Their home is in the hollow in the 
tree with its rough bark. They feel happy 
and safe in this home. Would you? No, it 
is a squirrel's home. 

On a branch perches a bird, singing" as if 
Ins little throat could not pour forth melody 
fast enough. 

The squirrels are nibbling carrots, and lis- 
tening to their happy neighbor, their bright 
eyes fixed upon him. 

This is a fine lesson to follow one in nature 
study of either a bird or a squirrel. 

How many are in the picture? 

What are they? 

Where are they? 

What is each squirrel doing? 

Do they love each other? 

Where is the home of each one? 

[Sir Edwin Landseer was the most popular 
animal painter of his period — and that not 
only in England, his native land. His animal 
pictures are perhaps the best-known of 
modern times. 

He came of a family of artists. Pie was 
gentle and courteous, and lovable in disposi- 
tion, a welcome guest in society. 

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were 
not only his patrons but also his personal 
friends. More than thirty of his paintings 
are the property of the King of England. 
Pictures painted by their favorite artist were 
gifts frequently exchanged between the 
Queen and the Prince. 

Landseer loved animals and painted them 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



69 



with joy in his heart. The stag and the dog- 
were his favorite subjects, and the only 
adverse criticism to be made of his work is 
that he exaggerated their admirable qualities, 
making them too nearly human in feeling and 
intelligence. 

Landseer's use of the brush was amazing, 
sometimes a single drag of it gave the effect 
better than could be achieved by a painstak- 
ing imitation of each single hair. 

Other pictures of Landseer's are : 

The Challenge. 

Monarch of the Glen. 

The Stag at Bay. 

Suspense. 

The Highland Shepherd's Chief Mourner. 

Dignity and Impudence. 



KINDERGARTEN DAILY PROGRAM 

NORAH KEOGH 
DECEMBER. 

FIRST WEEK. 

Circle — Monday — Thanksgiving experiences 
are told. Another holiday coming. Santa 
Claus and his presents. How he looks. 
Rhythms — Chosen. 

Table 1st — Beginning Xmas present for 
mama. 

Suggestions — Candle-sticks of clay jap- 
a-lac. 

Calendars — Poinsettas cut from wall- 
paper and mounted ; panel picture of tree 
mounted with calendar below. 
Napkin ring — of raffia. 
Baskets ; pin-trays. 
Table 2nd — Making Papa's present. 

Suggestions — Shaving pad with cover of 
conventional holly design tied with raffia; 
same idea for laundry list; shaving-ball; 
calendar <>r blotter of blue with camels 
and star poster effect ; match-scratch of 
sandpaper; chimney with Santa's head 
painted above. 
Games — Those already played. Nothing 
new learned in these except with Santa 
Claus games. 

Circle — Monday — More about Santa Claus. 

This is the children's own circle time. 

Their interest and perfect freedom, now 

will bring about the ideal circle time. 
Rhythm — Teaching and playing of Jack Frost 

from Hubbard. 
Table 1st — Continue mama's present. 
Table 2nd — Continue papa's present. 



Wednesday — Circle — As before. Santa loves 

us so gives us things. So does papa. Tell 

of what papa gives us. 
Table 1st — Mama's present. 
Table 2nd — Papa's present. 
Thursday — Circle — Santa Claus, papa and 

mama. AVhat mama gives us and does 

tor us every day. 
Rhythm — Same. 
Table 1st — Mama's present. 
Table 2nd — Papa's present. 
Thursday — Circle — Santa Claus, papa and 

mama. What mama gives us and does 

for us every day. 
Rhythm — Imitative — What we want for 

Christmas. Other children imitate and 

guess while one child tells by motion. 
Table 1st — Finish papa's present. 
Table 2nd — Card-board modeling of little 

red sled with raffia rope. 
Friday — Circle — How we can be a Santa 

Claus to those we love. 
Rhythm — Week's review. 
Tahle 1st — Free cutting of horn, drum, doll. 
Table 2nd — Cutting and mounting of silver 

bells for decorative purposes. 
Games— As chosen. 
Finger Rhyme — Clap, clap the hands, from 

Emilie Pulson's finger rhymes. 

SECOND WEEK. 

Circle — Monday — Once upon a time, there 
was no Christmas at all. No one ever 
heard of such a day. Telling of the first 
Christmas day. 

Rhythm — Those learned as a general review 
for Xmas exercises. Some taken up each 
da}' and drilled upon for perfection in uni- 
form motion. 

Table 1st — Begin scrap-books to be sent to 
sick children. Each table makes but one. 
Group work. 

Table 2nd — Santa Claus poster. Black 
mount with hill of white chalk. Santa 
and his reindeer of free cutting. 

Games — Santa Claus's games — dramatiza- 
tion. 

Song — The First Christmas, from Tenks & 
Walker. 
Tuesday — Circle — Review yesterday's circle 
talk. A little baby was born that grew 
to be a good boy and a kind man. Every- 
one noticed His goodness and tried to do 
as He did. This boy's name was Jesus. 
Show pictures of Madonna. 

Table 1st — Finish mama's present. 



70 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Table 2nd — Work on scrap-books. 
Wednesday — Circle — Jesus' life as a boy. The 
many ways in which He helped His 
father in his carpenter work. His kind- 
ness to His mother. 

Table 1st — Work on scrap-book. 

Table 2nd — Free drawing of Xmas tree 
with green crayon. 
Thursday — Circle — As Jesus grew to be a 
man, He loved to help people, to teach 
them kindness. Story of Christ in the 
Temple and picture shown. The love of 
His disciples. 

Table 1st — Work on scrap-book. 

Table 2nd— Building church with 5th gift. 
Friday — Circle — People still hear and read of 
Jesus. We love Him so much that we 
celebrate His birthday each year and call 
it Christmas. He loves us and so is 
pleased that we show our love for one 
another on His day. 

Table 1st — Work on scrap-book. 

Table 2nd — Free representation of anything 
done or talked of during week. 



THIRD WEEK. 

Circle — Storv of Gretchen and the 



-Making 



nit chains for tree dec- 



Making lanterns from weaving 



Monday 

Wooden Shoe. 

Table 1st— 
orations. 

Table 2nd- 

mats for decorations. 
Tuesday — Circle — Re-telling of story. Begin 
telling story of " Twas the Night Before 
Christmas." Learn song, "Christmas 
Greeting," from C. B. Hubbard's Merry 
Songs and Games. 

Table 1st — Cutting stars and crescents for 
tree. 

Table 2nd — Making silver chains. 
Wednesday — Circle — " 'Twas the Night Be- 
fore Christmas." 

Table 1st — W^ork on scrap-book. 

Table 2nd — Making straw and parquetry 
chains. 
Thursday — Circle — Story of the lovely little 
fir tree. 

Table 1st — Finish scrap-book. 

Table 2nd — 'Making crescents of silver pa- 
per. < 
Friday — Circle — Repeat and review stories. 

Tables 1st and 2nd given to unfinished work. 

FOURTH WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Last week's Christmas stor- 
ies retold. 



Rhythms reviewed. 

Table 1st and 2nd — String cranberries and 
pop-corn. 

Games — Santa Claus games. 
Tuesday — Circle — Free Christmas talks. 
Rhythm — Same. 

Table 1st and 2nd — All unfinished work. 
Children divided in groups according to 
work. 
Games — Same. 
Wednesday — This day is used as needed. 
Every period to further the pleasure and 
thought of tomorrow when we invite our 
parents to come to see us. 
Thursday — The Christmas program. 



As summer ends and vacations, whether 
long or short, give place to the regular work 
of life, it must not be thought that the good 
of rest has stopped, and that we must wait 
another year for its renewal. Added to the 
pleasure of recreation, to change of scene and 
habit and invigoration oLbody, there is a ben- 
efit of a deeper kind. It is a poor vacation 
which does not set in permanent motion what 
we may call the spirit of vacation, and show 
that that is the normal spirit of all the experi- 
ence of the year. Mere reaction is question- 
able ; but to get a new tone, a steadier hold 
on self, to establish the norm of life, not as 
endurance, fidelity, industry, or ambition only, 
but, in and above them all, as joy, is the secret 
of the summer. 

— Christian Register. 



I would that I could utter 

My feelings without shame; 
And tell him how I love him. 

Nor wrong my virgin fame. 

Alas! to seize the moment 

When heart inclines to heart, 
And press a suit with passion, 

Is not a woman's part. 

If man comes not to gather 

The roses where they stand, 
They fade among the foliage; 

They cannot seek his hand. 

Stay, rivulet, nor haste to leave 

The lovely vale that lies around thee. 
Why wouldst thou he a sea at eve, 
When but a fount the morning found thee? 

— William Cullen Bryant 
There is not in nature 
A thing that makes a"man so deform'd, so beastly, 
As doth intemperate anger. 

—Webster's Duchess of Malp. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



7i 




STORIES, GAMES, PLAYS 

RECITATIONS, MEMORY GEMS, ETC. 



THE EVERYDAY ADVENTURES OF 
ALBERT AND ANNABEL. 

LELLA A. REEVE. 

I. 

ALBERT AND ANNABEL CO SLEDDING. 

"Albert, Annabel," called a cheery man's 
voice from| the next room, "Who saw the 
snow fairies this morning?" 

It was a bright January morning and the 
two children were lying half awake in their 
little beds, but when they heard their papa's 
voice, they scrambled to the window. 

Everything was white with snow. The 
ground was white, the trees were white, the 
fences and roofs of the houses were white, 
all shining and sparkling in the morning sun, 
but not a fairy to be seen ! 

The children were happy and excited, and 
longed to run out and plunge into the beau- 
tiful snow at once ; so as soon as breakfast 
was over, their mamma helped Albert get his 
head through a red sweater, and buttoned a 
little furry coat around Annabel. Then they 
put on their caps and mittens, and Albert 
buttoned Annabel's overshoes. 

They dragged their sleds across the snow- 
covered lawn, over a brook, and up the long 
hill that looked so tempting from the nursery 
window. 

"Here's a good place to start," called Al- 
bert, who had gone ahead. "I'll go first, An- 
nabel, you're so little." "I'se so little," re- 
peated Annabel. 

Albert sat down and put out his feet on 
each side and away he flew. He went down 
twice and pulled his sled up again before his 
little sister decided to start. 

"Anbel going now," she said. 

"All right," said Albert, "put your feet out 
each side." 

"You didn't needed to told me dat," said 
Annabel ; "I knewed it already." 

Albert pushed her sled ever so little and 
she started down hill ; but when she had gone 
only a few feet, her foot struck a stump, the 
sled whirled around and she nearly fell off. 

Albert ran to help her and found her hold- 



ing on with both hands. "Good for you to 
stick on, Sister," he said. "I digged my 
heels into the snow," replied Annabel. 

After many brave little pushes, she put her 
sled in the path again, and went straight 
down the hill, saying to herself, "Dere, dat's 
de way." 

After that, she was not afraid and took h&r 
turn with Albert until they had both slid 
down many times. 

The sun was getting high and warm and 
had melted the snow from the, trees when 
Albert came up the hill one time and found 
Annabel with her thumb in her mouth and 
her tired eyes almost closing. He knew 
then that she was sleepy and he put his arm 
around her and told her that Albert would 
take care of her. So they trudged down the 
hill and home together, dragging their sleds 
behind them. 

II. 

ANNABEL MEETS WITH AN ACCIDENT. 

A few days later, as the children were 
playing by the brook, Annabel stumbled and 
struck her mouth on the railing of the little 
bridge. It must have hurt her badly, for 
tears were dropping from her eyes when she 
looked up to Albert, but being always a 
brave child, she said nothing; not then, but 
when they had gone a little farther, an idea 
came to Annabel that made her suddenly cry 
and sob. 

Albert was greatly troubled to hear her and 
asked anxiously, "What's the matter, Sister?" 

"O, I dullened my teef," cried Annabel. 

"What?" 

"I dullened my teef so I can't chew," 
sobbed the frightened little girl. 

Albert thought it would be dreadful to be 
unable to chew one's food, but he knew if 
there was any help his mother could give it, 
so he only said, "Let's run home and tell 
mamma." 

She saw them coming and opened the door. 
"Muvver, I've dullened my teef so I can J t 
chew," wailed Annabel, as she ran to her 
mother's arms. 

Mamma looked, gravely into the little 






72 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



mouth. "The best thing to do," she said, "is 
to try your teeth on some food at once, and 
if you can eat it, then they are all right. 

"Sarah," said Mrs. Blake, "please bring the 
children some biscuits and warm milk." 
Sarah was the children's colored nurse and 
they loved her gentle black face in its white 
frilled cap. 

Annabel ate her luncheon easily and soon 
forgot all about her teeth. When the chil- 
dren had finished eating, Sarah took Annabel 
in her arms and carried her upstairs. The 
little girl was fast asleep when they reached 
her bed. 

Sarah took off her shoes and made her com- 
fortable, then she drew, down the window 
shades and went softly out of the room. It 
was not quite time for Albert to begin his 
lessons, but Sarah began to look for him, 
muttering to herself, "I speck dat big boy of 
mine done go out doah agin." 

Finally she reached the front windows and, 
looking out, saw Albert by the front gate, 
making a snow man to show to his papa 
when he came home to dinner. 

Sarah opened the door and called, "Honey, 
you done hab to come in in a quahtah ob an 
houah." "All right," replied the little boy, 
"I'll be there." ■ 

Then Sarah went contentedly about her 
work, knowing that the children were safe 
and happy. 

III. 

PUSSY-WILLOWS. 

"Papa, won't you take us for pussy-wil- 
lows?" asked Albert one mild morning in 
late February. 

"I wants puss-willows, too, Daddy," said 
Annabel. 

"You do," said their father, looking lovingly 
down at his children, "then I suppose you'll 
have to have them." 

Their wraps were soon on, and Annabel, 
riding on her papa's shoulder, through the 
long hall to the front door. It was Wash- 
ington's birthday, so Mr. Blake was to be 
at home all day, and he liked nothing better 
than being out of doors with the children. 

They walked the length of the street, then 
crossed the fields where the brook ran like a 
blue ribbon through the brown grass ; then 
they turned into a country road and presently 
came to a yellow clay bank, out of which 
great bunches of pussy-willow were growing 
with little silver blossoms showing, some red, 



and some green and yellow underneath, and 
looking very brilliant in the morning sun- 
shine. 

The children wished to get as many as pos- 
sible to send to their Aunt Annie, who spent 
much time helping the children of the poor. 
She had once written their mamma of how 
these children longed for flowers, but rarely 
saw them. 

Mrs. Blake's kind heart was touched and 
shortly after she received the letter, she had 
gone to the poorest part of Boston, taking 
with her a large basket of yellow daffodils. 

In the streets, ragged and dirty children 
came crowding around her and one little girl 
asked, "Be dey real flowers?" "Don't youse 
be smart," said another one ; "of course dey 
ain't — anyone knows dey's paper." 

Mrs. Blake had described this visit to Al- 
bert and Annabel. Albert was old enough 
to remember the incident, and it was he who 
had suggested sending pussy-willows to these 
unfortunate little ones. 

Papa and Albert cut until their arms were 
filled with great bunches, and when they 
could carry no more, they all started for 
home. 

On reaching their own house, a big figure 
came running down the steps to meet them. 
When they saw it was their Cousin Ben, 
they rushed at him with happy little shouts, 
crying, "Hurrah for Harvard !" 

"That's the stuff," said Ben, as hugged 
the children and admired their pussy-willows. 
IV. 
cousin ben's visit. 

They were soon in the house, and eating 
a fine dinner. As they sat at the table, Ben 
turned to Albert saying, "Well, young man, 
I thought you were going to move to Bos- 
ton." 

"No sirs" said Albert, "you know I like 
Fairdale better than anyzvhere." 

"But Boston is much larger," urged Ben, 
"it has more houses and more people." 

Then spoke up little Annabel, thinking of 
their morning out of doors, "Fadale has more 
sky." Ben laughed so hard at this that An- 
nabel looked grieved and Ben hastened to 
tell her she was "all right." "An'bel all lite." 
responded the little girl. 

About two o'clock, the pussy willows were 
shipped to Boston, and when the evening mail 
came in at six, Annabel asked if she and Al- 
bert had a letter. She knew that when flow- 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



7i 



ers came to their house, mamma wrote a note 
to someone, and why should not the poor 
children write to her and Albert.. She wished 
a letter so much and was so disappointed at 
not getting- one that the next morning Cousin 
Ben offered to take her to the postoffice. He 
staid at the door while Annabel went up to 
the window where it said, "General Delivery." 

Her nose hardly came to the bottom of the 
window, but she lifted up her sweet little 
voice and said, "Box Twenty-four." In reply, 
some letters came slipping out toward her, 
and one of them, Ben said, was for her. He 
told her to take it home for mama to read to 
her. 

The letter was not about pussy-willows, 
but something far more exciting. It said, 
"Mrs. Benjamin Woodruff desires the honor 
of Miss Blake's company on Saturday after- 
noon, to see an exhibition of lions at the Fair- 
dale theatre." 

"What do it mean?" asked Annabel of her 
mama. 

"It means that you are to go with Benny 
this afternoon to see some lions," said mama. 

"What doze lines?" asked Annabel. In re- 
ply, Albert brought some books and showed 
Annabel pictures of the King of Beasts. 

One picture showed a lion standing on a 
table-land alone in the desert. The little girl 
looked at it for a long time, and then said, 
"An'bel not 'fraid to see line in desert. An'- 
bel jump on tra car and come right home." 
Then she asked with the sweetest of little 
smiles, "May we ride on tra car to see lines, 
Benny?" 

"Sure," said Ben, "We'll go on the trolley." 

Albert went too, and they had a beautiful 
time with their good big cousin from college. 

A few days later came a letter from Aunt 
Annie, full of gratitude for the flowers which, 
she said, were giving pleasure to many unfor- 
tunate people whom she had told of the loving 
little children in the country who had thought 
of them. 

V. 

SNOW PICTURES. 

"Voila ! Albert," said his mother one March 
morning as she looked up from her sewing. 
Albert looked too, and saw the snow whirling 
down outside. 

"Oui, ma chere maman," he replied. "Gee, 
I'm glad it's snowing again," and shouting, 
"Hurrah for Harvard !" he ran for his cap and 
out the front door. 



Annabel had looked up with a dark little 
face at the French words which she did not 
understand. "I don't n't care," she said re- 
sentfully. "I can say it just as it is. I 
doesn't have to say it in Ja-manny." 

"Never mind, baby girl," said mama. "I 
have a letter from Uncle George which says 
he and Cousin Lucy are coming this after- 
noon for a two-day's visit. Lucy speaks your 
language." 

"What doze gwage?" asked Annabel. 

"Little girl talks, like yours," said mama. 

"I fink I like Lucy," said Annabel. Their 
guests came at three o'clock and Annabel's 
eyes grew large as she saw a little girl with 
long yellow curls falling over a blue velvet 
coat, being carried up the walk, through the 
snow in her father's arms. 

The children wished to take their pretty 
visitor out of doors at once to show her to 
their playmates, but it was still snowing hard 
and mother said, "Wait until the storm is 
over." 

The next morning being clear and pleasant, 
the children lost no time in getting out of 
doors. They had been frolicking for an hour 
in the snow, when Mrs. Blake came out with 
some sticks. She gave these to the children 
and told them to each make a picture in the 
snow. 

"O good," cried Albert, "I'll make an en- 
gine," and he began to draw lines and circles 
in the snow. 

"What shall you draw, Lucy?" asked her 
aunt. 

After a minute's thought, Lucy replied. 
" 'Golinf of Goff' and a kitty." 

"Fse going to draw angel," said Annabel. 

"F'hat is angel?" asked Lucy. 

"Angel fly like doze," said Annabel as she 
struggled with her stick in the effort to draw- 
some wings. 

"Does dey bite?" queried Lucy. 

"Does dey, muvver?" asked Annabel. 

"No, dear," said Mrs. Blake as she hurried 
into the house that the children might not 
see her laughing. Soon she came out again 
and sat a long time in the sunshine while the 
children worked busily at their drawing. 
VI. 

MOTHER TAKES A NAP UNDER DIFFICULTIES. 

After luncheon, Annabel began to ask as 
many other children often do, "Mama, what 
can me do?" Albert had gone to Boston with 
papa and Uncle George. Sarah had gone 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



away for the day, and mama wished to lie 
down for a nap. She told the little girls, 
however, to stay in her hed-room where they 
could play quietly with each other, but not 
to talk to her. 

Mrs. Blake soon fell asleep. After awhile,- 
the little girls grew tired of their dollies and 
began to wander about the room. 

On mama's dressing-table were some fas- 
cinating things — little bottles and jars and 
boxes. Annabel had often put out a little 
finger and daintily touched them, but she had 
never taken them away from their places. 

Lucy was younger and had not been so 
carefully taught. She took a little cut-glass 
jar of cold cream in her hands and lifted the 
cover. It looked very white inside. She 
stuck in a finger. It was soft and smooth. 

"Fhat drot in dere?'' she asked. 

"Va lene," said Annabel, meaning vaseline. 

"Va lene," repeated Lucy, "F'hat for?" 

"For mama," said Annabel, "on face and 
hands." 

"Oh," said Lucy. She went softly up to 
the bed and began to smear the Avhite cream 
over her auntie's face and hands. 

Mama was so soundly asleep that the soft 
little touches did not disturb her. Soon the 
jar was empty. What should they do next? 
On the table was a little box, round and high. 
It had purple violets on it and around the 
cover the odor was delicious. 

There were tiny holes in the top and one 
could shake fine white powder out of them. 

Annabel stood smelling the box, when Lucy 
grabbed it in her little hands and started for 
the bed. She shook powder into all of the 
places where they had rubbed the cold cream. 
While Lucy was busy at this, Mrs. Blake 
came slowly out of her sleep, to find herself 
oily and powdery and to see four bright, big 
eyes staring at her from beside the bed. 

Mama looked first at one little girl, then at 
the other, as she realized what had happened. 
Lucy's face was untroubled, but Annabel 
showed signs of distress. 

Lucy held up the empty jar to her auntie 
and said joyously, "Va'lene, Aunt Fi, va'lene." 

Aunt Fi smiled into the little faces and said 
nothing, but Annabel's heart was heavy, nev- 
ertheless. 

The next day, Lucy and Uncle George went 
home, and after they had left Annabel climbed 
to her mama's knee and putting both arms 
around her neck sobbed cway her remorse. 



VII. 



HOW SPRING COMES. 



One Sunday morning in April, the sun 
came shining across the breakfast table in a 
long, golden bar. It made little Annabel 
think of something for she suddenly asked, 
"Papa, how do spring come?" and Mr. Blake 
replied, "With green grass, and singing birds 
and running brooks." Then he added, "If 
the sun still shines this afternoon, I'll show 
you." 

About eleven o'clock, the rain poured down, 
but 'twas only a shower and the afternoon 
was bright and clear. 

Papa took the children through the front 
gate and down the long, paved street. Little 
new leaves were out and looked quite green 
on some of the trees, but they saw no other 
signs of spring until Albert suddenly stopped 
and peered under a hedge. Then Annabel 
looked also. It was a pretty sight. On the 
other side of the hedge, a bank covered with 
tiny flowers ; pretty white violets on short 
stems with a few green leaves around them. 

In the woods, everything looked brown. 
The ground under the tall trees was covered 
with wet, dead leaves, and the sky was show- 
ing above through bare branches. 

Mr. Blake saw little flowers among the 
dead leaves, but said nothing waiting for the 
children to find them. 

"Look dere," exclaimed Annabel as she 
spied a white dot. Soon she saw a purple 
one, then many more ; pink and white and 
purple and lavender ones in among the dead 
leaves. "They are called hepatica," said papa. 
After the children had picked fine bunches of 
the lovely blossoms, their father said, "This 
is the way spring comes to the woods. Shall 
we go home another way, and see how it 
comes to the brooks?" 

"O, yes, daddy," they replied with enthusi- 
asm, for they loved running water. 

They walked on through the woods, scramb- 
ling over a rocky hillside and out into the 
open ground. There were hills all around, 
and at the foot of the hills was a tumbling 
brook. 

"F'are do it go, papa?" asked Annabel. 

"We'll follow it and see," was his reply. 

They were going down a slope and the wa- 
ter leaped and roared. "That's a lot of wa- 
ter," said Albert, and Annabel replied, "It 
don't am so big as our brook." Papa smiled. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



75 



He let the children run along the banks, and 
over the little bridges. 

The brook gleamed on under the blue sky 
out into a level meadow and then flowed 
quietly along for some distance, until by a 
dip in the road, it jumped down several feet, 
and went tumbling on again, cutting its way 
in. big curves through a lower meadow. 

After they had been following it for some 
distance, the children were surprised to see 
their own house near at hand. "Dat my 
house," said Annabel in surprise. "You bet 
it is \" said Albert, smiling at his father as he 
realized 'twas their own brook they had been 
following. 

Mr. Blake kept looking toward the house, 
and soon they all saw mama coming out to 
meet them. "Spring is beautiful," said papa, 
softly. 

Something stirred in the grass near as he 
spoke, and shouting, "O there's a meadow- 
lark!" he ran to watch the bird. 

Annabel trotted off to her mother holding 
up her little full hands and saying, "Little 
patca for mma." 

VIII. 

THE RAINY DAY. 

Albert was standing by the dining-room 
window with a dark little face. He had 
heard mama say, "This is the first of our cold 
May rains." "Rainy days are no good," he 
said. Annabel went to the window and 
looked out, too. 

The rain was pouring down and rushing off 
in streams each side of the street. Tiny riv- 
ers ran down the window panes. 

"Me don't can't play in de yard today," 
wailed Annabel. "What shall me do mov- 
ver?" Mama looked into the dismal little 
faces and smiled. "Suppose me play Sun and 
Clouds. You be Clouds and I'll be Sun and 
chase you away?" so the children scampered 
across the room and they were all laughing 
and making a great noise, when papa came 
to the door. 

"What's this! What's this!" he exclaimed, 
pretending to look severe. He caught up An- 
nabel and set her on his shoulder. "The 
Princess Giggle on her throne," he said. Then 
he carried her several times around the room 
and gave her a "topsy-turvey" to the floor. 
Now run to the nursery, princess," he said, 
"and learn how to make scrap-books." 

They ran off laughing, and mama soon fol- 
lowed, bringing advertising pictures from 



magazines, and scissors for each child, telling 
them to cut out pictures of things they knew 
about. 

They found houses, book-cases, stoves, 
chairs, spoons, brushes, a bath-room, a piano, 
a bag with 'a camera, dollies, bicycles, and a 
woman, who Annabel said, was a "nice mama." 

They worked so busily cutting out and post- 
ing in their scrap-books, that when Sarah 
brought their luncheon, they thought it was 
too early ; but when Annabel saw hot but- 
tered toast and cocoa, she cried, "Hurrah for 
Harvard!" and found she had a good appetite 
after all. 

After they had finished eating, Sarah took 
up Annabel, saying: "Now my deah HI' lamb 
gwine to bye land." 

So Annabel was taken for her nap, but Al- 
bert begged to go out of doors. "Yes," said 
their wise mama, "put on all of your rubber 
things and you may go." 

Albert rushed to the closet for his wraps, 
and soon came out dressed in rubber coat, 
boots and a small sou'wester. He couldn't 
even wait to shut the door, but plunged out 
to "Our Brook," shouting with joy. 

The water was high and rushing. All 
along the bank were bits of sticks and boards. 
They'll make dandy boats," said Albert. He 
played with them a long time, steering them 
through the whirlpools and beyond the rocks 
until finally they went sailing off, out of his 
reach, toward the sea. 

He was working to get one through some 
rapids, when a big voice said, "Hello, my 
son !" 

"Hello, daddy," replied Albert. 

"You find navigation difficult," said papa. 
These were big words but Albert knew it was 
a joke of some kind, so he said, "O papa, 
you're so jokious." 

Papa watched his little boy for some time. 
Finally he said, "Do you ever eat, Admiral?" 
Then a big arm went around the little shoul- 
ders, and father and son went into the house 
together. 

IX. 

THE SEASHORE. 

Early in July, the Blake family went to the 
seashore. 

The journey there lasted all day and seemed 
long to the children, though often a glimpse 
of a river or a boat or of strange wild flowers, 
as the train rushed along would divert them 
for a moment. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



They were obliged to wait several hours in 
Boston in a big station where people went 
upstairs to' the dining-room and ate at little 
tables. 

Then they sat on long wooden seats in an 
enormous waiting-room and watched people 
hurrying to and from the trains. Everything 
seemed very big and tiresome, but at last 
'twas their train-time, and they started for 
Battle Bay. 

On reaching the hotel in the evening, the 
children were so tired that they went to bed 
at once. 

In the morning they were early awake and 
looking out of the window as usual. "How 
strange it looks, so wide and big !" said Al- 
bert. "Down dere's de water; up dere's de 
sky," said Annabel thinking they looked 
much alike. 

After breakfast, their parents took the chil- 
dren to explore. A path with wild roses 
growing high on either side led to the beach. 
They walked through it smelling the sweet 
blossoms which were many of them above 
Annabel's head. 

When they came out on the smooth, hard 
beach, they found it full of wonders ; sea 
weeds and star-fishes and shining yellow 
shells. While Annabel was gathering her 
hands full of these shining treasures, Albert 
called to her to come and see a star-fish wig- 
gle. She ran to him and they both looked on 
in great delight to see the queer creature 
slowly curl up one arm. 

"He would grow a new arm, if one of his 
came off," said Mr. Blake. 

It was an exciting morning and seemed 
hardly to have begun when Sarah came to 
call the children to prepare for a bath. 

"Had baft" dis morning," said Annabel. 

"But you'se gwine in de big watah, dis 
time," said Sarah. 

'"Too big baft tub," grumbled the little 
girl, but she took Sarah's hand and went with 
her obediently. 

The children liked their bathing-suits, but 
going into the big water was quite another 
thing. 

Albert walked in bravely though his heart 
beat fast. Papa came and took his hand. 
"Get under water, son," he said. "I'll hold 
on to you. Get wet all over the first thing." 

Albert obeyed the kind voice, but when he 
put his head under water, out it came again. 



He shook it hard, and tasted salt water. Af- 
ter trying a few times, however, he liked it 
better and begged to stay in longer each 
time. 

Annabel was not so brave. Whenever any- 
one tried to lead her into the water, she 
lifted up her little voice and cried, "No-o-o," 
and the first time she saw her papa jump 
off the float and go out of sight under water, 
she screamed in terror. When his head ap- 
peared again, his curly hair was hanging 
straight over his head and face, and she hardly 
knew him. This did not please the little girl 
either, and she cried again, "No-o-o." 

Each day some one of the family would 
try to lead Annabel into the water, but she 
always screamed and ran back. One day 
when the other children who were at the 
beach, were all in bathing, she sat playing in 
the sand. She was so interested, that she did 
not notice the water which came up over her 
feet and slowly, slowly over her little fat 
legs. Then suddenly she saw it -and jumped 
up and ran ; but all at once she realized that 
she was met by the big water and it did not 
hurt. 

(To be continued.) 



ABOUT BOBBIE AND SALLY AND 
WINIFRED. 

BY GARRETT WILLIAMS. 

Bobbie had a sister named Sally. Her re- 
ally, truly name was Sarah. She was named 
after her Aunt Sarah Matilda Periwig Hop- 
kins Stevens Delancy Smith. 

Papa and Mamma had told Aunt Sarah that 
the baby should be named after her, but when 
Aunt Sarah came and saw what a teeny, tiny 
baby it was, she said: "That baby's too small 
for my long name. We'll just call her Sarah." 
So Sarah she was named, and Sally she was 
called, because Sally sounds shorter, though it 
has just as many letters in it as Sarah. If you 
don't understand this ask your Mamma about 
it. 

Sally was two years older than Bobbie, so 
that when Bobbie was five years old and went 
to kindergarten, Sally was seven years old and 
had been going" to school for two years. 

One day Sally came home from school alone, 
and when Mamma asked where Bobbie was, 
Sally said he ran down the street after a kitten 
and wouldn't come back when she called him. 

"Oh he will get lost," said Mamma, and she 
began to cry so hard that the tears splashed 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



77 



all over her face, and down the front of her 
dress, and onto the floor. "O run back and 
find him quick, Sally ; he may get run over, 
something dreadful might happen to him. Oh 
dear! oh dear! oh dear!'' Mamma kept cry- 
ing so loud and so hard that Sally ran back 
as fast as she could to find Bobbie. 

She found Bobbie coming home carrying a 
dear, little, tiger-striped kitten in his arms. 
He said a lady gave it to him for his very own, 
and he wasn't lost, and he knew the way home. 

Sally and Bobbie ran home together as fast 
as they could to tell Mamma about it, and ask 
her if they could keep the kitten. Mamma said 
they could, but first she kissed Bobbie about 
twenty times. She was so glad to see him 
alive and well, and to know that nothing dread- 
ful had happened to him. 

Bobbie named the kitten Winifred after a 
little girl who lived next door. Papa bought 
a leather collar for it, with a name-plate with 
the name Winifred, and 36 Main Street on it. 
"Now," he said, "if Kitty runs away and gets 
lost she will be brought back to Bobbie again." 
Mamma gave Bobbie a red rubber ball, with a 
string fastened to it, for Kitty to play with. 
When Bobbie or Sally held the string and ran, 
Winifred ran after the ball which rolled along 
the floor. 

Oh, what a good time they had ! They 
played with her all the afternoon until Win- 
ifred was tired and wouldn't play any more. 
Then Bobbie held a saucer while Sally poured 
milk into it for her supper. Mamma gave 
them an old black shawl, and they made a soft 
bed for her near the fire where she would be 
warm and comfortable. After that Bobbie 
and Sally had their supper and went to bed 
too. 

( hie day Winifred went to kindergarten with 
Bobbie, but that doesn't come in this story. I 
will tell you about that some other lime. 



big dog. Then she bristled and spit, and 
scratched Mamma's hand. Bobbie said all the 



hairs in the fur 



icr outside got fat. Mamma 



WINIFRED AT KINDERGARTEN. 

1!V GARRETT WILLIAMS. 

( )ne morning Bobbie put Winifred's collar 
on, and Mamma went with him to kindergarten 
and carried her. Miss Grant, his teacher, had 
told Kim the day before that he could bring 
her, so that all the children could see a kitty 
close to. You remember Bobbie named his 
kitty, Winifred, after the little girl who lived 
in the next house. 

Winifred lay quite still in Mamma's arms 
and didn't try to get away, until they. passed a 



held tight onto her, and she did not get away, 
and pretty soon they came to the school. 

Mamma went in with Bobbie and stayed 
while Miss Grant showed kitty to the children, 
and talked to them about her. Miss Grant let 
each little boy and little girl hold her in their 
arms and smooth her fur. AVinifred purred 
and seemed to like to be held very much. 

After each of the children had held her, 
Winifred jumped to the floor and went 
sniffing and smelling about. She smelt of 
the legs of the chairs and the tables, and she 
smelt of the floor, and along the side of the 
wall. Miss Grant told them she was learn- 
ing to know the room that way, just as they 
had learned to know the kitten by holding 
it in their arms. 

While Miss Grant was talking Winifred 
jumped on a chair. From the chair she 
jumped to a table and then, before Mamma 
or Miss Grant could stop her, she sprang to 
the window-sill, and was out the window and 
down the street in a flash. 

Bobbie's mamma and Miss Grant rushed 
to the door, but kitty was way down the 
street, nearly out of sight. Mamma ran after 
her as fast as she could go. Inside the 
school-roo'm Miss Grant could hear the chil- 
dren all talking at once, and making a great 
noise, so she hurried back again. 

Bobbie cried very hard, for he thought he 
would never see his dear little Winifred 
again. He cried all the morning till eleven 
o'clock came, and Sally came from another 
room to take him home. His mamma would 
not let him go home alone, yet, for fear some- 
thing dreadful might happen to him. 

As soon as Bobbie told Sally that Wini- 
fred was lost, Sally said "we will find her," 
and taking hold of hands they ran toward 
home as fast as they could. At the corner 
they met Mamma coming to meet them. \n 
her arms was, what do you think? Little 
Winifred Kitty, safe and purring. 

Wasn't Bobbie and Sally glad ! Bobbie 
stopped crying and when he reached home, 
and had had his dinner and had given kitty 
her dinner of bread and milk, he played ball 
with her all the afternoon. Each time he ran 
past Mamma with his string and ball, which 
kitty was chasing, he said, "O Mamma dear, 
I'm so glad AVinifred isn't lost." 




WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT 
"The Father of American Poetry." 

(See page 81) 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



79 



Thanksgiving Song. 

Tune: "Old Hundred." 
For flowers so beautiful and sweet, 
For friends and clothes and food to eat, 
For precious hours, for work and play, 
We thank Thee this Thanksgiving- Day. 
For father's care and mother's love. 
For the blue sky and clouds above, 
For spring-time and the autumn gay, 
We thank Thee this Thanksgiving Day! 
For all Thy gifts so good and fair, 
Bestowed so freely everywhere, 
(live us grateful hearts we pray, 
To thank Thee this ThanksgivingDay. 

— Mattie M. Renwick t in Child Garden. 

God Bless Our Fatherland, 

O. W. HOLMES. 

God bless our fatherland, 
Keep her in heart and hand 

One with our own; 
From all her foes defend, 
By her brave people's friend; 
On all her realms descend; 

Protect her throne. 

Father, in loving care 

Guard Thou her kingdom's heir, 

Guide all her ways; 
Thine arm his shelter be 
From harm by land and sea; 
Bid storm and danger flee; 

Prolong his days. 

Lord, bid war's trumpet cease; 
Fold the whole earth in peace 

Under Thy wings, 
Make all Thy nations one, 
All hearts beneath Thy sun. 
Till Thou shalt reign alone, 

Great King of kings. 

A Thanksgiving Letter to Grandma. 

"Dear Dranma. I finked I would rite you a letter 

To tell you how Hove you — a bushel or more; 
Mamma hopes that now your sore foot is all better; 

And we'll come to Thanskgiving as we did before. 
"Please make us some pies and some pudding and jelly 

A turkey with stuffing and onions, and then 
Please don't you forget that I like stuffing smelly 

Of sage, From your 'fectionate Charlie, Amen." 

And grandma, dear soul, as she pores o'er the letter, 
With a smile on her lips and such mist in her eyes, 

That she wipes off her glasses to see through them 
better, 
Plans out a whole shelf full of puddings and pies. 

Of tarts and of cookies, of custard and jelly, 

A good battalion of gingerbread men; 
At last, but not least, fat turkey cooked "smelly" 

Of sage, for the youngster who wrote her "Amen." 

— Good, Housekeeping. 



A Thanksgiving Recipe. 

It takes one little girl or boy, 
Two hands to work and play, 

And just one loving little heart 
To make Thanksgiving Day. 

THANK YOU DAY. 

The "Thank you Day" again is here, 
Upon this day in every year 

The thankful people, large and small, 
Praise God, the Father, all in all. 



FAREWELL SUMMER. 
(The Wild Aster.) 
Cecil Cavendish in October St. Nicholas. 
In the meadows near the mill, 
By the wayside, on the hill; 
In the fields that wander down 
aO the edges of the town, 
And beside the farm house door, 
"Farewell summer" blooms once more. 

Little asters blue and white, 
Many as the stars at night. 
Summer's flowers have blown away; 
Now you come to make us gay. 
When the fields are growing brown, 
And the leaves come fluttering down. 

How I love to gather you, 

Purple flowers, and white and blue, 

On the cloudy afternoons, 

When the wind makes pleasant tunes 

In the orchard grasses dry, 

Where the ripened apples lie. 

Dear to me are days of spring, 
Ann the summer makes me sing ; 
Winter has its times of cheer, 
But the best days of the year 
Come when, close beside our door, 
"Farewell summer" blooms once more. 



PARENTAL THOUGHTFULNESS. 

(Eunice Ward in October St. Nicholas.) 
My big doll is called Hildegarde; 
The little one is Marjorie; 
±ne paper dolls are Evelyn, 

Bettii.a ,nd Elaine. 
a he rag doll is named Claribel; 
The baby I call Gwendolen. 
I've different taste from my mamma — 

She named me Susan Jane. 



"Had I Thought" died in the poor house. — Ger- 
man. 



Better a mistake avoided than two corrected. 



'Tis not how much but how well we read. 



8o 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



ETHICAL CULTURE 



Why They "Were Thankful 

an ethical entertainment 

Characters 

Rosebud, a tot with a rag doll. 

Prince Charley, a boy with a drum. 

Pansy, a girl with a new dress. 

Duke, a boy with a kite and marbles. 

Pink, a very little tot. 

Mamma. 

Papa. 

(Children come running in as if turned loose to play.) 

Rosebud. To-day is "Givin' fanks" day. and I'm 
"fankful" cause I've got Jeremiah. 

Prince Charley. Oh, you silly little Rosebud, 1 wouldn't 
give a cent for that old rag doll; it can't make a bit of 
noise. I'm thankful for my beautiful great big drum. 
Just listen to it. 

Pansy. I'm thankful for my lovely new silk dress 
(shaking her curls) . I am going to wear it to church 
next Sunday. I'll look real pretty, too. 

Prince Charley. You vain little minx! (pinching the 
ear nearest to him). Dress, dress, dress, that is all 
you think about. 

(Pansy gives Charley a comical look.) 

Duke. Well, I'm thankful because my kite flies the 
highest. I'm first in my lessons, too, and I beat all 
the boys playing marbles. Do you want to see my ag- 
ates? They are the finest in town; that is what I am 
thankful foi. 

(Rattles marbles.) 

Prince Charley. Why, Pink hasn't told us what she is 
thankful for. You must say something, Pink, or you 
can't have any turkey or mince pie for dinner. 

(Pink hangs her head and acts embarrassed.) 

Duke. Yes. of course, let's hear what Pink has to 
say. 

Pansy. Pink doesn't like dresses very much. 

Rosebud. Nor Jeremiahs. ((Jiving her dolly another 
hug. 

Prince Charley. Nor drums. (Laughing.) 

Duke. Nor marbles, nor kites, nor being first; now, 
what can you be thankful for, anyway? 

Pink. (Shyly and softly.) I'm thankful for papa and 
mamma, because they are such a dear good papa and 
mamma 

[A moment of silence.] 

Prince Charley. Why (letting his drum sticks fall), 
papa gave me this drum on my birthday, 

Duke. And mamma made my beautiful kite. 

Pansy. And my silk dress. 

Rosebud. And my Jeremiah, too. 

Prince Charley. I wonder what mamma is thankful 
for? 

Duke. Suppose we go and ask? 

Pansy, Pink and Rosebud. All right. 

(They make a rush towards the door. Enter Mamma.) 



Duke. Oh, mamma, to-day is Thanksgiving; what are 
you thankful for? We all want to know. 

Mamma.- (Looking from one to another, smiling.) 
Can't you guess? 

Pink. (Takes one of Mamma's hands.) I think 
mamma is thankful because she's got me. 

Pansy. And me (running over to take the other hand) . 

Rosebud. And me, too (nestling in her lap). 

Duke and Prince Charley. (Crowding close up.) And 
me, and me. 

(Enter Papa.) 

Papa. And me (puts arms about all). Now, what do 
all these "me's" mean? 

Pink. Why, we were all telling what we were thankful 
for, and we were guessing that mamma was thankful 
because she had us. 

Duke. But, papa, whom must we thank because we 
have you and mamma, and you and mamma have all of 
us? 

Papa. (Soberly.) Can't you guess? 

Pink. (After a slight pause.) You mean God, papa? 

Papa. Yes. Praise God from whom a!! blessings 
flow? 

Curtain. 



MEMORY GEMS. 

Life is what we make it. 

As you sow you shall reap. 

Nothing certain but uncertainty. 

it is better to be sure than sorry. 

Present neglect makes future regret. 

"Don't Care" has no house. — Negro. 

Every why hath a wherefore. — Dutch. 

Better twice measured than once wrong. 

When in doubt what to do — don't do it. 

The way to be safe is never to feel secure. 

Llope for the best; get ready for the worst. 

Catch no more fish than you can salt clown. 

We find in life exactly what we put in it. — Em- 
erson. 

The better part of valor .is discretion. — Shakes- 
peare. 

A bird in the net is worth a hundred Hying. — 
Hebrew. 

A thousand probabilities do not make one truth. 
— Italian. 

True happiness consists in making happy. — 
Hindoo. 

When angry, count ten before you speak; if very 
angry, a hundred, — Jefferson. 

Next to being a great poet is the power of un- 
derstanding one. — Longfellow. . 

The books which help you most are those which 
make you think most. — Theodore Parker. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



8 1 



William Cullen Bryant 

Has been called "The Father of American 
Poetry." Most of his best known poems relate 
to Autumn and he has also been called the "Poetof 
Autumn." He was born inCummingham, Mass., 
November 3rd, 1794, and began his education in 
a country school when he was four years old. He 
spent two years at Williams College, then stud- 
ied law, and afterward moved to New York, 
where he began work as an author. 

Following are two of his complete poems and 
extracts from others: 

From "Thanatopsis" 

To him who hi the love of nature holds 
Communion with her visible forms, she speaks 
A various language; for his gayer hours 
She has a voice of gladness, and a smile 
And eloquence of beauty, and she glides 
Into his darker musings, with a mild 
And healing sympathy, that steals away 
Their sharpness, ere he is aware. ;: " 

So live, that when thy summons comes to join 
The innumerable caravan, that moves 
To that mysterious realm, where each shall take 
His chamber in the silent halls of death, 
Thou go not, like the quarry-slave at night, 
Scourged to his dungeon, but, sustained and 

soothed 
By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave. 
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams. 



To the Fring-ed Gentian 

Thou blossom bright with autumn dew, 
And colored with the heaven's own blue. 
That opened when the quiet light. 
Succeeds the keen and frosty night. 

Thou comest not when violets lean 

O'er wandering brooks and spring unseen, 

Or columbines, in purple dressed, 

Nod o'er the ground-bird's hidden nest. 

Thou waitest late and com'st alone, 
When woods are bare and birds have flown, 
And frosts and shortening days portend 
The aged year is near his end. 

Then doth thy sweet and quiet eye 
Look through its fringes to the sky. 
Blue-blue— as if that sky let fall 
A Hower from its cerulean wall. 

I would that thus, when 1 shall sec 
The hour of death draw near to me, 
Hope, blossoming within my heart, 
May look to heaven as I depart. 



The Wind and Stream 
A brook came stealing from the ground; 

You scarcely saw its silvery gleam 
Among the herbs that hung around 

The borders of that winding stream, 
The pretty stream, the placid stream. 
The softly-gliding, bashful stream. 
A breeze came wandering from the sky, 

Light as the whispers of a dream; 
He put the o'erhanging grasses by, 

And softly stooped to kiss the stream, 
The pretty stream, the flattered stream. 
The shy, yet unreluctant stream . 
'flic water, as the wind passed o'er. 

Shot upward many a dancing beam, 
Dimpled and quivered more and more. 

And tripped along a livlier stream. 
The flattered stream, the simpering stream. 
The fond, delighted, silly stream. 
Away the airy wanderer flew 

To where the fields with blossoms teem. 
To sparkling springs and rivers blue, 

And left alone that little stream. 
The flattered stream, the cheated stream. 
The sad, forsaken, lonely stream. 
That careless wind came never back ; 

He wanders yet the fields, I deem. 
But; on its melancholy track, 

Complaining went that little stream. 
The cheated stream, the hopeless stream. 
The ever-murmuring, mourning stream. 

From "O, Mother of a Mig-hty Race 

What cordial welcomes greet the guest 

By thy lone rivers of the West; 
How faith is kept, and truth revered, 

And man is loved, and God is feared. 
In woodland homes, 
And where the ocean border foams. 
There's freedom at thy gates and rest 

For Earth's down-trodden and oppressed, 
A shelter for the hunted head, 

For the starved laborer toil and bread. 
Bower at thy bounds, 
Stops and calls back his baffled hounds. 



All things that are on earth shaltwholly pass away 
Except the love of Cod, which shall live and last for 
aye. 



From "Autumn Woods" 

lire, in the northern gale, 
The summer tresses of the frees arc gone, 
The woods of Autumn, all around our vale 

Have put their glory on. 

Oh, Autumn! why so soon 
Depart the hues that make thy forests glad; 
Thy gentle wind and thy fair sunny noon. 

And leave thee wild and sad! 

Ah! 'twere a lot too blessed 
Forever in thy colored shades to stray; 
Amid the kisses of the soft southwest. 

To rove and dream for aye; 

And leave the vain low strife 
'that, makes men mad— the tug for wealth and power. 
The passions and the cares that wither life, 

And waste its little hour. 



82 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



KINDERGARTEN GROWTH 

[NOTE: — Under this heading we shall give from time to 
time such items as come to our notice relative to the estab- 
lishment of new kindergartens as well as articles or state- 
ments in the public press or from noted educators favor- 
able to the kindergarten cause,] 

Good Words for the Kindergarten 

Speaking of the 850 kindergartens in New York City, 
The Times has this to say: 

•'Two years of training for these children at their pres- 
ent age is more to be desired, from the standpoint of 
the public need, than the four years' course in the high 
schools for those who can enter them. The late Mr. 
Richard Watson Gilder used to say: " Plant a free kin- 
dergarten in any quarter of the overcrowding metropo- 
lis, and you have begun then and there the work of 
making better lives, better homes, better citizens, and 
a better city." 

We agree with these high opinions, The best way to give 
the tree symmetry is to begin at the twig. Froebel says: 
'"The child learns as many new thingsiduring the first 
five years of his life as lie does all the other years put 
together." It is of the highest importance that this 
knowledge shall be of a hopeful, elevating and fruitful 
character. Two years in the kindergarten is of more 
value than four years in the high school, as The Times 
contends, is an opinion that Froebel supports and there 
is no greater authority than Froebel. — Golumbus, Oliio, 
State Journal. 



Hammond, La.- 

Kindergarten here. 



-Miss Josie Smollen has opened a 



We have only one little daughter, a child of four, and 
she is often so lonely we are considering sending her to 
a kindergarten. Some of my friends, however, do not 
believe in kindergarten training. Would you send her 
to one now, or wait until she is older and then let her 
go to a regular school? T. M. X. 

In the case of your little girl I would advise sending 
her to the kindergarten as soon as possible. It will 
teach her to associate happily with other children and 
do much to prevent selfishness, besides keeping her 
employed part of the day. — Ladies Home Journal. 



Galesburg, III. — The Evening Mail says: "The Free 
Kindergarten Association and the visiting Nurse Asso- 
ciation are two efficient and indispensable institutions. 
Each has its established program and its admirable re- 
cord. Each deserves the whole-souled support of our 
citizens, who, for the most part, have shown their ap- 
preciation of these societies by generous contributions 
— none too generous — to their work. Their efforts are 
intelligently directed, and their service is far-reaching. 
The work of the Free Kindergarten has become fami- 
liar through years of successful operation. Its imme- 
diate needs are called to our attention in the Even- 
ing Mail of last Tuesday, in an appeal which will no 
doubt receive the response it deserves.— Evening Mail. 



Newark, Ohio. — Misses Mary Louise Wales and 
Mabel Jones have opened a private Kindergarten here. 

Nashville, Tenn. — Mrs. H. B. Porter will open a 
private Kindergarten in West Nashville. 

Medford, Mass. — Sara E. Graham has opened a 
private Kindergarten in the Randall Block. 

Somerville.— Etta E. Traftorn opened a private kin- 
dergarten at 160 Willow Ave . , Oct. 1st . 



Cannon City,; Colo. — Mrs. 0. A. 
lately moved to Kansas City, Mo. 



Birkhardt lias 



Webster Grove. — Miss Edna Flint has opened a 
Kindergarten here. 



Lee, Mass.— Miss Clara Phelps has resumed her 
kindergarten work at Milton. 

Gt. Barring-ton, Mass. — Miss Margaret Tanner has 
taken upddndergarten work at Oberlin, Ohio. 

Hingham, Mass. — The Free Kindergarten received 
a substantial benefit by a sale of ladies' fancy work Sept. 
29th. 

Franklin.— A Kindergartner is wanted here to take 
charge of the private kindergarten which has heretofore 
been conducted by Miss Rice. 

Rockland, Mass. — Grace E. Smith, a graduate of a 
Boston Training School, has opened a private Kinder- 
garten on Park Street. 

Revere, Mass. — Miss Marjorie E. Barton, a gradu- 
ate of the Lucy Wheelock training school has opened a 
Kindergarten here. 

Portland, Ore. — Mrs. E. L. Clark read an excellent 
paper Oct. 23, on ''The Kindergarten — its Possibilities" 
before the civic improvement club. 

Medford, Mass. — Miss Sara E. Graham has re-op- 
ened her Kindergarten in the Randall block and is 
meeting with success. 

Chester, Pa. — The Misses Sprogell are meeting with 
success in their new Kindergarten on Front and Jack- 
son street,s--the first Kindergarten in the borough. 

Jamaica Plains, Mass. — The new Kindergarten 
opened in the Geo. Putnam District, Egleston square, 
is meeting with success. Miss Nellie Morse is in charge. 

Everett, Wash. — Miss Robinson of the Western Illi- 
nois State Normal School and Miss Mercer of Philadel- 
phia, have opened a private Kindergarten at 3413 Colby 
avenue. 

Knoxville, Tenn.— At the Mothers' Congress held at 
the Appalachian Exposition Mrs. G. H. Robertson of 
Jackson, President of the Congress, came out strongly 
in favor of the free kindergarten system in public 
schools. 

Auburn, N. Y. — Two new Kindergartens have been 
opened in connection with the public school system. 
The Kindergartners are: Miss Charlotte E. Crossman, of 
Owascoroad, as kindergarten assistant at an annual sal- 
ary of $500 and Miss Ernestine Neumeister as assistant 
at an annual salary of ?400. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



»3 



NEWS NOTES 

Lowell, Mass. — The Moody School Kindergarten 
has been transferred to the High street school. 

Wilmington, Del. ---The Kindergarten at the West 
End Reading Room is in charge of Miss Jennie M- 
Weaver. 

Denver. Colo. — The Wolcott School Kindergarten 
opened September nineteenth in charge of Miss Grace 
Laird. 

Portsmouth, N. H. — Miss Margaret Garrett has re- 
signed as pianist at the Cabot street Kindergarten, and 
Miss Jesse Woods has taken her place. 

Silvermine, Conn. — Miss Mary Lockwood of this 
place is attending the Bridgeport Training School for 
Kindergaitners. 

Wilming-ton, Del. — Miss Neva C. Smith has secured 
a position as instructor in Miss Hart's Kindergarten 
Training School, Philadelphia. 

Manchester, N. H. --Grace Moore of this city is tak- 
ing a course in kindergarten training at a Boston Kin- 
dergarten Training School. 

South Bend, Ind. — The Kindergarten Training 
school here has a line attendance. A dormitory has 
been established in connection on West Wayne street. 

Grand Rapids. — Miss Florence Finlay of Escanaba, 
Mich., who is a student in the Grand Rapids kindergar- 
ten training school here, was nearly asphyxiated in her 
room by accidentally turning on a gas jet. 

Macon, Ga. — Miss Estelle Newman and Miss Pattie 
Mae Brannon are in charge of the South Macon Inde- 
pendent Free Kindergarten. Its headquarters are lo- 
cated corner of Williams and Second streets. 

Oklahoma City, Okla. — The City schools have an 
enrollment of 10.000 pupils. Supt. Brandenberg says: 
"Children who are within four months of being four 
years of age are eligible to attend the kindergarten." 

South Bend, Ind. — A kindergarten for very young 
children has been opened in South Bend under the aus- 
pices of the Kindergarten Training School, and Miss 
Greta Benedict of Ossining. New York, has charge of 
it. 

Dallas, Texas. — The cornerstone of the new kinder- 
garten home of the Dallas Free Kindergarten Associa- 
tion was laid September 30th. The new building is be- 
ing erected at the corner of Hanvood and Cedar Springs 
Road, near the site of the old Neighborhood House. 

McKeesport, Pa. — The McKeesport Kindergarten 
Association have opened the afternoon session of Kin- 
dergarten school in the South Park District in the 
McCleary building, corner Evans and Versailles avenues. 
The school is in charge of Miss Bertha Angle and Miss 
Margery Fowler. 

Cincinnati, Ohio — At the first weekly meeting of 
the Cincinnati Kindergarten Training School, Miss 
Annie Laws gave a delightful talk relative to the Froe- 
bel Pilgrimage to Europe. Miss Lillian Stone and Mrs. 



Annie Gilchrist also gave addresses and an afternoon 
tea was served. 

Lafayette, Ind. — Four Kindergartens under the 
Free Kindergarten and Industrial School Association 
will soon open. The work of the past year was very 
successful under the superintendency of Mrs. Jessie E. 
Matlock, who will again have charge of the schools this 
year. 

Baltimore, Md. — A novel enterprise in the educa- 
tional line has been started by Misses Belle M. Lauph- 
eimer and Florence Nusbaum in the way of an open-air 
kindergarten. The young ladies are graduates of the 
Affordby School. Their new kindergarten will be lo- 
cated at 2429 Madison avenue. 

Miami, Fla. — The new school building in which the 
new Kindergarten is to be located has' advanced toward 
completion sufficiently to enable the Kindergarten to 
open. Miss Nellie MacNulty, of Glencarlyn, Ya.,u 
graduate of the Washington training school for teach- 
ers, will have charge of the kindergarten. 

Galveston, Texas. — The JohannaRunge Free Kin- 
dergarten now occupies a new building with modern 
conveniences. This kindergarten was established IS 
years ago by Mrs. Johanna Runge when the cotton 
mills were in operation. The new building which is on 
the north-western corner of Forty-second street and 
Avenue H, is 32 feet b/ 54 feet. The cost of the build- 
ing is approximately $ L800. 

Anniston, Ala. — The Anniston Free Kindergarten 
Association, trying to improve conditions amoug the 
factory children of Anniston, benefited very hand- 
somely by the mock baseball game which was played be- 
tween the Fats and Leans of Anniston Tuesday after- 
noon. The kindergarten has just begun its scholastic 
year's work with a good attendance 

New Orleans, La. — Two new Kindergartens have 
been opened this year as it was found that there was 
not enough public kindergartens to accommodate the 
children of this city, so the tw : ojust decided upon, one 
at the Walter C. Flower School, Miss Eddie Bentley, 
principal, and the other located at McDonogh, No. 15, 
Miss Theresa Gordon, principal, are expected to prove 
welcome additions. 

Baltimore, Md. — For the present time, it has been 
decided the Highlandtown kindergarten will remain in 
the old quarters, at Rescue Hall. 4L2 Third street, High- 
landtown. and will not move into School No. 2, on Pratt 
street, as had been planned. Already 175 children have 
reported. There are fourteachers-Miss Sarah E. Now- 
ell, Miss Mary A. Forrester, Miss Helen O'Rourke and 
Miss Alice Reinhart. 

Pittsburg-, Pa. — The opening of two kindergartens 
was reported by the monthly meeting of the Pittsburg 
and Alleghany Free Kindergarten Association. One is 
in the Hancock School, and the enrollment is so large 
there are nearly enough children to fdl another kinder- 
garten. The second is in the Ella street public school 
and is a gift made by Louis Aaron as a present to his 
wife on her 70th birthday anniversary. 



84 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Cincinnati O. — At the annual election of officers of 
the Kindergarten Association the following officers 
were elected: President, Miss Annie Laws; vice-presi- 
dents, Miss Fannie Field, Mrs. Charles Fleischmann, 
Mrs. John M. Withrow, Mrs. P, H. Hartman, Miss 
Eugenie Werk, Mrs. William Kennon Dnnhani; record- 
ing secretary, Mrs. Austin Goodman; corresponding 
secretary, Mrs. ,). R.Holmes; treasurer, Mrs. Charles 
H. Kellogg. 

Harrisburg, Pa. — The kindergarten opened Septem- 
ber IS, with a good enrollment of little dark-eyed Ital- 
ian boys and girls and their brothers and sisters, many 
of whom have just arrived here with their parents from 
Hungary? Miss Helen Kirk of Philadelphia, a gradu- 
ate of the Washington training school for deaconesses, 
will continue to have charge of the work this season. 
Miss Mary Mardorf, of Berwick, Pa., also a graduate of 
the Washington school, will be superintendent. 

Memphis, Tenn. — The Jewish Free Kindergarten of 
the Educational Alliance, of which Mrs. Henry Oppen- 
heimer is chairman, opened Oct. 6. The kindergarten 
will be under the direction of Mrs. John M. Gray, who 
has had charge for the past two years. In connection 
with the kindergarten, Mrs. Gray will give a two years' 
course in kindergarten training to all young ladies who 
express a desire to take up the work. There are eighty- 
live children enrolled and fifty waiting to enter. 

Nashville, Tenn. —The kindergarten of the state 
fair grounds was the means Friday of returning three 
little children to their anxious mothers. The little ones 
strayed from their mothers' sides and became lost in 
the crowds that surrounded the grandstand. Finding 
themselves alone in the crush, they began to cry and 
when found by the teachers of the kindergarten they 
could hardly tell their names. The mothers were found 
by announcements from the judges' stand. 

Scranton, Pa, —The Kindergarten at iS T o. 18 school^ 
which the school board decided to open at the last 
meeting, will begin as soon as the employes of the board 
can get the building in shape. This will take two or 
three weeks, as new seats and desks will have to be put 
in. Since the announcement was made that a kinder- 
garten would lie opened applications have been made 
by nearly fifty parents within the Second and Fourth 
Districts of the Fourth ward for places for their little 
ones. 

Harrisburg-, Pa. — The Methodist Deaconess Home 
conducted a successful Kindergarten last year and is 
introducing several new branches this year. One of 
the new branches will be a meeting for mothers at the 
home several days of each week; the mothers will be 
instructed in the care of the family and household. 
Another new class will be a sewing class for older girls, 
and clubs for boys will be formed. Under them all lies 
the work of the Sunday school, which is one of the 
strong points of the Home. 

Dallas, Texas. — The training school here has a 
large enrollment. A new building is being erected for 
the Nerth Dallas District. The East Dallas Kindergar- 
ten will be conducted by Miss Mary Bissett, in the reg- 



ular quarters on Dawson street. The North Dallas Kin- 
dergarten will be conducted by Miss Ella Ewing, in the 
parish house of the Church of the Incarnation. The 
South Dallas Kindergarten will be in charge of Miss 
Kittie Belle Blair and the day nursery in the care of 
Miss Anna Dobbs. 

Washing-ton, D. C. — The kindergarten which has 
been established in connection with the Tacoma School 
occupies the newly completed parish hall of the Trini- 
ity Episcopal Church. The hall is one of, the largest 
suburban structures of its kind in the district. A pro- 
test is being made against overcrowding the schools in 
that suburb. It is stated that because of the congested 
conditions many of the children are being forced to sit 
on steps and in aisles, while attending classes. 

Hamilton, Ohio. — The Free Kindergarten conducted 
under the auspices of the Federated Clubs is held every 
morning except Saturday, closing at 11:30 o'clock. A 
hall at Grand Boulevard and East Avenue, commodious 
and airy, has been very kindly offered for the use of the 
kindergarten, by William Koetker, the owner. Miss 
Marion Fitton and Miss Lillian Dickinson have charge 
over the children, who number about fifty. The two 
girls who are teaching the children have become well- 
acquainted with conditions in the neighborhood of the 
kindergarten and feel very strongly the need of such an 
institution. 

Galesburg, III. — Here is a chance to help a worthy 
cause. Galesburg's Free Kindergarten Association, one 
of the best charitable institutions in Galesburg and 
Knox county, is under quarantine because of three 
cases of diphtheria there. Those in charge of the insti- 
tution are working hard with the little ones to prevent 
further spread of the disease and the announcement 
comes that they are in need, not only of funds but of 
clothing and things to eat as w r ell. Charity begins at 
home and we have no doubt that Galesburg's philan- 
thropic public will rally to the aid of this institution — a 
worthy home cause. — Galesburg Mail. 

Bailey Island, Me.— A most interesting meeting was 
held here during Mrs. Alice Putnam's stay at her sum- 
mer home to discuss the new Montessori Kindergarten 
method which has been introduced in Rome, Italy. 
Miss Mott of the Felix Adler School, New York, gave 
an interesting account of it. Many of the poor child- 
ren, not only in Pome but in the surrounding country, 
were getting the benefit of this new and very suggestive 
method wdiich gives greater freedom and where child- 
ren are taught many practical things which they ought 
to know in the play spirit. A second meeting on this 
subject took place at the home of Mrs. Cullen Carter of 
Montclair, N. J., who spends her summers here. 

Hilton, N. J.— Hilton was like a deserted village last 
night. Kearly all its adult population were in South 
Orange urging the Board of Education to hasten the 
construction of a new school and to restore to Hilton 
the kindergarten which was abandoned this year. The 
children are now conveyed by stage to Maplewood. The 
Hiltonites did not leave until they had been assured 
that something tangible in the way of a school site was 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



85 



in view and thai the Board of Education members 
would do all they could to restore the kindergarten. 
The Maplewood stage arrangement for Hilton children 
will, however, lie continued for the present. 

Wakefield, R. I.— The Stepping Stone Kindergarten 
this year will be conducted as a free kindergarten, and 
the small weekly fee heretofore charged for tuition will 
not he asked. The kindergarten was founded in 1891 
by the late Mrs. Rawland Hazard. Since her death in 
1895 it has been carried on by her eldest daughter. The 
house is owned by R. G. Hazard, who gives it rent free 
to his sister for this work. 

Miss Anna Schliepstein has been the able and de- 
voted teacher from the first, and was installed by Mrs. 
Hazard herself. During these twenty years, live hun- 
dred and seventy children have been instructed in the 
kindergarten. Since 1904 each year there have been 
graduates from the High School who began their edu- 
cation in the Stepping Stone Kindergarten. 

Louisville, Ky. — The meetings of the Kindergarten 
Alumnae Club have been attended by many enthusi- 
astic Kindergartners. The year's program has been 
definitely mapped out. Active work will be confined to 
four main branches, to be managed by four committees. 
The work to be done by these committees is varied, but 
will consist chiefly of story and game hours for the 
children of the Industrial school, the Home of the In- 
nocents, the Detention Home, and all of the social set- 
tlements throughout the city. At the October meeting 
groups of children from these homes 'and settlements 
were taken to the park by the members of the club and 
given a play carnival Those which follow have not- 
been entirely arranged for, but it is understood that 
speakers will be asked to address the club on subjects 
relating to education and philanthropy. 

Brooklyn, IN. Y. — The new Elementary School build- 
ing on the Eastern Park Way, will accommodate 2,300 
children. It will contain two kindergartens. The Wil- 
liamsburg school will accommodate 1400 pupils. The 
Queen's school building will accommodate 1974 pupils. 
Three other big elementary schools are well under way, 
all of them contracted to be finished before January I. 
These three extra buildings will seat (i,000 children, and 
are to cost $725,000 altogether. The three combined 
will have 125 classrooms. One of these is to be at Lott 
and. Hopkinson avenue, just on the edge of East New 
York; another at Throop avenue and Whipple street, in 
the Eastern District, and the third at Ridgewood, Lin- 
coln and Nichols avenues, close to Woodhaven and 
Highland Park. Besides these the Bushwick High 
School is contracted to be ready a year and a half from 
now, and sketches have been submitted for the Bay 
Ridge High School, which will stand at Fourth avenue 
and Forty-seventh street. 

Murray, Utah.— The Woman's club of Murray some 
time ago began agitating the kindergarten question and 
communicated with the Murray school board on the 
subject, with the result that the board in an open let- 
ter, promised to install a kindergarten in the Hillcrest 
school provided enough children were enrolled to justi- 
fy the outlay. The Hillcrest school is situated more than 



half a mile south of the center of Murray proper, 
though nearly in the geographical center of the town, 
which embraces several square miles of country district. 
It is most inconveniently located and has been a sub- 
ject of hitter strife to the parents who live in the north- 
ern limits of Murray and whose children are in some 
instances compelled to walk over two miles to school; 
and most certainly is inaccessible except by street car 
for more than one or two children of kindergarten age. 
In Murray proper there are from 50 to 75 children of 
kindergarten age whose parents are anxious that, they 
shall have kindergarten training. The kindergarten law 
says most plainly that all towns of 2.000 Or more popu- 
lation must maintain one or more kindergartens, and 
this law went into effect in 1907. Murray has an official 
population of 5,000. and is a city of the second class. 

New York. — In the effort being made to reorganize 
the public school kindergartens in a manner contrary 
to the best interests of the youngest pupils is presented 
a striking evidence of the needfor a change in the Board 
of Education. No consideration whatever has been 
given the young children whom the change would so 
vitally affect. Under the plea of economy and of ex- 
acting extra labors from teachers, members of tin- 
board are asked to make a change which would ell'ecl- 
ually cripple the entire kindergarten system. Already 
the policy, of doubtful legality, is being followed of as- 
signing regularly licensed Kindergarten teachers to sub- 
stitute in actualyacancies. The next step is to be an 
attempt to force a majority of the members ol'tli 1 ' 
board to agree to a modification of the by-laws', which 
would, increase the register of classes, double the labors 
of the teachers, and overturn the present efficient organ- 
ization. The proposition to crowd into one room fifty 
children under six years of age, and to require the same 
kindergarten teacher to serve two sessions with two 
different classes or a total of 100 different children, is 
regarded by educators qualified to speak as most detri- 
mental to the children, and as too great a strain upon 
the teacher. The failure to appoint kindergarten teach- 
ers to actual vacancies can hardly be justified. —X. )'. 
Globe. 

Los Ang-eles, Cal. — All public Kindergartens are 
greatly crowded this year, owing to the removal of the 
vaccination law. Four afternoon kindergartens have 
been opened, at Main Street, McKinley Avenue, Twen- 
ty-eighth Street and Trinity Street schools. Miss Led- 
yard is again at her post supervising' the work, having 
fully recovered from her illness of the summer. Super- 
intendent Francis believes that the new rule of the 
school department, requiring that kindergarten teach- 
ers, who wish to receive the maximum rate of salary, 
must do afternoon work, helping the regular teachers in 
the lower grades, will result in much good both to the 
kindergarten and to the lower grades, and help to bridge 
the gulf between the kindergarten and first grade. So 
successful has been the open air school at West Vernon 
avenue that others are to be opened at Xormandie ave- 
nue and Sixty-sixth street schools, and bungalows are 
being built for this purpose. The one at Normandie 
avenue will be ready in about two weeks. The building 
is open on two sides. C. A. Faithfull, head of the ar. 



86 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



chitectural department, Polytechnic High School, has 
worked out a plan for folding- walls, which may he 
placed in position in inclement weather. At West Ver- 
non avenue, the principal. Miss Josephine Bont, reports 
that the restlessness which characterized the class hefore 
its outdoor exodus has entirely disappeared, though 
the class was an ungraded one, and naturally more rest- 
less than the regular classes. The school will lie kept 
open all winter, though a room is provided to which 
the class may retire if necessary. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. — The officers and hoard of 
directors of the Free Kindergarten state that the year 
has started in a very satisfactory manner. Already 
there is an average attendance of twenty-five and the 
day nursery in connection is also filling a long-felt want 
in the community. Mothers are very glad to take ad- 
vantage of the place to leave their little ones while they 
go out to work for the day. 

The Kindergarten Circle of the Alurnni Association 
of the Brooklyn Training School for Teachers has elect- 
ed its officers for the year 1911-12. They are Miss Ag- 
nes I. Priscoll of Public School No. 128, president; Miss 
Edna C. Luscomb of Public School No. 83, secretary; 
and Miss Marguerite Crespi of Public School No. 46, 
treasurer. At the meeting on Monday there was pres- 
ent, besides fifty members of the Circle, Miss Ruth E. 
Tappan, head of the kindergarten department of the 
Training School. The Circle has planned to study kin- 
dergarten program this year and excellent reports 
of the first two weeks in their own kindergartens were 
presented by members of the Circle. Those who made 
the reports were Miss Henrietta Hearsey of Public 
School No. 41, Miss Maud E. Tanner of Public School 
No. 20, Miss Mary M. Stitt of Public School No. 64, 
Miss Ida F. Duncan of Public School No. 146, and Miss 
Alice K. Young of Public School No, 82. Most of the 
members present at the meeting made application to 
join the class in kindergarten games to be conducted 
by Miss Ella I. Cass of the New York Kindergarten 
Association. It is expected that the lessons will be giv- 
en in the gymnasium of the Brooklyn Training School 
for Teachers, beginning in October. 

St. Louis, Mo. The Department of Superintendence 
of the National Education Association will hold its next 
meeting here, February 27, 28, 29, 1912; the National 
Council of Education and the Department of Normal 
Schools will meet with the Department of Superintend- 
ence, holding separate meetings. 

The headquarters hotel will be the Planters Hotel and 
the general sessions will be held in the Odeon Theatre. 



Be ye angry and sin not; let not the sun 
down upon your wrath. — Eph. iv., 2(5. 



CHARACTER. 



Character is what we are in the dark. 

One's character will never rise higher than his 
aims. 

A character's like a kettle, once mended always 
wants mending. 



BOOK NOTES 

Dick Among- the Seminoles. By A. W. Dimock, 
author of "Dick in the Everglades," "Dick Among the 
Lumber Jacks," etc. With 16 full-page half-tones 
from photographs by J. A. Dimock. Cloth, 5 1-8x7 3- 1 
ins., 324 pps., $1.50, published by Frederick A. Stokes 
Company, New York. 

Dick and Ned again visit Florida, for even more stir- 
ring adventures than in "Dick in the Everglades." They 
race a secret service detective to save a mysterious out- 
law hidden among snake-filled swamps. The manly 
comrades defy a moonshiner, negro renegades, water 
moccasins, treacherous rivers and other dangers and 
have exciting hunts. Old Indian friends reappear in 
this dashing story. The 16 full-page photographs by 
J. A. Dimock are from actual Florida scenes. 

Animal Secrets Told. A book of "Whys." By Har- 
ry Chase Brearley. Cloth, 5 1-8x7 t-4 ins. 274 pps., §>L, 50. 
Published by Frederick A, Stokes Company, New York. 

Unlike Sherlock Holmes, many people look at the 
world about them, hut do not see or understand. This 
book aims to direct the natural curiosity about ani- 
mals, by going beyond the mere shape of various eyes, 
ears, noses, tails, etc., and telling why they happened 
to be as they are. The reasons for the slits in cats' eyes, 
for the large ears of elephants, for the shape of the 
horse's mouth, for the squirrel's bushy tail, etc., make 
fascinating reading. The book takes up in succession 
the eyes, noses, ears, mouths, tongues, teeth, bills, feet, 
tails, covering and protection of many living creatures. 
Twelve full-page illustrations from photographs and 
many drawings in the text help much in the explana- 
tions. 

The Runaway Equator. By Lillian Bell, illustra- 
tions by Peter Newell. Cloth, 6x8^ ins., 118 pps., 
price $1.25. Published by Frederick A. Stokes Com- 
pany, New York. 

In a story full of exciting adventure and as amusing 
as the Peter Newell illustrations, Miss Bell tells how Billy 
helped Nimbus, the fairy, search for Mr, Equator, who 
had slipped off the Earth and gone rampaging through 
space. It was a serious matter, for the seasons were 
upset, and all of Mr. Jack Frost's best glaciers were 
being melted. On this varied breathless chase Billy 
learned many Geography things that delighted him 
hugely. 

Go to Sleep. A new idea; stories in which ~the 
sound of words lulls the child to sleep; by Stella George 
Stern Perry. Illustrated, with frontispiece by S. D. 
Runyon. Cloth, 40 large pages, 7x9, $1.00. . Published 
by Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York. 

A series of very short, simple tales for "reading child- 
ren asleep." Instead of the disturbing excitement of 
angry giants and adventurous boys, to make the little 
one more wakeful, there are bright, beautiful pictures, 
as cozily drowsy as a sunny meadow. By repetition of 
the idea of sleep, soothingly expressed in descriptions 
of the murmurming brook and the lazy kites swinging 
in the sky, and other slumberous things, the author 
has given these tales so real an atmosphere of com- 
fortable drowsiness that the adult reader cannot help 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



$7 



nodding, while even a fretful child is lulled to pleasant 
dreams. 

The Surprise Book, Adventures of Jack and Bet- 
ty, by Clara Andrews Williams, with illustrations in col- 
ors by George Alfred Williams. Boards, 64 large pps, 
9x11 ins., price $1.25. Published bv Frederick A. Stokes 
Company, New York. 

Each right hand page of this book is a picture in col- 
ors. In each picture is a knot-hole, a door, or other 
object which the children can cut out, revealing some 
surprising object in the picture beneath. The text on 
the left-hand pages tells the story of Jack and Betty's 
adventures — how, by crawling through one aperture 
after another, they came to wonderful new places in 
the enchanted wood. The description of their arrival 
at a new place always comes at the bottom of the page, 
so that turning the leaf shows the new scene of their 
adventures after they have gone through the hole in 
the previous picture. The book is a fascinating one to 
children. 

The Dutch Twins. By Lucy Fitch Perkins, illus. 
trated by the author. Bound in cloth, 199 pps. Price 
$1.00 net. Houghton Mifflin Co., publishers, Boston 
New York, Chicago. 

This story of "Kit" and "Kat" (Christopher and 
Katrina) is very simply written, with abundant play of 
wholesome humor. It is quaintly and spiritedly illus- 
trated by the author and, in an enjoyable way, will give 
children an excellent idea of Holland and how young 
people are brought up there. 

The One-Footed Fairy, and Other Stories. By 
Alice Brown; with illustrations. Price, $1.25. Large 
pp., 8 vo. Houghton MurHin Co., publishers, Boston, 
New York, Chicago. 

The only collection of Miss Brown's fairy stories — 
selected from those which have most delighted child- 
ren. 

Ducky Daddies. By Grace G. Wiederseim. II. 
luminated cut out board covers, 20 large pages, 8x15 ins. 
Price, 50c. Published by Frederick A. Stokes Co., New 
York. 

This book with its striking cover is sure to attract the 
attention of children. It abounds in illustrated nursery 
rhymes in large type. 

The Moving- Picture Book. By A. C. Baker. Cloth 
52 large pages, 8x11 ins. Price $1.50. Published by 
Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York. 

The 25 full page illustrations in colors by a clever de- 
vise can be given the appearance of moving pictures. A 
novelty that will certainly be appreciated by the little 
ones. 

The Bible and Modern Life. By Clayton Sedgwick 
Cooper, International Secretary for Bible Study of the 
Y. M. C. A. Cloth, 208 pages, 5VS x8 inches. Price, 
$1.00 net. Funk & Wagnalls Company, publishers, 
New York and London. 

This book makes the bible attractive as a theme of 
human interest. Its purpose is to present a type of 
Bible Study fitted for the requirements of modern times. 
It shows how up-to-date Bible Study may be organized 
and developed in different communities, to meet the 
current needs of men. It aims to show how Bible 



Teaching may and must supplement and vitalize the 
varied social propaganda being widely put forth. It 
pictures clearly the way in which 80,000 college men, in 
eighteen different nations, are engaged in practical and 
scholarly study of the Christian Scriptures. 

Strawberry Acres. By Grace S. Richmond. Illus- 
trated by J. Scott Williams and Florence Storer. Cloth. 
366 pages, size 5>£x7>£ inches; price, $1.20. 

When the Lanes lost their father and mother within 
a year's time, many were the changes of plans among 
the four boys and their sister. 

How this little family is eventually transplanted to 
"Strawberry Acres," as Sally names the country place, 
and how the scientific cultivation of strawberries is taken 
up by Jarvis Burnside and the Lane- Boys, (who, one by 
one, give up their city positions,) is a charming story 
with the breath of the outdoors blowing through it. 

Stories of Useful Inventions. By S. E. Forman. 

Author of "A History of the United States," "Advanced 
Civics," etc. Profusely illustrated. Cloth, 248 pps 
5^x8 ins. Price, $1.00 net. Postage 11 cents. New- 
York: The Century Co. 

A more profitably interesting book has not been 
written recently. It tells simply and entertainingly of 
the beginnings of familiar, everyday things — the match, 
the stove, the lamp, the plow, the house, the clock, etc. 
— making the most of all the history and humanity 
wrapped up in these inventions. It is a regular picture 
book of useful inventions, too. 

The Transfiguration of Miss Philura. — By Flor- 
ence Morse Kingsley; with four full-page illustrations 
in color by Ethel Pennewill Brown. Cloth, 78 pages, 
5>£x8 1-4 ins. Published by the Funk & Wagnalls, 
New York. 

A beautifully illustrated edition of this popular little 
story. Miss Philura, a timid, self-depreciating spinster, 
attends a lecture in Boston, where she hears expounded 
the theory of the all encircling Good — that it is impossi- 
ble to desire anything that is not already your own--ask 
and believe that you have, and at once return thanks 
for what you have asked, etc. She accepts the lectur- 
er's views at once and proceeds to make a practical ap- 
plication by writing down a list of her wants, ranging 
from pretty wearing apparel to a lover and husband, 
all of which speedily come into her possession, the last 
acquisition being the husband who is secured in a 
most unique way. 



St. Nicholas in 1912. A great St. Nicholas serial 
during 1912 will be a story by Frederick Orin Bartlett, 
author of "The Forest Castaways," — -'The Lady of the 
Lane." It is a story of a young girl, the daughter of 
the great man who owns the big house on the hill, and 
how she comes to be the real "Lady of the Lane." 



A wise man takes a step at a time; he establishes 
one foot before he takes up the other. — Sanscrit. 

"I don't care," 
Is a deadly snare. 

A habit all should cultivate, 
Is to read and ruminate. 



Cheap and Excellent Books 

SONG KNAPSACK, 142 songs for schools, 10c; $1 
dozen. 

"PAT'S P r '->., 124 pp. All the music to the KNAP- 
SACK songs. Sweetest, sanest, jolliest song 
book made. Cloth, 50c. 

PRIMER OF PEDAGOGY, by Prof. D. Putnam. 
Just what the times demand. Cloth 122 pp. 25c. 

MANUAL OF ORTHOGRAPHY AND ELEMEN- 
TARY SOUNDS, by Henry R. Pattengill. Up-to- 
date. 104 pp., 25c. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF U. S., by W. C. Hewitt. 

118 pp., complete, new, cloth, 25c; $2.40 per doz. 
MEMORY GEMS, 1000 GRADED SELECTIONS, by 

H. R. Pattengill. 143 pp., linen morocco finish, 

25c. 

MORNING EXERCISES AND SCHOOL RECREA- 
TIONS, by C. W. Mickens. New, 267 pp., 50c. 

PRIMARY SPEAKER FOR FIRST AND SECOND 
GRADES, by Mary L. Davenport. Fresh, 
elegant. 132 pp., 2 5c. 

OLD GLORY SPEAKER, containing 80 of the 
choicest patriotic pieces written. 126 pp., 25c. 

HINTS FROM SQUINTS, 144 pp. Hints comical, 
hints quizzical, hints pedagogical, hints ethical, 
hints miscellaneous. Cloth, 50c. 

SPECIAL DAY EXERCISES, 165 pp., 25c. 

Best medicine ever to cure that "tired feeling" 
in school. 

HENRY R. PATTENGILL, Lansing. Mich. 



FOR SALE— 7 Kindergarten Tables at $5.00 each; 3 doz. 

fith Gifts at 2T cents each; 2dozen 5th Gifts at 25 cents each; 

2 dozen 4th at 10 cents; 1% dozen 3rd at 10 cents; 1 dozen 

2nd at 30 cents; 1% dozen peg boards at 90 cents per dozen. 

Address, Sue W. Frick, York, Pa. 



WANTED— A copy of the Kindergarten-Primary Maga- 
zine for October, 1904. Address, Jennings & Graham, 221 
YV. Fourth St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

WANTED— Position as kindergartner. Graduate of a 
good training scUool. Address, W. 278 River Street, Man- 
istee, Mich. 

WANTED— Back numbers of the Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine, as follows: February, Ma3', June, September, 
1889; December, 1890; January, March and April, 1891. Ad- 
dress, Mrs. Helen B. Paulsen, Buckhannon, W, Va. 



WANTED— Back number of Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine for February, 1910. Address, A. Cunningham, 
Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind. 



WANTED— September and October numbers of the 
Kindergarten Primary Magazine for 1904. Address 
C. M. T. S., care of Jennings & Graham, 222 W. Fourth St., 
Cincinnati. Ohio. 



WANTED— Kindergarten-Primary Magazine for Janu- 
ary and October, 1894, and October, 1S97. Address G. Dunn, 
& Company, 403 St. Peter Street, St. Paul, Minn. 



WANTED— One copy each of Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine, as follows: June and September, 1894; January, 
April and May. 1895; October, November and December, 
1863: February, 1898; September to December, 1905: January 
to February, 1906. Address, The University of Chicago 
Press, Library Department, Chicago ,111. 



American Primary Teacher 

Edited by E. A. W1NSHIP 

Published Monthly Except July and August 



An up-to-date, wide awake paper for the grades. Illustrated 
articles on Industrial Geography, New Work in the Grades, 
Drawing, Fables in Silhouette and other school room work. 

Send for specimen copy and prospectus. 

Subscription, $1.00 a Year 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING CO. 

299 BEACON STREET, BOSTON 

Dutch Ditties 

FOR 

CHILRDEN 

FIFTEEN SONGS 

WITH PIANO ACCOMPANIMENT 

Words and Music 

by 

ANICE TERHUNB 

Pictures by Albertine Randall Wheelen 

^1.25 net 

NEW YORK: G. SCHIRMER 

BOSTON: BOSTON MUSIC CO 

LONDON: SCHOTT & CO. 



A , 
Magazine 
for Young- 
Children 

that stands in a 
elass by itself 




WANTED — Back numbers of _ Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine for September, 1909, and February 1910. J. H. 
Sliults, Manistee, Mich. 



Have You a 
Child? 

If so, you can do 
nothing: belter than 
to send $1.00 for 

CHILD LORE 



IT IS A REAL EDUCATION IN ITSELF 

IT APPEALS 

To Every Mother 

Because it contains genuine child literature. 
To Every Minister of the Gospel 

Because it is a magazine of ideals and high moral 

purpose. 
To Every Kindergarten and Primary Teacher 

Because it contains the sort of stories that she can 

use in her daily work. 
To Every Superintendent and Principal 

Because it is a magazine of genuine educational 

value. 
To Every Lover of Children 

Because, on account of its beautiful stories and 

dainty illustrations, it makes an ideal present. 

CHILD LORE COMPANY 

1427 UNION STREET BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Send for Sample Copy 



Books For Kindergartners 

Kindergarten in the Home 

By V. M. Hillyer, Headmaster Calvert 
School, Baltimore, Md. Based on exper- 
ience; admirably concise. This will make an 
invaluable aid to Kindergartners and mo- 
thers. Fully illustrated with diagrams and 
line drawings. Svo. $1.25 net. 

Tales Come True 

By Margaret Coulson Walker, author of 
l,ady Hollyhock and her Friends, Bird Le- 
gend, etc. A book designed as an aid to 
mothers and kindergartners. A delight also 
to the child itself. Fully illustrated in col- 
or and black and white. Square, Svo. $1.25 
net. 

Lady Hollyhock and Her 
Friends 

By Margaret Coulson Walker. An estab- 
lished favorite; on many library lists and 
in many school libraries. Lavishly illustra- 
color and black and white. Square; Svo., 
$1.25 net. 

Portrait catalogue, containing 33 
portraits of authors, -will be sent free 
on request. 

THE BAKER & TAYLOR CO. 



Some Great Subscription Offers! 



33 East 17th St. 



New York 




THE TEACHERS HELPERS 



The Teachers' Helpers are without question the finest 
PLAN BOOKS for teachers published. They are 
edited by some of the ablest and most practical teach- 
ers in the country. They give programs, methods 
songs, drawing, and devices for each month in the 
year, and are beautifully and profusely illustrated. 
Four books In the series; named Autumn, Winter, 
Spring, and Summer respectively. The Summer 
number covers work for the whole year and Is larger 
than the others. Cover designs done in beautiful 
three-color work. Money refunded to any purchaser 
who is not more than satisfied. 

PRICES: Each Number(except Summer) $ .35 
Summer No. [larger than others] .50 
Send today for cepy or ask for further informa- 
tion. Addrest 



.Department 



Teachers' Helper, 

. i> Minneapolis, Minn. 



In Combination with the 



Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 



"A Study of Child Nature," S^SSgSS 

And the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine one year, both fcr 
while our stock lasts. "We have but a few copies on hand. 

"I life nnH I \/rirc " by Anna Bedlam and Car- 
i^llis dllU LVIICS, rieBullard. $1.00, and THE 
KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE one year for 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Needlecraft, regular price $1.25, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

McCall's Magazine, regular price $ r.50, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Housekeeper, regular price fi.70, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
Home Needlework, regular price $1.75, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Health Culture, regular price $2.00, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
Primary Education and School Arts Book, regular price 
$3.75, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
kindergarten Review, regular price $2.00, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Women's Home Companion, regular price $2.50, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Pictorial Review, Modern Priscilla and Ladies' World, re- 
gular price $3,25, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

American Primary Teacher and School Century, regular 
price $3. 25, our price 



$1.10 

$1.50 

$1.15 
1.35 
1.40 
1.50 
1.60 

2.65 
1.70 
HO 

2.15 

2.60 



Many other combinations. Give us the names of the Magazines 
you want. Address J. H. SHULTS, Manistee, Mich. 



KINDERGARTEN 



MATERIAL 

Of the Highest Grade at Lowest Prices 

Send for Price List 

American Kindergarten Supply House 

276-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich, 



*4fi 



\J5u ySchoq^Suppl ies ■ 
At Wholesale Prices 

^AHD SAVE tllDDLLntnS PROFIT. . 



Report Cards.—), 4 or JO months, 

per 100. 27k-. postage 5c 

U. S, Wool Bunting Flags 

6x3 Ft $1 75 Postage 14c 

8x4 Ft 2.45 Postage 20c 

Class Recitation Records 

Each 15 cents. Postage 3 cents 

Set Primary Reading Charts 

Complete IJS4.75 

Set Primary Arithmetic Charts 

Complete !?4 75 

Japanned Handle Scissors 

Per Dozen 45 cents 

Alphabet Cards. Per Pox 12 cents 



CAJfttOG-MEZONREQUESr 

CATALOG DiSCRIBES &SH0W5 WHOLESALE;. 
PRICED 0NABS0LUTE.LY EVERYTHING,* 

iiOR schools ; '--'t-'sk 



233 -ZSS^fRHET STREET, CHIQA 



LITTLE PEOPLE 
EVERYWHERE 

A new series of Geographical Readers 
based on Child Life. 

Kathleen in Ireland (Fourth year) 
Manuel in Mexico (Fifth year) 
Ume San in Japan (Sixth year) 
Rafael in Italy (Seventh year) 

Picture cover; colored frontspieces. 

Illustrations from photographs 

Each Volume, 6oc. 

LITTLE BROWN & CO. 



BOSTON 

34 Beacon Street 



CrllCAOO 

370 Wabash Ave. 



SOME G OOD BO OKS FOR TEACHERS 

Readings and Recitations 20 cts. 

Riffle Creek Papers and Little 

Sermons for Teachers 65 cts. 

Patrick's Pedagogics 65 cts. 

Patrick's Pedagogical Pebbles 25 cts. 
Grains of Wheat without the 

Chaff 20 cts. 

Mathematical Geography 10 cts. 

A Summer of Saturdays 65 cts. 

Problems without Figures. ... 10 cts. 

On orders amounting to SI. 50 to 

one address, a reduction of ten 
per cent. 

S. Y. GILLAN & CO. 

MILWAUKEE, - WISCONSIN 



The Tenth Gift 



Stick Laying in 

Primary and 

Rural Schools. 

Price 25c. 

With this book and a box of sticks any 
teacher can interest the little children. 

The work is fully illustrated. 
Also Ring Laying in Primary Schools, 
15c Peas and Cork Work in Primary 
Schools. 15c. 
All limp cloth binding. Address, 

J. H. Shults, Manistee Mich 



(0 

c 

o 

10 
(D 

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c 




4- 

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CD 

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O 


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CD 







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THANKSGIVING 

By all means celebrate Thanksgiving for 
gratitude is a virtue greatly to be desired. 
We list a few inexpensive aids that will as- 
sist you in inculcating thankfulness. 

Thanksgiving- Souvenir Post Cards 

These are very high grade embossed cards 
emphasizing "the better thanksgiving sen- 
timent. Wholesale prices, 6 for 8c. ; 12 for 15 
cents, postpaid. Usually sold for 3c. each. 

Pictures. Landing of the Pilgrims, 
Pilgrims going to Church, John Alden and 
Pri'scilla, Pilgrim Exiles, Plymouth Rock ? 
Thanksgiving stencils. landing of Pilgrims, Home 

for Thanksgiving, Mavflower, Pilgrims Going to Church, 

John Alden and Priscilla, Corn, Pumpkin. Horn of Plenty. 

Sheaf of Wheat. Motto, "O, give thanks unto the Lord, for He 

is good; for Bis mercy endureth forever," 10c. 

Stories of Old A T eir England. A well written story of the 
maltreatment of the Pilgrims of England, their settlement 
in Holland, their sailing for America and founding a new 
home, the strange welcome received from the Indians, the 
hard times, the First Thanksgiving, etc. Illustrated; 48 pa- 
ges. Third grade. Price, 6c. ; postage. 2c. 

Our Pilgrim Forefathers. The story of the Pilgrims from 
the time of their sailing for Holland until their settlement in 
this country. The book also is a study in story-form ot 
Thanksgiving subjects of famous pictures. Finely illus- 
trated: 32 pages. Fourth grade. Price, He. ; postage, lc. 

Thanksgiving Stories. The stories are Turkey Lurkey, 
A Story of a Pumpkin, and Story of.the Pilgrims. Illustrated; 
32 pages. Second grade. Price, tic. ; postage, 2c. 

Thanksgiving Entertainments by Harie Irish, Clara J. Denton. 
Laura R, Smith and others i 

The best arranged collection for 
Thanksgiving published- The book is 
divided into three parts: The first for 
Primary Graces contains 2 acrostics, 
6 dialogues and exercises, Pumpkin 
Drill, 28 recitations, 1 new song with 
music, two new songs to old tunes and 
12 primary quotations. The second for 
Intermediate Grades contains 4 dia- 
logues and exercises, Corn Drill, 27 rec- 
itations, 1 new song with music, 3 new 
songs to old tunes and 11 intermediate 
quotations. The third, Higher Grades, 
has 2 dialogues, Fruits of the Harvest 
Drill, 22 recitations, 1 new song -with 
music, 2 new songs to old tunes, the 
origin of Thanksgiving, and 9 quota- 
tions, for higher grades. The book also 
contains 12 tableaux for all grades. Illustrated. 144 pages. 35c 
FIN UE S1ECLE THANKSGIVING EXEKCISfcS. Contains 
material for several entertainments. Separate program for 
each grade. Original songs, recitations, dialogues, and many 
other features. Bright, enthusiastic, sensible. Price 15 cents. 
THE TWENTIETH CENTURY THANKSGIVING EXER- 
CISES. Provides an abundance ot choice new material for 
celebrating Thanksgiving In the schoolroom. Practical, gratl- 
fvtne. sensible. Price 15 cents. 

Celebrating the Birthdays of Great Americans at Little Cost 

This can be easily done without any interruption of the reg- 
ular work. To illustrate: On Longfellow's birthday place 
his portrait on the blackboard, using a stencil, let the morn- 
ing exercises include a talk concerning him or a reading from 
one of his great works, give the pupils memory gems fiom 
his writings to learn, give out Longfellow sewing cards, etc. 
Of course this can be enlarged upon as desired, even to an 
evening's entertainment with an admission fee to be used 
for the purchase of kindergarten material or other supplies. 

Whittier's Birthday, Dec. 17th 

READINGS— Storv of Whittier— 3d year, 5c. ; 59 
selections from Whittier's Child Life in Poetry. 
15c • postage lc, ; Whittier's Snowbound, Songs 
of Labor, the Ship-Builders and fourteen other 
poems. 15c. ; postage, lc— 8th year. Memory Gems 
and short verses, 5c. ; postage, lc— Any grade. 

Portraits. Size, 3x354 ins., per dozen, 6c. ; postage, lc. -size 
5%x8ins., per doi en, 12* ; postage, 2c. ; size 7x9 ins., Sepiatone, 
each 2c. ■ postage lc. ; size about 11x13, each 5c, postage lc. A 
large, beautiful portrait 22x28 ins., 25c ; 5 for $1.00, postpaid. 

Stencils. Blackboard stencils, portrait, 5c, home, 5c 

Sewing Cards. Beautiful half tone portrait with border de- 
sign for perforating and sewing; per dozen, 10c. ; postage 2c 

Whittier and his Snow-Bound A story o^eQuakM 
poet, and his famous poem simply told inmM^ .With ^por- 
trait illustration : 33 pages. Second grade. Pri^e, 6c , post- 
age, 2c, 

Also the following, with notes for teaching, 2c each, lie 
per doz Z postpaid: "The Kitchen Scene and The Snow 
Storm "-Barbara Frietchie;" "The Pumpkin;" The Hus- 
ker""'For an Autumn Festival;" "Abraham Davenport, 

Address The J. H. Shults Co., Manistee. Mich. 





CHRISTMAS NUMBER, DECEMBER, 1911 




Volume XXIV, No. 4. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 




KINDERGARTEN SUPPMES 

Bradley's School Paints, Raphia, Reed, and all Construction 

Material 

WE ARE HEADQUARTERS FOR ALL THE ABOVE. Send for Catalogue. 



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\JZuyScmolSuppl ies) 
\At Wholesale Prices i 

l AMD SAVE tllDDLLtlLMS PROFIT. 



Report Cards.— 1, 4 or 10 months, 

per 100. 25c, postage 5c 

U. S, Wool Buntina Flags 

6x3 Ft $175 Postage 14c 

8x4 Ft 2.45 Postage 20c 

Class Recitation Records 

Each 15 cents. Postage 3 cents 

Set Primary Reading Charts 

Complete §4.75 

Set Primary Arithmetic Charts 

Complete $4 75 

Japanned Handle Scissors 

Per Dozen 45 cents 

| Alphabet Cards. Per Box 12 cents 



CATALOG-FREEONREQUEST 

CATALOG DISCRIBLS &. SHOWS WHOLESALE. 

PRICES ON ABSOLUTELY EVERYTHING 

FOR SCHOOLS ra 

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LITTLE PEOPLE 
EVERYWHERE 

A new series of Geographical Readers 
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RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



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Regular course, two years. Special ad- 
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KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

82 St. Stephen Street, Boston. 

Normal Course, two years. 

For circulars address 

Miss Lucy Harris Symonds 




Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

HORTENSB M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

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Springfield Kindergarten 

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Ethical Culture School 

For information address 

MISS CAROLINE T. HAVEN, Principal, 

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NEW YORK. 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 

Two Years' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
039 Peaehtree Street, ATLANTA, GA. 



CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

1200 Michigan Boulevard, 
CHICAGO. ILL. 



Fall Term opened September 12th, 1911 

One year Primary Course, 
Two year regular Kindergarten Course, 

Mrs. J. N. Crouse, Elizabeth Harrison, 

Principals 



For KINDERGARTEN and 
PRIMARY TEACHERS 

Spool Knitting. By Mary A. Mc- 
Cormack. Directions are clear and ex- 
plicit, accompanied by photographs. 
Price, 75 cents to teachers. 

Practical and Artistic Basketry. 

By Laura A. Pinsley. Illustrated. 
Price $1.00 to teachers. Stitches are 
taken up in the order of their difficul- 
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fully graded. 

Outlines for Kindergarten and 
Primary Classes, in the study of 
Nature and Related subjects. By E. 
Maud Cannell and Margaret E Wise. 
Price 75 cents to teachers. 

Memory Gems. For school and 
home. By W. H. Williams. Price 
50 cents to teachers. Contains more 
than 300 carefully chosen selections. 

Send for Catalogue 

The A. S. BARNES CO. 

381 Fourth Ave., New York 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

OF 

The Buffalo Kindergarten Association 

Two Years' Course. 
Tor particulars address 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER, 
«<» Delaware Avenue, - Buffalo. N. Y. 

Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Years' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
16 Washington St., East Oraniee, N. J. 



CLEVELAND KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with the 
CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

2050 East 96th Street 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Founded In 1894) 
Course of study under direction of Eliza- 
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in the Chicago Kindergarten College. 

MISS NETTA FARIS, Principal. 

MRS. W. R. WARNER, Manager. 



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GRAND RAPIDS KINDER 0AK= 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Winter Terra opens September 27th. 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
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Miss Hart's 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

For Kindergartners 
3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 
Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
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For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 
The Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 



OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 

FROEBEL KINDERGARTEN TRAIN- 
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The Teachers' College 

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PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

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Mrs. Amelia Hofer Jerome, Principal.; 

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Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A course 
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equipment. For circulars and information 
write to 
MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 

West Chicago, 111. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a. limited number of 
students. 
Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 
H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 
Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 
SARAH E. HANSON, Principal. 
Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago Universities. 
For particulars address Eva B. Whit- 
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ave., Chicago. 



The Adams School 

Kindergarten Training Course 

(Two Years) 

Nine months' practice teaching dur- 
ing course. Address, 

The Misses Adams 

26 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, Va. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training in Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. Post- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

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Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

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THE HARIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

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For information address 

MISS HARIETTE M. MILLS. Principal 

New York University Building 

Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Courses given for credit at 

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Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

2119 Allston Way, Berkeley, Calif. 

Grace Everett Barnard, 
principal. 



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i. The Pennsylvania School Journal. 

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Circular. 

4. "Good Memory Work." 20 cents. 
The influence of Good Songs and 
Hymns, Good Pictures and Good Mem- 
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Home is felt, in blessing, through all 
our lives as men and women. 

Address J. P. McCASKEY, 
LANCASTER., PA. 




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Egypt, N.J, 



INDEX TO CONTENTS. 

Educational Toys Appealing to the Sense of Touch Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. ]). £7 

The Kindergarten— Its Influence upon Higher Education - - - Richard G. Boone 89 

Abstract in the First Gift Beatrice Louy. 93 

A New Method in Infant Education Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. I). 96 

Kindergarten Daily Program - - - Nora Keogh. 99 

A Toledo Kindergarten - - 101 

A Day with Bobbie at the Kindergarten Barrett Williams. 103 

The Everyday Adventures of Albert and Annabel, II Leila A. Reeve. 103 

How Bobbie Ran Away from Home and was Brought Back Again - - Garrett Williams. 103 

When Bobbie was Five Years Old Garrett Williams. 107 

The Christmas Tree 108 

John Greenleaf Whittier 109 

Picture Study ... - 109 

It was an Old, Old, Old, Old Lady - . - II. Br Banner. 110 

Ethical Culture • Ill 

News Notes ----- - 113 

Book News 115 



IDEAL BLACKBOARD STENCILS 

FOR THE KINDERGARTEN. 

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of a hundred seasonable, artistic designs. These outlines filled in with colored chalk, wax crayon or water colors 
make exceedingly attractive pictures, large enough to be clearly seen from any part of a school room. The de- 
signs are all new, full of action and touch both the daily life and the imagination of the child. 

Ten sets of ten stencils each, as follows: Price 50 cents a set, postpaid. 
Set 1. Nursery Rhyme Designs Set 4. Child Occupations 

Set 2. Fairy Tale Friends Set 5. Child Activities 

Set 3. Child Games Set 6. Life Interests 



Set 7. 
Set 8. 
Set 9. 
Set 10. 



Child Holidays 
Animals We Know 
People Who Help Us 
Flowers We Love 



Ten Child Life Calendar Stencils (one for each school month) and two 
postpaid for 50 cents. These are specially good. 
Full catalogue of school room stencils sent on request. Also 1912 Catalogue of Busy 
Material and School Specialties for Primary Grades. 



Kindergarten Border Stencils 
Work, Construction 



6 I 55 Wentworth Ave- 



IDEAL SCHOOL PUBLISHING CO. 



Chicago, 111. 



A Vital Book for Every Parent 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE TRUE RELA- 
TIONSHIP OF PARENT TO CHILD 

A father or mother yourself you wrestle with the hundred 
and one different problems which arise every day in your 
desire to bring your boy up to be a true man or your little 

girl a noble woman. 

Are you certain of each move yoa make in directing the 

conduct of your child? 

Our Children 

By Dr. PAUL DARUS 

offers a unique contribution to pedagogical literature. The little book deals 
with the rights of the child, the responsibilities of parenthood and with the first 
inculcation of fundamental ethics in the child mind and the true principles of 
correction and guidance. Each detail is forcefully illustrated by informal in- 
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will prove of great value to young parents and kindergartners. 

If you cannot get this book at your bookstore, order it direct from us. Price 
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with our publications. 
We publish a very interesting catalogue of some very interesting books. Write today. 

THE OPEN COURT PUB. CO., Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 





V 






■w 



J it-::} 




JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER 

(See page 109) 



T5^d 3im6er9arUn ^primary ¥tla%azin<i 



VOL. XXIV— DECEMBER, 1911— NO. 4. 



The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 

Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

Editorial Rooms, 59 West 96th Street, New York. N. Y. 

E. I.yell Earle, Ph. D., Editor, 59 W. 9Cth St., New York City 

Business Office, 270-278-2K0 River Street. Manistee, Mich. 

•I. H. SIIt'LTS, Business Manager. 

MANISTEE, MICHIGAN. 

All communications pertaining to subscriptions and adver- 
tising or other business relating to the Magazine should be 
addressed to the Michigan office, J. II. Shults, Business Man- 
ager, Manistee, Michigan. All other communications to E. 
I.yell Earle, Managing Editor, 59 W. 96th St., New York City. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine Is published on the 
first of each month, except July and August, from 278 River 
Street, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable In advance. 
Single copies, 15c. 

Postage is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions In 
the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, 
Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoai, Shanghai, Canal Zone, 
Cuba and Mexico. For Canada add 20c and for all other 
countries in the Postal Union add 30U for postage. 

Notice of Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a con- 
tinuance of the subscription is desired until notice of dis- 
continuance is received. When sending notice of change of 
address, both the old and new addresses must be given. 

Make all remittances to Manistee, Michigan. 



EDUCATIONAL TOYS APPEALING TO 

THE SENSE OF TOUCH. 

Jenny B. Meebill, Pd. D. 

In selecting toys for children it is desirable 
to consider the sense of touch as well as the 
senses of sight and hearing. 

Touch is the fundamental sense. Children 
love to touch, to feel, to rub, to press, to 
squeeze. 

Colors and form appeal to sight, sound to 
hearing, but numerous qualities are learned 
thru the sense of touch. 

A knowledge of form is acquired more 
accurately by the fingers than by sight, but 
it is such qualities as hard and soft, rough 
and smooth, cold and hot, silky and wooly, 
fine and coarse, elastic and firm, tough and 
fragile, heavy and light, sticky and polished 
that are experienced mainly thru the touch 
of the hand. 

Consideration must be given to the mater- 
ials of which toys are made in order that 
many tactile sensations may be gratified. 

For example, take the ball. It is important 
for the child to play with hard balls as well 
as soft ones. In turn from time to time, the 
child should have worsted balls, wooden balls, 
balls of rubber, celluloid, cloth, kid, even 
glass. It is a mistake to confine baby to a 



soft ball altho he must be guarded when play- 
ing with the first hard ball very closely. 

The sound of a hard ball as it falls or rolls 
is an added attraction and the sense of touch 
is gratified by pressure and resistance. 

Recently in entertaining a little boy not 
quite two years old, I have been very deeply 
impressed with his interest in the feeling of 
every object he has played with. He will sit 
quietly for minutes at a time simply passing 
a few round sticks, a clothes pin or a shell 
from one hand to the other. 

He has developed a remarkable interest in 
touching the block of ice as it arrives each 
day in the kitchen. He was at first encour- 
aged to touch the ice with the tips of his 
fingers. He was surprised, pleased, laughed, 
wanted to touch again. Then a few small 
bits were cracked for him to play with and to 
eat. 

When we pass an ice cart in the street, he 
is all attention, and calls "ice, ice." If acci- 
dentally his little bare foot touches the mar- 
ble floor in the bath room, he immediately 
associates the sensation of cold calling out, 
"ice, ice." 

One can easily imagine that a small iron 
or china toy held in the hand might soothe 
a feverish child thru the cooling sensation 
such substances give. The sensation of weight 
in iron toys is also an added interest. A tin 
engine will answer for a time but the iron 
engine must come later. 

Strong contrasts are essential to a child in 
learning quality. Such contrasts are observ- 
ed constantly in the kindergarten method. 

Strong contrasts occur in nature, our best 
teacher. In toyland we must be imitators 
again and again of Dame Nature. 

Dr. G. Stanley Hall speaks in his recent 
great pedagogical work of a child's love of 
stones and the value educationally of playing 
in a stone yard. My grandfather owned a 
stone yard so that I fully appreciate Dr. Hall's 
pedagogical insight. 

In walking out with my little two-year-old 
companion, I found him much more anxious 
to pick up stones than leaves. Finding re- 
paving going on in a neighboring street, we 
frequented it, and watched for such opportu- 
nities as arose to play with broken bits of 
the old paving stones. Indeed we soon con- 
trived to have a stone yard in miniature in a 



88 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



secluded spot which we visited every day 
while the workmen were busy. Alas ! One 
day we found our stone yard had disappear- 
. ed. 

The stone building blocks known as "an- 
chor blocks" that have been so popular with 
the children of all ages owe part of their at- 
tractiveness to the sensation of weight. Chil- 
dren are usually more familiar with the cheap- 
er wooden blocks, but for variety if for no 
other reason, it is well to add a box of stone 
blocks and note the advance in building plays. 

Stone, china animals and little vases, to 
say nothing of china dishes are very precious 
to a child. A little girl seven years old once 
presented to me as a token of her affection a 
small china cat which her mother assured 
me was her little daughter's idol. The moth- 
er said, "I did not believe any one could in- 
duce Bessie to part with her china pussy." 
While I could not refuse the offering, it 
grieved me sorely to accept it for I well re- 
membered my own interest in a miniature 
china toy when a child. 

A lady visiting me from Mexico upon hear- 
ing this incident immediately related her de- 
light in a china doll and the pleasure derived 
from feeling the polished surface as she play- 
ed with it. "Children are the same the world 
over." 

What is the cause of the children's great 
love for Teddy-bears? Do not for a moment 
believe that the little girl has given up her 
dolly! Teddy is just a doll that is softer 
and more like a baby than the doll usually 
provided. The sensation of touch is gratified 
in a natural way and the child heart responds 
without knowing why. .v ■. 

In providing clothing for a doll the sense 
of touch may be gratified and trained by the 
use of a variety of fabrics, as cotton goods, 
linen and lace in the undergarments, dresses 
of woolen and silk. How a child delights in 
velvet, kid, plush and in feathers ! This is 
in part because of the new touch sensations 
that are aroused by these materials. 

It is claimed that in the new infant schools 
of Rome under Dr. Maria Montessori that 
"the ten fingers have been rediscovered" 
which simply means that more appeal is 
being made to the sense of touch. One of 
the devices introduced is an alphabet cut from 
sand paper so that the seeing child learns his 
letters by touch rather than by sight. This 
seems to us a clever but unnecessary expe- 
dient. Embossed alphabet blocks might be 
used in similar fashion if any one desires a 



very young child to learn letters. Our own 
experience in this particular leads us to delay 
reading and writing until such devices are not 
needed. 

Writers upon the hygiene of reading are 
now warning us against all early reading so 
that I am constrained to step aside from my 
main topic to ask, "Should any device be used 
to engage the interest of a child of three or 
four in the alphabet?" It has long been 
known that children can and will often pick 
up a nursery knowledge of letters and even 
reading, but has it not been the work of Froe- 
bel and many other educators to teach what 
we advocate in this article, that the child 
needs more of the "A B C of things" than he 
usually receives before turning to books? 

Touch sensations are among the "real A 
B C's." They are a part of the alphabet of 
things. The child needs long practice and 
many experiences in the alphabet of Nature. 
All early training should provide these as the 
kindergarten does. When parents urge teach- 
ers with eagerness to hasten on to letters, the 
child is in danger of losing more than he 
gains. 

It is not that it is difficult to teach letters 
that we object, for a child of three can tell an 
A from a B by sight or touch as quickly as 
he can tell a pin from a needle, a ring from 
a marble, or a mosquito from a fly. But why 
should he? 

It is not merely the size of the letter to 
which we object for letters may be enlarged, 
but it is to the fact that the child needs at 
least the first six years of his life if not more 
to attend to the "real" alphabet of things. ., 

Sand paper, which has always proved at- 
tractive to children, is not needed in learning 
to read, but it can be used in making toys, 
and is so used in the kindergarten. It is at- 
tractive to a child because of the strange 
rough sensation if gives. Highly glazed paper, 
by contrast and tissue paper also have their 
attractions. The smooth surface of one and 
the power of the hand to crush and form 
the softer paper into balls, to braid it, to feel 
it yield to the sense of touch, are all pleas- 
urable experiences. 

Sensations of stickiness are not agreeable 
but at first even these fascinate the child and 
hold his attention. He is interested in glue, 
paste, dough, molasses and moist sugar. Kin- 
dergartners who use paste and clay freely 
know their fascination to the child. It is true 
that there are yet higher gratifications in the 
use of clay. The modeling instinct is more 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



89 



than a mere touch sensation, but the new sen- 
sations acquired by means of sand and clay 
as educational materials are not without im- 
portance. 

Passing the hands thru sand or thru run- 
ning water are true baby plays. Even the 
slipperiness of soap pleases baby in the bath 
in his second year. A close, psychological 
study of the sense of touch will surely repay 
the intelligent parent or teacher. 

Commonly speaking, we include a great var- 
iety of sensations under touch, but there are 
now subdivisions of this fundamental sense, 
resident in the skin, recognized by experts. 

This wonderful sense which has made it 
possible for Helen Keller to receive a college 
education, to enjoy with her finger tips the 
finest of French bronzes, which has enabled 
her to write a wonderful appreciation of Na- 
ture as it has "touched'' her, deserves the first 
attention in home, kindergarten and school. 
It plays its part in Toyland. 



THE KINDERGARTEN. 



Its Influence Upon Higher Education. 



Hy Richabd G. Boone, 
Lecturer in Education, University o£ California, Berkeley. 

In a very recent educational work of more 
than one thousand pages by a university 
president and one of the leaders in such dis- 
cussion, the first chapter of forty pages is 
given to the Pedagogy of the Kindergarten. 

Among the topics are the ideal kindergar- 
ten ; its value as a means of educating young 
women ; Froebel as a seer anticipating mod- 
ern ideals; the training of kindergarten teach- 
ers; and the great ideas which the world 
owes to Froebel : — that he antedated the mod- 
ern discoveries in embryology that the child 
recapitulates important stages in the race's 
history ; that feeling and instinct are primary, 
and germinative of intellect and will ; that 
through the play instincts man first becomes 
creative ; that he believed in the original 
soundness of human nature ; that during the 
animal stages of his being the child should 
be complete animal as the condition of his 
highest maturity on the human plane later; 
that the only test of state, home, church, 
school, or civilization is whether or not it 
brings childhood and youth to the fullest ma- 
turity ; that a wholesome intuition in the 
teacher is to be preferred to an elaborate 
methology; and that a belief in sound health 
is one of the tenets in every educational 



creed — all of which have been incorporated 
into the accepted pedagogy of one or another 
of the stages of directed education. 

The same author characterizes Froebel's 
Education of Man as "one of the best and 
most nourishing of all infant foods for novices 
in the speculative field, a book which will 
and should be dear to all women's souls, not 
so much for what it teaches their intellects, 
as because it makes them feel so profoundly 
the burden of the mystery of the nascent soul 
and shows that this insight and function are 
central and cardinal in the universe." 

It is the fate of new movements, and espe- 
cially those of far-reaching import, to be mis- 
understood. Those of Comenius, Pestalozzi, 
and Froebel are only more notable modern 
instances. Froebel was and remains particu- 
larly open to misinterpretation. 

The writer quoted above, on a sympathetic 
page, speaks of Froebel's "nebulous specula- 
tions which were bred by the Zeitgeist in the 
natal age of German philosophy, and by the 
great idealistic movement which accompanied 
the birth of this puissant nation. His weird 
and bizarre version of this metaphysical fer- 
ment was a unique culture bouillon, concocted 
of various ingredients : theosophic mysti- 
cism, foregleams of evolution, a passionate 
enthusiasm for nature just as the great scien- 
tific movement was dawning", and love of 
childhood." It need not seem strange that 
not only among foreigners but among his 
own people he was often, generally, misunder- 
stood, or half understood, and by some held 
in derision. Indeed, earnest readers of Froe- 
bel may be grouped in three classes : those 
who will have none of him ; those who are 
his devoted disciples and take him whole; 
and those who see in the substance of the 
Education of Man an expression of determin- 
ing tendencies which modern education is 
maturing. It is my privilege, in a half hour, 
to characterize typical forms of these tenden- 
cies, and find their counterparts in the current 
educational life and in our American social 
life. 

The Education of Man was written after 
ten years of teaching and a dozen years be- 
fore the kindergarten took either its name or 
its form of even adolescent maturity. Out 
of two hundred and fifty pages, thirty pages 
are devoted to "man as child," twenty pages 
to "man as boy," and two hundred pages to 
"man as scholar." This first important con- 
tribution by Froebel was not primarily a 
treatise on the nurture of infancy, but, shot 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGA7INE 



through the work of the fabric of his child- 
hood training, were the constantly recurring 
intuitions of the basic importance of care in 
the earliest years, like the woof that gives 
pattern and color and meaning to an other- 
wise aimless structure. To the last of the 
two hundred and fifty pages of the Education 
of Man, the importance of the right training 
of infancy grew upon Froebel, and it led a 
few years later to his converging interest and 
effort upon the kindergarten age. He saw, 
as few of the teachers and reformers of the 
present day even yet come to see, that "the 
child is the focus of interest for every kind 
of a social and humanistic study." All shap- 
ing of purposes, and the recasting of pur- 
poses, and the recasting of society, and ideals 
of legal and moral justice and human rights, 
must take their rise in the child and in his 
nurture. 

It is not my purpose here, at all, to discuss 
the kindergarten as such ; but to trace, very 
briefly, its influence upon other parts of the 
school system and upon doctrines of educa- 
tion as applicable in after years, and their re- 
actions upon the common life. Not forget- 
ting other principles, but disregarding them 
for the time, I venture to remind you of 
three Froebelian dicta that have had a posi- 
tive shaping influence upon elementary edu- 
cation. 

The first is that learning not only may be 
or should be, but, if effective, must be con- 
sciously connected with and grow out of the 
experiences of the life being lived by the 
learner ; bromidic enough as a mere state- 
ment, but painfully unfamiliar in most school 
practice. A second conception is that of the 
importance of the knowledge and habit of co- 
operative intercourse ; the socializing of the 
individual, fitting him to count for one in an 
institutional life. And, thirdly, there is the 
increasing recognition of the value of creative 
work over mere copying or unquestioning ac- 
ceptance ; an ever-present correlative of the 
last factor. 

No one who is even superficially familiar 
with the Education of Man or the other Froe- 
belian literature, either by the projector of 
the system or by his disciples or critics, will 
doubt that these are factors in the distinctive 
kindergarten training. Current ideas and 
ideals, the home and economic interests, pre- 
valent codes and behaviors, contemporary in- 
terests, neighborhood achievements and local 
institutions, occupations, amusements and 
arts — all are drawn upon as raw material for 



shaping interest and purposes in the little 
ones. In a similar sense, typical exercises of 
the kindergarten look to socializing the child, 
linking his interests with others and fixing 
the habit of sharing with his fellows ; in all 
of his social doings taking others into ac- 
count; finding his dependence upon compan- 
ions matched by his ability and disposition 
to offer wanted service. And nowhere in all 
the range of schooling is more emphasis, and 
intelligent emphasis, placed upon individual 
initiative and first-hand effort, the ability and 
disposition to plan, in however simple way, 
than in the kindergarten. 

Now, however these may be found to work 
out in practice, they are all accepted theoret- 
ically as valid principles in the teaching of 
the grades up to the high school. More and 
more the curriculum of the elementary school 
has been enriched by a crop of nature and 
earth studies as a means of understanding 
and interpreting existing arts and industries; 
the interrelations of the social and economic 
life ; by civic and municipal studies ; the vital 
calculations of the shop and the store ; by 
exercises of social and civic habituation; and 
training in design, construction, and the more 
independent adjustment of means to ends. 

In American schools especially, a large ma- 
jority of whose pupils receive no further 
schooling, and few of whom get any training 
for specific vocations or industries, it becomes 
particularly important that they acquire not 
only a mastery of the book and language as 
the means of both intelligent social inter- 
course and further learning, but the ability 
and habit of vitalizing the daily activities by 
all the fund of learning they have ; by a sense 
of common social interests and a share of re- 
sponsibility for the social good ; and by such 
training in self-dependence and personal 
initiative as makes standing alone easy if 
standing alone becomes necessary. 

In order to see a connection between the 
common recognition of these principles by 
the kindergarten and the subsequent classes 
of the elementary school, it is not necessary 
to argue that the schools derived them from 
Froebel or from the kindergarten. Their 
more general introduction into the practices 
of the kindergarten, and their easier applica- 
tion there, have stimulated their adoption as 
working principles in all grades of schools ; 
have immensely broadened the modern con- 
ception of an education for the masses of the 
people whose schooling is foreshortened, and 
have opened the way for using the child's 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



9* 



instinctive interests in much doing and in 
fruitful companionship to fit him for a future 
of responsibility and intelligent service in 
which the instincts shall be less dominant. 

Dr. Dutton, in characterizing the "Modern 
school and what it owes to Froebel and Her- 
bart," says : "In a complete statement of 
what the kindergarten undertakes to do for 
little children it would probably be found to 
contain the germ of every reform now being 
attempted," and names "various elements 
found there which are all capable of being 
developed in a greater or less degree during 
the entire school life :" the sympathetic 
teacher for whom we are primarily indebted 
to the kindergarten ; play, games, and the 
song as means of expression ; story-telling, 
from folklore to the picturesque presentation 
of great historical movements; the first-hand 
interest in and acquaintance with things and 
their behavior as the initial step toward 
science ; concrete relations in mathematical 
training ; the occupations of the kindergarten 
as a true introduction to manual training; 
facility in the use of the mother tongue as 
one means of expressing a real inner experi- 
ence — all of which represent one or another 
of the influences named as touching the ele- 
mentary school and shaping its teaching. 

But the vitality of the so-called kindergar- 
ten conception of education is quite as obvi- 
ous in all higher education. 

When the emphasis is put upon the learner 
as one, an individual with more or less ex- 
clusive aptitudes, interests to be conserved 
and stimulated, a fund of energy that shapes 
both his growth and his rate of growth, his 
own particular type of efficiency ; as having 
intellectual and moral rights as against an- 
other, or others, or all maybe; a free spirit 
whose first right is to find an adequate ex- 
pression of itself — this, in the conception of 
Froebel, it is, to be educated. Not in the 
kindergarten only, but in schools of all 
grades, it is coming to be recognized as 
measurably true that lessons and privileges 
and ideals of responsibility and achievements 
are to be shaped by the personal characteris- 
tics and native faculty or lack of faculty. 

A recognition of the varying claims of sex; 
inherited family and class biases ; precocity 
and sluggishness ; vigorous health and a weak 
body ; the motor and the sensory-minded ; the 
vivid, or heavy imagination — all call for more 
or less manifold courses and varying options; 
for a regard for particular needs and selected 
stimuli; for yielding standards, high as each 



can reach — but for each ; and an attempt to 
equip for the particular service or joy or effi- 
ciency for which he possesses faculty. 

In times, all down through the ages, this 
ideal has found acceptance by great minds 
who saw clearly, who believed in the soul's 
unshared responsibilities, and who had faith 
in ideals as too sacred to be chopped into 
shreds of mere partnership ; but for its effec- 
tive presentation as a working principle in the 
schools, educational practice is indebted to 
the founder of the kindergarten, or more ac- 
curately, perhaps, to the general movement 
toward a positive individualism, of whose 
meaning for education Froebel was the chief 
exponent. Like most good things, it is a 
principle that is easily abused in application. 
But it stands opposed to all uniformity in 
matter or method for the sake of uniformity; 
to all martinetism in the control of conduct; 
to all platforms and philosophies ; to fixed 
class distinctions ; to imposed curricula ; and 
to any training that merges the individual in 
the mass, so that he no longer acts as an 
individual but as a part. 

In American life, and antecedently in the 
American school, this individualizing tend- 
ency shares with the socializing tendency the 
position of focal interest in public significance. 
How to stand for one and yet work co- 
operatively with one's fellows for the good of 
the whole ; how to respect one's conscience 
and join with others in an organized effort 
to realize a common creed ; how to conform 
to exacting conventional standards of social 
intercourse and maintain a high level of self- 
respect are not easy; but the lesson must be 
learned, and, for the most part, must be ac- 
quired in the schools. The home life is, for 
most persons, too narrow to accomplish the 
task, the law too unyielding or apologetic 
where it should be firm, the prohibitions and 
sanctions of the church too abstract and re- 
mote from life, and politics only tardily re- 
sponsible. So the burden is more and more 
laid on the school to harmonize in any pur- 
poseful way these seemingly conflicting im- 
peratives of social efficiency. Nowhere is this 
better done or begun than in the kindergar- 
ten and among the agencies that have shown 
themselves willing to take suggestion from 
the practice of the kindergarten. 

All sorts of team work in which the 
achievements of the group depend upon the 
loyal, efficient work of each ; student co- 
operation, and, where possible, student initia- 
tive in the management of distinctly student 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



affairs ; a stimulus to high personal endeavor 
with a constant and wholesome reference to 
the claims of the group ; and intimate 
handling of concrete problems of civic and 
historical and social forces at work, and the 
resulting movements, are important means at 
the call of secondary and higher schools for 
working out a harmony of these two appar- 
ently antagonistic ideals. In every good, real 
kindergarten practice in such training is at- 
tempted, and with more or less success 
achieved. In many of the better elementary 
schools this is the ideal, and in more of the 
high schools, perhaps, but in the true kinder- 
garten it is the daily order. For inspiration 
in the effort to fit the individual to share in 
the functions of an institutional society and 
to find it a means of the fullest self-expres- 
sion, we must look to the kindergarten as 
having proved its faith by its works. To 
have produced a community of individuals 
capable of co-operative effort such that none 
should suffer and all should share would 
greatly exalt both the group and the school. 
With respect to no other one academic 
interest does the contemporary best school 
differ more from traditional schooling than in 
a recognition of the importance of the first- 
hand studies, whether in the secondary school 
or the college. This is a phase of the general 
enlargement of the function and field of 
science and the method of science as worked 
out in the last century. But the influence of 
Bacon and his immediate followers upon gen- 
eral education and the teaching of the schools 
was almost nil. until well along toward the 
middle of the last century, in the movement 
which found its best nominative expression 
in Pestalozzi and Froebel and the reorgan- 
ization of schools from below and not from 
above. Crude as were the first efforts at 
nature study and object teaching, they led to 
real studies, lessons in the field, and the in- 
quiry of things themselves as to their be- 
havior ; not at all for the purpose of extending 
the field of knowledge, but as furnishing a 
sure method of learning, and a basis of ex- 
perience for future use in reflection. The 
teaching of physical science in secondary 
schools, so marvelously re-enforced in recent 
years by the reactions of the college and the 
university, at first waited upon the stimulus 
derived, not from the lessons of the school- 
room, but from the teaching of the philo- 
sophers, Comenius and Froebel and Fferbart, 
that such studies are basic at any stage of 
instruction. This has revolutionized the 



teaching of most subjects, even the languages 
and philosophy and the humanistic studies of 
history, economics, ethics, of art and the arts, 
and religion. 

All this makes for independence of judg- 
ment, because it rests upon self-achieved ex- 
perience. It makes equally for independence 
of citizenship, and intelligent morality, and all 
helpful neighborly qualities. It makes one to 
be true cause, and not a mere effect among 
his fellows. The habit of dealing with reali- 
ties of one's own discovering, the temptation 
to be content with shams and pretenses and 
mere phrases, prompts an effort to get at 
the real meaning of creeds and laws and plat- 
forms and civic and moral obligations. 

There are not lacking, also, signs of the 
kindergarten influence even in the college 
university. "It might be a watchword of 
most educational reforms now needed," says 
the writer first quoted, "to carry the Froe- 
belian spirit, as its author intended to do, up 
through all grades of school work, even the 
university," and elsewhere adds that "every 
educator, even the university pi;ofessor, will 
profit by a careful study of the kindergarten." 

In a memorable address before the Ameri- 
can Institute of Instruction, in 1894, Dr. 
Eliot, then president of Harvard University, 
under the caption, The Unity of Educational 
Reform, said that the ideals through which 
the human race is uplifted and ennobled — 
the ideals of beauty, honor, duty and love — 
all constitute a part of education, "to be sim- 
ultaneously and continuously developed from 
earliest childhood to maturity." So con- 
vinced was Dr. Eliot of the identity of aim 
and motive throughout the twenty or twenty- 
five years of formal schooling that, in the 
same address, he was constrained to testify 
that "some of the administrative improve- 
ments then lately made in universities re- 
semble strikingly improvements made at the 
other extremity, namely, in the kindergarten." 
"In this process of educational construction, 
so new, so strange, so hopeful, I believe that 
the chief principles and objects are the same 
from the kindergarten through the uni- 
versity." 

Among these common aims Dr. Eliot 
named (1) "the addressing of instruction to 
the individual pupil rather than to groups or 
classes" (he avowed that "the kindergarten 
and the university best illustrate the progress 
of this reform") ; (2) the careful training of 
the organs of sense; (3) practice in grouping 
and comparing different contacts, and in 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



93 



drawing inferences from such comparisons; 
(4) the practice of making accurate records 
of one's judgments; (5) the holding in mind 
for use these records; (6) training in the 
power of adequate expression. While the 
steady inculcation of those ideal principles 
has its most obvious and picturesque setting 
in the elective courses and major subjects 
and special training of the colleges and higher 
schools, it found its first acceptance, except 
in sporadic cases, in the established and con- 
sciously directed practice of the kindergarten, 
whence it spread in time to the colleges, 
thence down to the high schools, and appears 
in current elementary education as a practice, 
in all subjects, of taking into account the 
child's natural or stimulated want. To throw 
upon each individual the responsibility — the 
privilege of doing what he can do well, and 
of wanting to do the needful best — is not 
only the problem of the schools, of all grades, 
but of every cultural, economic and political 
society. The best results cannot come from 
doing tasks set by others, but those set by 
one's self and cherished as one's own. 

From all of which it would appear evident 
that the kindergarten may not safely be re- 
garded as a device for the training of poor 
children only, or the families of the working 
classes, but that it is a scheme of education 
for all — for those who direct ; for him who 
follows and him who leads ; for the girls who 
may be mothers and the boys who may be 
fathers; for the one who must fill his time 
with labor, and the other who must make his 
leisure worthy. It is needed for the capable, 
that their great powers be not wasted, and 
by the less competent, that the most may be 
made of whatever faculty there remains. It 
is not an exclusive device for the infant years, 
but beginning there is valid for every subse- 
quent year or age. It stands for universal 
principles and faith in human growth. It is 
optimistic and believes with Emerson that 
there is that among us which "tends to make 
the best better and the worst good." 

The kindergarten, when not even indirectly 
the originator, is yet organically interested in, 
and in entire accord with, a long train of 
allied movements for the better understand- 
ing and the amelioration of child life ; the 
humane movement in all its manifold forms ; 
numerous children's welfare societies, not for 
charity, but for education ; for child labor 
laws and juvenile courts, and opportunities 
for play, and clubs for the young, of their 
own administering, and stimulating interests 



converged upon them — all of which are inci- 
dent to the marvelous, much-organized and 
far-reaching interest in the child as the true 
raw material of civilization, an interest that 
began with the kindergarten and looks yet to 
the kindergarten for its chief inspiration. 



ABSTRACT IN THE FIRST GIFT. 

Beatrice Louy, Toledo, Ohio. 

Force exerted equally in all directions re- 
sults in a sphere. 

After studying the process of the formation 
of the earth, we learn that, by the action of 
its own gravitation, the nebulae assumed 
globular form. This sphere form is the 
ideal form ; the form of all the heavenly bod- 
ies, and the one from which the entire or- 
ganic world proceeds. It is force that ap- 
pears to be the principle of all things, and 
of every manifestation in nature. The swell- 
ing of the soap bubble, and the falling of a 
stone in the water, furnish the child with 
a clear intuition of the production of the 
sphere. 

Three different parts are included in or 
comprise this sphere, the center, the peri- 
phery and the radii. The center is the gen- 
erating point, where the creative germ of the 
ball is conceived ; while the periphery is the 
outer surface, that which is seen ; and the 
radius is conceived as a connecting line from 
the outward to the inward. 

Thus the First Gift consists of the ball, 
covered with yarn with a chain stitch string 
in the form of a radius springing out of the 
center, thus suggesting the movement from 
the central point outward. And this one cen- 
ter controls the periphery through the radius. 
Just as the radius is the connecting line be- 
tween the center and the periphery of the 
sphere, just as the universe connects man 
with God, so the ball connects the child with 
nature and is the mediating link between the 
child and the world. For the center of the 
ball corresponds to the child's inner world 
or soul ; its periphery is compared to the out- 
ward world or the child's sensations; its con- 
necting link between the outer and inner is 
the nerves, by means of which he is in touch 
with the external world ; while the string 
unites the ball, the symbol of, or key to the 
outer world, with the child, and is the means 
by which it can act upon his inner nature. 

The ball is one of the first means used in 
awakening and developing the dawning con- 
sciousness and growing faculties of the child. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



He both sees himself in it, and expresses 
himself through it, and through this reflection 
and expression, learns to know himself and 
the world around him. It serves to assist 
the development of all his powers, that, by 
his own actions, he may be rendered capable 
of living out his inner self in accordance 
with his individual endowments. 

The gifts are so-called because they awaken 
in the child a sense of pleasure or gratitude. 
Froebel chose the ball as the first, because 
of its simplicity and great adaptability, as it 
is constantly in motion and responds to the 
-activity of the child. Because of its regu- 
larity of form, the same impression being 
made when viewed from all directions, the 
ball should be given to the babe at the dawn 
of consciousness. 

Froebel considered this ball as an external 
counterpart of the child in the first stages 
of his development, its undivided unity corre- 
sponding to his mental condition, and its 
movableness to his instinctive abilities. 
Through its recognition, he is led to separate 
himself from the external world, as well as 
the external world from himself. 

The salient characteristic of this gift is 
unity, the ball being a unit, and also the 
child being a unit. It is with this gift, first, 
that the importance of working together, in 
unison, or harmoniously, is emphasized. 
Froebel says, "Where there is unity, there is 
life ; where there is separation, there is death, 
or the germs of death." All the different 
parts of the body working" together promote 
health, but if one organ is impaired, it affects 
the whole. Hence it is necessary to instill 
in the child the great lesson of co-operation — 
together spirit — this essence, keynote or 
motto of the kindergarten, as well as the 
problem of the age. He thus learns to do 
the same thing at the same time, and for the 
good of not only himself, but of the whole. 
In this way, as an individual, he helps carry 
out the idea of the basis of the kindergarten 
system — organic unity. 

The ball of the First Gift possesses all of 
the universal properties of matter, which illus- 
trates its natural law, that "Everything in 
nature possesses all the powers of nature." 
We may impart this to the child by having 
him notice the elasticity of the ball, for when 
squeezed it always returns to its normal 
shape. In this way, by simple experiments 
the child unconsciously learns all the proper- 
ties of matter, which are, extension, impen- 



etrability, inertia, elasticity, porosity, divis- 
ibility and indestructibilty. 

The ball is classified under three heads. It 
is a type of motion, illustrating the three 
kinds, that of rotary, lateral and pulling mo- 
tion. Besides this, the ball is also a type of 
simplicity and of beauty. As the most uni- 
versal type-form, it affords a satisfactory 
basis for the classification of objects in gen- 
eral. 

But not only does this First Gift consist of 
a ball, but of six balls, each representing a 
color of the solar spectrum, which is our 
standard of color. In teaching color, each is 
matched in the room, in nature, etc., that the 
child may have a perfect standard as a basis 
for his color education. Thus is color learned 
thru sight, while form thru touch. 

From this color work the powers of ob- 
servation are developed. We learn to appre- 
ciate the beautiful in nature, and the artistic 
sense is cultivated. The knowledge of class- 
ifying colors is necessary in most all lines of 
business ; for the paperhanger must know 
how to blend them, so as to obtain the best 
results; an engineer must be able to distin- 
guish readily the colors of the various sig- 
nals ; and people in all industrial arts must 
have a quick perception of color. Children 
often fail to recognize colors readily because 
of lack of what is known as color education, 
but color blindness is arrested development 
and cannot be cured. The first color used to 
test the eyes for this is green, and then the 
tints of red. If a person fails to see these, 
his vision is said to be defective. 

We arrive at diversity of colors by mixing 
or combining. If we analyze these combina- 
tions, we receive the three primary ones, red, 
yellow and blue. These are the colors in pig- 
ments and all study along this line must start 
from this basis. Hence a painter really needs 
only these three and all the others can be 
produced by combination. Thus the second- 
ary colors are obtained by mixing two of 
these; as, orange, from red and yellow; green, 
from yellow and blue ; and violet, from red 
and blue. These six are the colors of the 
rainbow, and by a standard is meant the 
purest possible expression of that color. Thus 
a tint, which is lighter than the standard, is 
produced by mixing white with the color ; a 
shade, which is darker, by mixing black with 
the standard ; and a hue, by mixing two of 
more colors, is a combination of these colors, 
one of which predominates. 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



95 



In all of the color work of the kindergarten 
the standards are adhered to, as they are the 
best pigmentary imitations of the six found 
in the spectrum — "Nature's palette of pure 
colors" — and as the children advance in this 
work, they learn to appreciate the beautiful. 
After the children are perfectly familiar with 
these and their corresponding tints and shades, 
they learn to recognize the different harmon- 
ies of color, or the pleasing association of un- 
like colors. They first become familiar with 
a contrasted harmony, as a white used with 
blue, then the dominant harmonies. Later 
the complementary, and analagous harmonies 
are mastered, and finally the broken chords. 
In becoming familiar with these harmonies, 
one learns to appreciate the blending of col- 
ors in art and in nature, and it is the source 
of development from an artistic standpoint. 

Froebel says "The thought always grows 
clearer to the child when words and motion 
go hand in hand." For this reason and for 
that of the psychological fact that one re- 
members only that to which he has given 
his interest and attention, the ball games and 
songs or rhymes are used in connection with 
this gift. We realize that to the young child, 
the activity of the ball is more pleasing than 
its qualities, so a series of games and songs 
with the fascinating plaything, which will 
lead the child to learn these qualities by 
practical experience, is necessary. For in- 
stance, the ball can play a symbolic part in 
action, and it is here in this game of "make 
believe" or "pretense," that the child is most 
at home. Hence it is evident, that the points 
illustrated in these games and songs, will be 
retained, "For the child remembers only what 
interests him." 



QUESTIONS ON ABSTRACT 
CLASS. 



SENIOR 



The First Gift. 

Describe the first gift. 

Why called a gift? 

Why did Froebel select the ball for the 
first gift? 

What can you say of it as a plaything? 

When should it first be given to the child? 

What is the salient characteristic of this 
gift? 

What is the basis of the kindergarten sys- 
tem? 

What is the natural law of this gift? 



Name the universal properties of matter. 

What is the ball a type of? 

What does the child learn of motion? 

How many kinds of motion are there? 

How are form and color learned? 

How would you bring out the idea of form 
with the child? 

How would you develop color? 

What is the standard of color? 

Define a standard color; a tint; a shade; a 
hue. 

Why is it important that the child should 
gain a clear idea of the six (6) standard col- 
ors, before more artistic colors are attempted? 

What is color blindness? 

In what trades or professions is an abso- 
lutely perfect color sense necessary? 

Why play games and say rhymes with this 
gift? ' 



The best thing in the world is work, and 
the best work in the world is for the chil- 
dren. It is the seed and the soil and the 
planting that we must look after, together 
with watchfulness of the growing plants. 
What the harvest will be we know not. We 
may never know and we need not know. The 
influence of a great teacher may reach — must 
reach — through all the years. And the great 
teacher, whether in the country school or the 
university, is the one whose work is limited 
only by his possibilities — not for self, but for 
children. — Orville T. Bright. 



That which attracts the mind and absorbs 
the thought of the child is forming for him 
his character as a man. If he is given a field 
of exercise in pure, active and productive 
thought, it will develop in him a purpose in 
life and open to him a sphere where his en- 
ergies may be directed by some definite aim. 



There are two good rules which ought to 
be written upon every heart. Never believe 
anything bad about anybody, unless you posi- 
tively know that it is true. Never tell even 
that, unless you feel that it is absolutely 
necessary, and that God is listening while 
you tell it. — Van Dyke. 

There is not a coin small enough ever 
stamped by the hand of man to pay the salary 
of a poor teacher; there is not gold enough 
in the mines of the world to measure the 
value of a teacher who lifts the souls of chil- 
dren to the true dignity of life and living. — 
Theodore Parker. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



A NEW METHOD IN INFANT EDUCATION. 

Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

(Reprinted in part by request) 

Recently an able woman physician, Dr. Med. Ma- 
ria Montessori, Docente all' Universita di Roma, 
has modified the kindergarten methods to such an 
extent as to warrant the title of this article. 

Dr. Montessori found the Seguim exercises so val- 
uable in the training of defective children, changing 
some of them into normal children, that she was led 
to believe that the exercises could be modified for 
use with normal children. 

"Stated boldly," says the London Journal of Edu- 
cation, "the general fundamental principles of the 
"Metodo Montessori," will not perhaps sound very 
novel. For the ground idea of the new pedagogy, 
as Dr. Montessori conceives it is liberty, the free 
development of the spontaneous individual manifes- 
tations of the child, an idea which Froebel enunci- 
ated long ago and which we all hold in theory. 

But Dr. Montessori is perhaps justified in point- 
ing out that, in spite of theory, education in fact is 
still infused by the spirit of slavery. So far, she 
says, education may be typified by the school desk 
which has been carefully perfected to permit "of 
the greatest possible immobility" of the child. And, 
as his free bodily activity is hindered, so, too, his 
spirit is forced and constrained — * * * 

As for the teacher, she, under the new pedagogy, 
must be content to play a much more passive, if at 
the same time a much more scientific role than has 
hitherto been assigned her. She is to be primarily 
a trained scientific observer of the phenomena ex- 
hibited by the child, and her office is rather to direct 
than to instruct. Her active intervention is to be 
reduced to a minimum, and her art lies in knowing 
just when her help is necessary to spur on the de- 
veloping intelligence of a child and when he may be 
safely left to himself." 

In 1906, Dr. Montessori was given an opportunity 
to test her theories practically in a kindergarten 
day nursery in Rome for children between three and 
seven years of age. 

The various occupations appear to be indicated 
by the practical needs in the life of the little child 
and to be closely related to his environment. To 
quote again from the article in the Journal, "The 
keynote of the Montessori method is simplicity. 
The equipment is similar to an ordinary kindergar- 
ten. The rooms are furnished with small tables 
seating two or three children, and little chairs; 
there are pictures and blackboards on the walls, and 
there is a piano. There is also a room with a bath 
and low washstand basins, and, if possible, the ac- 
commodation includes a garden with flower beds 
and homes for pet animals. 

The education begins naturally with "exercises 
of the practical life." The children are led first of 
all to make themselves independent and masters of 
their surroundings. They learn to dress and undress 
and wash themselves; to move among objects with- 
out noise and disturbance; to see that the cupboards 



are tidy and the furniture dusted. To facilitate 
these exercises Dr. Montessori has invented certain 
occupations, consisting of wooden frames containing 
each two pieces of cloth or leather, which can be 
hooked or buttoned or laced or tied together, as 
the case may be. The children enjoy fastening and 
unfastening these, and the skill they thus attain 
comes into practice on their own clothes or each 
other's." 

The garden work, the care of pets and simple 
gymnastic exercises, marching and singing games 
are similar to those already familiar to us. 

The sense of touch is specially trained by the use 
of wooden boards covered with paper of different 
qualities from very rough to smooth as well as col- 
lections of velvet, satin, cotton cloth, etc. The child 
is taught to finger lightly, to recognize the distinc- 
tive quality and to name it blindfolded. 

There are blocks for developing the sense of 
weight. Quick perception of dimension is taught 
by means of boards which contain wooden pegs of 
graduated sizes fitting into corresponding holes. 

Bulk is taught in a similar way by blocks of the 
same length but varying thicknesses; length by flat 
sticks of different lengths. 

The varying color shades are arranged on mov- 
able spools and matching exercises are the rule. 

One of the distinctive features of the new method 
of infant education as planned by Dr. Montessori 
in Italy is the return to old fashioned methods of 
learning to read by starting with letters. Even up 
to the present date in our own land alphabet blocks 
and alphabet books are many and beautiful, and one 
almost has to do battle to keep them out of the 
nursery. During the past few years, however, a 
deeper interest than ever has arisen in "The Natural 
Method of Learning to Read" by starting with the 
actual reading of rhyme or story, thus going beyond 
the long time popular word method. 

Our kindergartens have succeeded in excluding 
reading and writing and have emphasized the prin- 
ciple so well enounced by Froebel, "The A B C of 
things should precede the A B C of words." It did 
seem that we had succeeded in cutting out the three 
R's, but Dr. Montessori has put them back in the 
infant school in Rome and we must convince our 
Italian friend of the error or let her convince us. 

Altogether it behooves us to be liberal, not dog- 
matic, and to listen to the tale with interest. 

In the Montessori method writing comes first. 

Drawing precedes writing as with us, but it would 
seem that the exercises are given to practice work 
rather than free expression. 

The children learn the letters through touch as 
well as sight. The letters are cut out of emery 
paper and gummed on to cardboard. The child feels 
the letters as he does other objects. The child 
learns the names and phonetic sounds as he handles 
the letter forms. 

Games are played blindfold with the letters when 
the names are known. 

In the third stage, the child is given letters cut 



THfi KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



07 



out and tries to make a printed word which corre- 
sponds to the spoken sounds of a spoken word. 

After this it is said that the children try to write 
spontaneously — "No child is forced to learn to write 
— writing is taught only to children who desire it." 
It is said that under this method, without compul- 
sion, that a child of four takes on an average one 
and a half months to learn to write That a child 
of five will learn in a month; and that all the chil- 
dren write well and in a flowing hand." 

(The daily program as given below shows long 
hours.) 

The method as it proceeds to reading reminds us 
of the well-known Word Method, now giving way 
to "the Natural Method" in many schools. 

There are reading games similar to those used in 
our "busy work." The reading is mental, not vocal 
at first. The child reads the name of a toy, then 
finds the toy and shows it. He must have read the 
word or he could not know what to find. 

The reading game may finally take the form of 
"a paper on which quite a long sentence is written 
describing some action which the child forthwith 
performs." 

It is claimed that while no child is forced to learn 
to read, many learn in fifteen days! We do not 
fully understand just how much this signifies but it 
must be remembered that the institution in which 
these methods are being introduced has an all-day 
program. It is a sort of day nursery. The children 
are left free to play or sleep or work. 

It is said that they leave toys for letters. Is this 
desirable in four-year-olds? 

The daily schedule of exercises has been trans- 
lated for me from the original by Miss Mary F. 
Schell of P. S. 125, Manhattan, and reads as follows: 

9:00 — 10:00 — Health — Visits for cleanliness. Ex- 
ercises of practical life, to visit the 
room, to put it in order and to 
clean the objects. 

Language — Talk of what was done 
the previous day. Moral exhorta- 
tion. 
Prayer together. 

10:00 — 11:00 Intellectual exercises. Object lessons 
with brief intermission for repose. 
Nomenclature. 
Exercise of senses. 

11:00- — 11:30 Simple gymnastics. Movements for 
exercise and grace. Normal posi- 
tion of the body, walking in order, 
salutes, motions for attention. Mov- 
ing objects with grace. 

11:30 — 12:00 Recess — short prayer. 
12:00— 1:00 Free play. 

1:00'— 2:00 Directed play, if possible in the fresh 
air. Exercises of practical life as 
cleaning a room, dusting, putting 
objects in order. Conversation. 

2:00 — 3:00 Hand work — drawing, etc. 



3:00 — 4:00 Gymnastics, collectively with song, in 

open air if possible. 

Visit plants and animals. 

In a very interesting chapter upon "Pottery and 
Construction," Dr. Montessori recognizes clay mod- 
eling as "the most rational" of all the hand work 
planned by Froebel. 

If we understand her point of view, it fails to 
recognize the value of the simple modeling of the 
kindergarten and moves on too soon to "the pro- 
duction of useful objects" as vases. 

She says "In giving clay to model at caprice, the 
children are not directed to produce useful work." 
She says, "Work in free modeling serves in the 
study of the psychic individuality of the child in his 
spontaneous manifestations but not to educate him. 

With this point of view we do not agree. We 
claim that it is of educational value, of great educa- 
tional value to the child to use clay as a means of 
expression. 

It is certainly true, however, that the children 
will soon love to make some simple objects of use 
such as little dishes, baskets, flower pots, standards. 

These we always prefer to balls, cubes or cylin- 
ders of clay. 

Dr. Montessori writes that she thought to ex- 
periment in the "Case dei Bambini" with some work 
in clay suggested by an artist in "The School of 
Noble Youth." This school and also the society 
connected with it 'aim to educate the youth to an 
appreciation of the beauty of their surroundings, 
especially objects, edifices, monuments." 

The Case dei Bambini, it should be remembered 
is held in close touch with the home life of the 
Ichildren and one of its aims is to develop a re- 
gard of the house and its surroundings. 

This Dr. Montessori wisely recognizes as the 
best beginning of a civic education. 

Professor Random, the artist to whom she refers, 
objects to "dry moral treatises upon civic life" but 
proceeds by means of an artistic education "to lead 
the children to prize and love the objects about him, 
especially the monuments." 

His school aims to reproduce these city monu- 
ments and to study their history. 

We understand that it is situated in one of the 
most beautiful parts of Rome. The school has en- 
deavored also "to revise a form of art which the 
Italians, especially the Florentines, excelled in 
namely: pottery. 

Taking her clue from this school for older chil- 
dren, Dr. Montessori seems to us to be making the 
same mistake that our elementary schools are now 
discovering they have been making of late years, 
namely, too close a following of the work of primi- 
tive man. 

She speaks of the great historic and artistic im- 
portance of the vase, of the fact that it was man's 
first cooking vessel. She recommends that the lit- 
tle children model vases of various sizes and shapes, 
with one or two beaks, with handles, etc. 



98 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



She comes nearer the play spirit of the kinder- 
garten when she says, "The small pupils love to 
make the vases and preserve their own work of 
which they are very proud. With the clay, after- 
wards, they model small objects such as eggs or 
fruit with which they fill the vessels." 

But if it is true that children of five or six "com- 
mence work with the wheel" we fear she is getting 
too near child labor. It would be sad, indeed, if 
the kindergarten or any system of early training 
should be the means of showing parents that their 
babies can work. 

In "The School of Noble Youth," the pupils con- 
struct small houses, making their own bricks. This 
too has suggested constructive exercises to Dr. 
Montessori and she speaks of the pleasure the little 
ones have in making walls of small bricks. This 
we can approve for we have often seen a group of 
kindergarten children unite in utilizing the waste 
pieces of clay in making a fence or wall. 

We agree fully with Dr. Montessori in the im- 
portance of the occupation of clay modeling. 

We would have the children model any objects of 
interest about them, including vases but we believe 
the historic sense is entirely lacking at this early 
age, and therefore, we would not confine ourselves 
to any object because of its historic meaning. We 
would leave that for later grade work. 

Dr. Montessori excludes weaving and sewing on 
cardboard as they are "not adapted to the physi- 
ologic state of the infantile organ of sight when the 
power of accommodation of the eye has not yet 
reached its complete development." 

We agree with her view in regard to these occu- 
pations in the main. 

The chapter on "Nature in Education" in Dr. 
Montessori's "II Metodo dela Pedagogia Scientifica," 
is most reassuring. Genuine work in gardens such 
as Froebel urged and such as all kindergartners be- 
lieve in and encourage, is given place in this Italian 
Infant school. 

We understand that the Italian Infant school is 
intended to be placed in the house in which the 
children live, not only for the comfort of the young- 
er children who are permitted to enter at even two 
and three years of age, but also that the mothers 
may be at ease, and that they, too, may observe and 
learn gradually how to deal with their little ones. 

We hope that some model tenement houses will 
soon be constructed in our city with a model infant 
play room opening on a garden or at least on a 
playground. Our settlement houses in which kin- 
dergartens formed the nucleus, seem best to corre- 
spond with this Italian plan said to be already in 
existence in Rome and Milan. 

In the first garden thus planned for the children 
in the heart of Rome, the surrounding neighbors, as 
they have here in New York, despoiled it with ref- 
use thrown from the windows. Soon, however, lit- 
tle .by little, the children themselves so interested 
their parents in their garden that "without any ex- 



postulation" but seemingly out of "respect for the 
work of the children," this annoyance ceased. 

In the "Case dei Bambini," the garden has a cen- 
ter path, one side being planted with trees for the 
children to play under. Probably the sand pile is 
on this side. 

The other side is divided into individual plots for 
each child, so that we find essentially the Froebc- 
lian garden recognizing both individuality and the 
community spirit. 

By conversation with the Baroness Franchetti, 
who called my attention to this interesting work in 
Italy, I learned that in some of the later work in 
the elementary grades each child keeps a record 
book of his or her observations upon one individual 
seed which he or she plants. 

Miss Lucy Latter, who visited our schools upon 
the Mosely invitation, centered her success in Eng- 
land around the school garden. Her excellent book 
upon the subject seems to have guided to some ex- 
tent the work in Italy. 

It is delightful to realize these happy interchanges 
between the kindergartens of different speaking peo- 
ple and to know that nature that "makes all the 
world akin" is the best connecting link. 



EFFECT OF HABIT. 

Grace Dow. 

"Habit is a cable. We weave a thread of it each 
day, and it becomes so strong we cannot break it." 

Scientists tell us that each thought and act of 
mind leaves a path on the brain. 

Repeated action deepens the path, and makes it 
more difficult to act in another line, and easier to 
follow the beaten track. An education along any 
line is but the result of path making. Teachers 
should emphasize in every possible manner through 
precept and example the importance of making 
paths both good and true, and of changing very 
quickly when a wrong course is begun. 

During the first few years of a child's life he may 
be taught good habits nearly as easily as careless 
ones, so every lesson given a child should have this 
object in view above all others: — character building. 



DEADLY DRY AIR. 

Dr. Snedden maintains that all heated rooms 
should be provided with constantly boiling water 
giving off steam in order to prevent the deadly dry- 
ness, which causes eye and ear trouble,' pneumonia, 
and all forms of colds, catarrh, etc. Where heating 
is done with stoves, an open vessel filled with water 
can be easily provided, and with steam heat, per- 
haps a valve could be left open. With other forms 
of heating a small gas or oil stove should be pro- 
vided. In an extremity an ordinary kerosene lamp 
could be so arranged as to keep a vessel of water at 
the boiling point. The health of both pupils and 
teacher will warrant the trouble. 



To read and not to know, 
Is to plow and not to sow. 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



99 




KINDERGARTEN DAILY PROGRAM 

Noea Keogh 
JANUARY. 

Thursday — Circle — Day of return after vaca- 
tion. Children's relating of Christmas 
doings. Their tree and what Santa Claus 
brought. 
Rhythms — Chosen by piano and followed 

by children. 
Table 1st — Free drawing of Christmas pres- 
ents. 
Table 2nd — Building church with Hennes- 
sey blocks. 
Friday — Free choice day. 

FIRST WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — The New Year. Its days, 
weeks, and months. The name of New 
Year, 19 — . The names of days of week. 
How many? 

Rhythm — Those learned reviewed in turn. 

Table 1st — Free cutting and mounting of 
things to represent days of week. Mon- 
day, tub ; Tuesday, flat-iron ; Wednesday, 
mop ; Thursday, needle ; Friday, broom ; 
Saturday, dish and spoon ; Sunday, 
church. 

Table 2nd — Clay-modelling of Christmas 
presents. !W-if£f3M 

Games — Two Santa Claus games and squir- 
rel game from Jenks & Walker. 
Tuesday — Circle — The name of New Year 
19 — . The name of new month — January. 
The names of days of week. The names 
of months. 

Rhythm — Here we go round the Mulberry 
Bush, from Mari Hofer's Singing Games. 
March by twos. 

Table 1st — Laying Hailmann cubes in groups 
of seven. Naming them the days of 
week. 

Table 2nd — Make forms with seven rings. 



Games — Pussy Corner; How do you do; 
Find button to music. 
Wednesday — Circle — The New Year facts re- 
viewed. The names of months: their 
number. The story of Father Time from 
Child-World. 

Rhythm — Toy Day. This time given to free 
play with children's Christmas presents 
brought to school. 

Table 1st — Lay Hailmann cylinders in 
groups of twelves to represent months. 

Table 2nd — Free drawing of the play things 
brought to kindergarten. 

Rhythm — March by twos and fours. 

Games — Toy Time. 

Thursday — Circle — 'Repetition of year work 
and yesterday's story. The thought of 
each month particularly. Four weeks in 
a month. 

Rhythm — March of twos and fours. 

Table 1st — Draw pictures of toboggan slid- 
ing down hill. The hill of chalk. 

Table 2nd — String beads in groups of four 
according to color. 

Games — Toy Time. 

Friday — Circle — Week's review. 

Rhythm and Games — Given to play with 

toys. 
Table 1st — Free cutting of Christmas toys. 
Table 2nd — Free choice. 

SECOND WEEK. 

Monday — Circle— Esquimo week. A picture 
of esquimo life has been put upon the 
board. Study of this pictvire. The peo- 
ple that live in the north where it is al- 
ways winter. Their homes called igios. 

Rhythm — Skating, marching. 

Table 1st — Make igloas with half rings on 
the peg boards. 

Table 2nd — Clay modelling of igloas. 

Games — Pussy Corner, Competition games. 



IOO 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Tuesday — Circle — The clothes of the esqui- 
mo and how secured. The hunting of 
the fathers for walrus, bears, etc. 

Rhythm — Skipping, marching. 

Table 1st — Sand-table work. Make esqui- 
mo village. Use cotton-batton for snow. 

Table 2nd — Cut esquimo from white paper 
doubled so they'll stand. 

Games — Tap stick number of times on floor; 
imitated correctly by children. 

Wednesday — Circle — The Mother Esquimo's 
work, making the clothes. Their lives; 
food ; care of the dogs. 

Rhythm — Skipping tag; in and out tag. 

Table 1st — Cut dog from black cardboard. 

Table 2nd — Cut sled from black cardboard. 
Harness together with black shoe-string. 

Games — Play games with bean bags that 
Esquimous do with arrows. Throw and 
land in given circle. This used as com- 
petition game. 

Thursday — Circle — Their lives, games, care 
of the dogs and all else of interest. 

Rhythm — Running around circle and adding 
one more each time. Running tag. 

Table 1st — -Free-hand bear and mount. 

Table 2nd — Free-hand candle-sticks of gilt, 
candle of white, mount on brown. 

Games — Roll, throw, bounce ball. 

Friday — Circle — Review talk of week. 

Rhythm — Review. 
Table 1st — Cut free-hand anything of es- 

quimau life. 
Table 2nd — Mount as poster with chalk for 

snow. 
Games — Free choice. 

THIRD WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Holland week. The land 

of mills and dykes. All about dykes. 
Rhythm — Hopping on one foot. Hopping 

tag. Snow man. Skating. 
Table 1st — Build dyke with Hennessey 

blocks. 
Table 2nd — Clay modelling of wooden shoe. 
Games — With first gift balls. All on floor 

in row. Hide one and guess. Change 

their place and put right. Same game 

with children instead of balls. 
Tuesday — Circle — Wind-mills, boats, sports, 

skating. 
Rhythm — Snow man. Chimes of Dunkirk 

from Mari Hofer's Singing Games. 
Table 1st — Make poster in the blue and 

white of ship on the water. 
Table 2nd— Wind-mills with second gifts. 



Games — Same as yesterday with various 
articles. 

Color Games — Color pinned on child's back. 
Colors on end of yard stick. 
Wednesday- — Circle — Costumes. Love of flow- 
ers, buds. 

Rhythm — Chimes of Dunkirk. 

Table 1st — Make tulips of cutting paper 
folded, wound on end of long straw over 
which is rolled green tissue paper. These 
make good window-box decorations. 
They have a conventional pattern effect. 

Table 2nd — Make wind-mills of second gift. 

Games — "I Spy." Competition game with 
blocks. 
Thursday — Circle — The Gretchen Christmas 
story re-told. The brave stork story re- 
told. The story of the Leak in the Dyke. 

Rhythm — -Chimes of Dunkirk. 

Table 1st — Paint Dutch boys and girls. 

Table 2nd — Cut same. 

Games — Snow man. Drop the handkerchief. 
Friday — Circle — Review Holland. 

Rhythm — Review. 

Table 1st — Unfinished work. 

Table 2nd — Free choice of material. 

Games — Free choice of material. 

FOURTH WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Japan ; the country of sun- 
shine and flowers. Their love of the 
chrysanthemum. 

Rhythm — Teach Japanese bow to music. 

Table 1st — Make charcoal drawing of 
chrysanthemum on narrow panels. 

Table 2nd — Clay-modelling of flower in 
flower-pot. 

Games — Pussy Corner with Japanese de- 
rivation. (Truth on each corner, evil in 
middle). 
Tuesday — Circle — Their costumes; their ex- 
treme politeness and never-changing pleas- 
antness. 

Rhythm — As yesterday. 

Table 1st — Make Japanese poster of colored 
papers for kimona and sash with wall- 
paper umbrella. 

Table 2nd — Begin weaving paper mats. 

Games — Run around circle and bow low 
when you meet, as Japanese do. 
Wednesday — Circle — Customs, jinrikishas, 
eating on tiny table, chop-sticks, tea. 

Rhythm — As before. 

Table 1st — Make Japanese fan of wall- 
paper with short split straw for handle. 

Table 2nd — Continue weaving mat. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



101 



Games — Imitation and guess. 
Thursday — Circle — Japanese Fairy Tales, 

"The Wonderful Tea Kettle." 
Rhythm — As before. 
Table 1st — 'Paint Japanese lanterns. 
Table 2nd — Cut same. These make very 

pretty room decoration when strung across 

a dark background. 
Games—Mulberry bush, Little Miss Muf- 

fet. 
Friday — Circle — Review Japan. 
Rhythm — Review. 
Table 1st — Continue weaving. 
Table 2nd — Free choice. 
Games — Free choice. 



A TOLEDO KINDERGARTEN 

The Toledo News-Bee gives the illustra- 
tion on the opposite page and the following 
extract from a morning exercise : 

"What live things have you got at home?" 

Raymond gets up and answers, in the ab- 
sence of other responses, "Two dogs, chick- 
ens, rabbits and a canary bird." 

The kindergarten teacher smiles. All faces 
are turned toward Raymond. 

"What do you other children say?" asks the 
teacher. 

"Parrot," "goat," "geese," "ducks," "pony," 
come the rapid responses from the other 5- 
year-olds. 

"Is that all?" asks the teacher. She smiles 
at a chorus of "yes." Then, "Can't you think 
of any other live thing that you have at your 
house?" The baby class is silent. 

Big eyes look up in wonderment. Little 
mouths open in amazement. Baby feet 
shuffle uneasily. There is squirming and 
fidgeting. 

Something Missing. 

The kindergarten teacher goes down among 
her "babies" as would a mother. All gather 
around her. Nellie and Maud and Hazel, 
Tom and Earl and Michael all feel that they 
are not quite complete in their answer. In 
the child mind there is a psychic something, 
whispering. 

"Oh, Miss Mary, we's got a baby. He's 
alive," shouts little Nell. 

The door of the child mind is unlocked. 
A gleam of light illuminates every eye. "So 
'as we," "I'se got a baby bruver," "We's got 
a little sister — teeny, weeny." 

"That's just perfectly lovely," assures the 
teacher; "all be seated, and we'll sing the 
song of the little squirrel that lives up in the 



big oak tree and carries nuts to its babies." 

"And you little men and women " 

Little minds not accustomed to being ad- 
dressed that way are dazed. Fitful glances 
to and fro in wonderment. 

"You are real sure you have mentioned all 
the lives things you have at home? But be- 
fore you answer we'll all sing the song of the 
bee." There's a rift in the cloud of child 
thought. Piping voices in various keys fill 
the air. 

Another Ray of Light. 

"But you all have fathers and mothers at 
home?" Another dawn in the infant intellect. 
Surprise is in every child face. Why didn't 
they think of that? Why should Miss Mary 
ask such a question? Little Nell is alone in 
her feelings. She has no papa. He is dead. 

Then follow explanations from the teacher 
concerning mother and father, the obligations 
of children to their parents and instructions 
to "love, honor and obey." The struggle that 
papa and mamma make to provide for their 
little ones, the same as does the squirrel and 
the bee in the songs, is a part of the work 
of the teacher in Toledo kindergartens, to- 
gether with teaching handicraft as exempli- 
fied in paper chains and different designs in 
various colors and shades. 



You cannot train a child for life by teach- 
ing- it to do what it hates. — Dr. C. W. Eliot. 



"What we make our children love and de- 
sire is more important than what we make 
them learn." — John Ouincy Adams. 



Every word has only the meaning which 
its hearers can receive ; you cannot express 
honor to the shameless nor love to the un- 



loving. — Ruskin. 



"The rights of all are equal. Justice, poised 
and balanced in eternal calm, will shake from 
the golden scales in which are weighed the 
acts of men, the very dust of prejudice and 
caste : No race, no color, no previous condi- 
tion, can change the rights of men." 

To be angry is to revenge the fault of others 
upon ourselves.— Pope. 



Know how sublime a thing it is to suffer and be 
strong. — Longfellow. 



Honesty in little things is not a little thing. 



It is a great thing to do a little thing well. 



1 02 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




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THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



103 




STORIES, GAMES, PLAYS 

RECITATIONS, MEMORY GEMS, ETC. 



A DAY WITH BOBBIE AT KINDER- 
GARTEN. 

By Garrett Williams 

One morning when Bobbie went to kinder- 
garten he told his teacher, Miss Grant, all 
about Winifred. Miss Grant was very much 
interested, and all the little boys and girls 
crowded around Bobbie to hear about his 
kitten. 

Johnnie Jones asked : "What does it look 
like? Is it hard or soft on its outside?" 
Quite a number of the little boys and girls 
said they had never seen a kitty close to, so 
Miss Grant told Bobbie that when he came 
to school the next day he might bring Wini- 
fred with him. She wanted all the children 
to see a kitty close to, and to feel it, and 
know what it was like. 

"Bobbie," she asked, "what does your kitten 
look like?" 

"It looks nice," answered Bobbie. 

"Yes," said his teacher, "but how else does 
it look?" 

Bobbie didn't know. He only knew it 
looked nice and was a kitty, and its name was 
Winifred; so teacher tried a different way. 
She asked Bobbie what he saw when he 
looked at his kitten. 

"I see my kitty," said Bobbie, "and her 
name's Winifred." 

Just then a little boy called, "You see a 
tail, because kitties have tails. Then Bobbie 
understood what Miss Grant meant, and he 
said, "I see two ears." A little girl called, 
"A mouth to eat with," and another, "A nose 
to smell with." Then all the children shout- 
ed at once, "Tail, eyes, nose, mouth, ears, 
legs, feet." 

When they had finished, Miss Grant said 
they had not told her yet all about a kitten. 
There was still something more. Tommy 
Johnson said, "Teeth," and Bobbie thought of 
tongue; yet still Miss Grant said that those 
were not all. 

The children thought and thought, but they 
couldn't think of anything more about a kit- 
ten. Miss Grant called Bobbie to come and 
stand in front of her, then she said, "Here' 



are Bobbie's eyes and nose and mouth. You 
all see them, don't you?" All the children 
said "Yes." 

"Now tell me where they are," said Miss 
Grant. 

Johnnie Jones pointed at Bobbie and said, 
"There they are." 

"They're in his face," called Tommy John- 
son, and then all the children saw that Bob- 
bie's eyes and nose and mouth were in his 
face ; so, of course, kitty had a face, too. 
Then they thought of a head and a body, 
but still Miss Grant said they hadn't told 
all yet. 

Again they thought, and thought, and 
thought, and finally Tommy Johnson said 
that a kitten had an outside and an inside, 
but none of the children could tell the name 
for a kitten's outside. They said it wasn't a 
dress, and it wasn't a coat or trousers, and 
it wasn't skin. 

"Are you sure it isn't skin?" asked Miss 
Grant, and all the children answered, "Yes, 
they were sure." 

Miss Grant told them they were partly 
wrong and partly right ; that a kitten's out- 
side was not called skin, but a kitten had 
skin on the outside. She said that on this 
skin grew hair and the hair was called fur. 
She told Bobbie to bring his kitty next day 
and all the children should see it close to and 
feel of its fur. Some other day Miss Grant 
promised to tell them about a kitten's inside. 

Pretty soon it was eleven o'clock and time 
to go home, but all the children said they 
would come early the next rnornmg to see 
Bobbie's kitten. 



THE EVERYDAY ADVENTURES OF 
ALBERT AND ANNABEL. 

LELLA A. REEVE. 

IX 

(Continued from last issue.) 

She was just going to sit down with her 
feet in it again, when she saw a head with 
long yellow hair rising up out of the water 
very near her. 

"Is you a little dirl?" she asked, sweetly, of 
the head. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



"No, I ain't," was the decided answer, and 
a square little boy's figure scrambled out of 
the water towards her. 

"I'm Jim Palmer," it said, "if you call me 
a dirl, I'll lick you." 

"O," cried Annabel, "O," and fled up the 
beach to her mama. 

X. 

AN OCTOBER AFTERNOON. 

On one of the most beautiful of October 
days, the Blake family accompanied by Sarah, 
started for a visit to the children's aunt, An- 
nabel, who had a summer home in New 
Hampshire which she loved so much that this 
year she and Uncle Ben, her husband, were 
staying there for the winter with their five boys. 

Aunt Annabel met the Blakes at a little 
station called Glen. She had been in Europe 
for several years and Annabel had never be- 
fore seen her. When she kissed her name- 
sake, the little girl turned to her mama and 
said in a whisper: "Who is dat person?" 

"That is your dear Aunt Annabel; once 
she and I were little girls together in grand- 
ma's house in Boston. 

Aunt Annabel had a great deal of pretty 
hair, and she wore beautiful clothes. Annabel 
looked at her foi some time. She certainly 
was lovely. "Isn't she a dandy?" whispered 
Albert to his sister. Annabel put her arms 
quickly about her mother and replied, "She 
don't is so pretty as mama." 

New Hampshire is a picturesque state as 
many people know. Mr. and Mrs. Blake 
talked a great deal about the blue mountains 
and the rushing rivers and the wooded roads. 
They took long walks and drives with Uncle 
Ben and Aunt Annabel, but the children 
cared more for play and things to do. 

One afternoon Ben was home, and the five 
Woodruff boys with Albert, Annabel and 
Sarah started off to gather nuts. 

In one of Uncle Ben's gardens which came 
up to the roadside, yellow pumpkins were 
lying all over the ground, and some cattle 
had been turned in to eat them. 

The garden was' on a steep side hill, and 
just as the children came walking down the 
road, they saw a cow put down her head and 
jump. Little Annabel ran behind Sarah, 
though the cow was on the other side of the 
fence, but the boys all hurried to the fence 
to look over. Soon they began to laugh. 

The cow had tried to bite a pumpkin, but 
when she touched it, it had begun to roll 
down hill. Then the cow had started after 



it, and found she couldn't stop. "Go it, old 
mooley," cried one of the boys. At the bot- 
tom of the garden, the fence stopped both 
mooley and her pumpkin, and the old cow 
began to eat as quietly as if nothing had 
happened ; then the nutting party started on. 

They crossed the road and climbed up a 
hillside, under trees hanging full of red ap- 
ples, which looked so good it was hard to 
pass them; but Cousin Ben said, "Don't fill up 
your baskets, leave room for beech-nuts ;" the. 
children turned away from the apples and 
clambered on up the hillside toward the 
beech woods. 

Over the stone wall that divided the or- 
chard from the woods, were vines heavy with 
clusters of purple wild grapes, and in amongst 
the grapes were the pink fruit and pinker 
blossoms of the thimbleberry. 

Still the children left their baskets empty, 
which was well, for they found the spreading 
beech trees loaded with delicious little nuts, 
different from any Albert or Annabel had ever 
before tasted. 

When they were all busy and interested in 
gathering the nuts, Ben slipped away from 
the little party and went to a clearing near 
them but out of sight, where he knew the 
grown members of the family were preparing 
a surprise for the children. 

The surprise was a hot supper to be eaten 
out of doors. Already a fire had been built 
and by it stood Mrs. Blake, broiling imported 
sausages which she held over the fire on a 
pointed stick. Aunt Annabel had brought 
some long rolls into which the sausages just 
fitted. Uncle Ben was making coffee, and 
papa uncorking olives. 

Just before things were ready, Ben went 
back to the beech trees for the little children 
and Sarah, and brought them to the clearing. 
The little people danced and shouted for joy 
at sight of the bright fire and the loving faces 
of their parents. 

It was a picturesque scene. The tall flames 
leaping up and casting deep shadows around ; 
the glare of the light on the faces ; the tall 
trees and dark evening sky, making a picture 
that the children always remembered. Little 
Annabel grew sleepy before supper was over, 
but Sarah's strong arms were always ready 
for "111' lamb" and she carried her tenderly 
home. 

The boys packed the things to be taken 
back, while the older people sat about on logs 
and sang a few songs as the fire died out. 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



105 



Then it grew too cold for comfort, and they 
all went trailing down the hillside to Uncle 
Ben's house tired and happy and ready for a 
night of sound sleep. 

XI. 

SKATING WITH MOTHER. 

Early one November afternoon, Albert and 
Annabel stood looking out of the sitting-room 
window, longing for amusement. 

Thanksgiving was past; all of the cousins 
had gone; lessons for the day were over; the 
weather was cold, and what was there to do? 

A tradesman was running to the kitchen 
door, looking very cold. 

"Mama," asked Albert, "could we do any- 
thing out of doors on such a cold day?" 

"I think so," she said. Four shining eyes 
watched her eagerly. 

Mama understood the dear, little, longing 
faces, and did not keep them waiting, but told 
Sarah at once to prepare the children for 
skating. When she said "skating," they 
danced and clapped their hands. Mama 
brought a pair of new skates from a closet 
and told Annabel she should learn to use 
them. 

"The ice is strong," said mama, "we will 
walk on our brook until we come to the 
pond." 

The children were very happy to have their 
mama with them. When she took one by 
each hand, they reached nearly across the 
brook. As they walked along over the ice, 
she told them how the water was flowing 
along under the ice, just the same as in sum- 
mer. "The ice," she said, "is the brook's 
winter overcoat." 

Their frozen path turned and led in be- 
tween some trees, and soon they were in the 
woods. 

They could not see their own house now. 
Little Annabel's eyes opened wide. She 
thought that things were strange and queer, 
when the only path was a brook and there 
was nothing on either side but trees and 
bushes. 

Mama saw the half-frightened little face 
and said gaily, "Isn't it pleasant to explore?" 
Whatever that meant, of course it was pleas- 
ant if mama said so, and Annabel answered 
brightly, "An'bel likes to splore." 

Soon after, the brook widened, and they 
came to the pond. After much buckling of 
skate straps, all were ready. 

Albert had learned a little about skating 
the winter before, and so started out readily, 



but down he went at once. Clambering up, 
he caught hold of mama's dress and kept 
along with her, but some boys called out to 
him, "You'll never learn to skate if you hold 
on to your mama,"' so he started off alone, 
falling down and getting up until finally he 
kept up very well. 

Little Annabel tried, too, and at last could 
stand on her skates. 

On the farther side of the pond, there was 
a fire of brush and logs with many people 
about it. Mama told Albert that if he could 
skate across and get it, he might buy some 
hot pop-corn of the man by the fire. 

Albert made the journey safely, and came 
back proud and delighted. "You know what 
to do on a cold day, don't you, mama?" said 
Albert. 

They walked back over the brook path to 
their home, and the way seemed much shorter 
than before. 

Albert told mama that next summer he 
would like to take a row-boat and follow Our 
Brook to the end of it. "It would take you 
across the pond," said mama, "and far through 
the Long Meadows to the river," and she 
smiled down into her little boy's face, for she 
understood his desire, having often wished 
herself to make the same little journey. 

When they came out of the woods, it was 
very pleasant to see their house with the 
trees around it, standing dark against a yel- 
low sunset sky. 

They climbed the hill feeling warm and 
happy, and were soon enjoying their supper 
and telling daddy all about their afternoon. 



HOW BOBBIE RAN AWAY FROM HOME 
AND WAS BROUGHT BACK AGAIN. 

By Garrett Williams. 

Bobbie's mamma went out to make some 
calls, and before going she told Bobbie not 
to go outside of the yard until she came back. 

Bobbie said, "No, Mamma," and kissed her 
good-bye, then climbed on the gate and wav- 
ed his hand and called good-bye about ten 
times. By that time she was too far away 
to hear him, so he jumped down from the 
gate and wondered what he would do next. 

There was no one for him to play with. 
All the little boys and girls he knew were at 
kindergarten. Bobbie had stayed home be- 
cause he was going to have something clone 
to one of his teeth, but the dentist had tele- 
phoned his mamma, and his mamma had told 
him to run out and play, because the dentist 
couldn't fix his tooth till tomorrow. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



That was what Bobbie told the boy with 
a gun and two dogs who called, "Hello, Bub, 
why ain't you in school?" 

Bobbie climbed on the gate again and 
shouted, "Where you going?" He didn't know 
the boy, but there wasn't anything to do and 
Bobbie was lonely. 

"To a man's house. Want to come?" 

Bobbie jumped down from the gate, open- 
ed it and ran across the street as fast as lie 
could go. The boy was a big boy, he was 
ten years old. Bobbie was only five and a 
half. 

"What's your name?" 

"Bobbie Graham. What's yours?" 

"Fred Smith. Do you live in that big 
house?" 

"Yes. Where do you live?" 

"Other end of town. Say, will your folks 
let you come along with me?" 

"Sure." Now after Bobbie said "Sure" he 
had a queer feeling in his stomach. He stood 
still a moment, for he remembered what his 
mamma had said to him. Then he thought, 
"I'll just go a little way, and then run right 
home again." 

But Fred Smith went across some one's 
yard and then turned a corner, and soon 
Bobbie didn't know which way was home. 
Fred wouldn't go back with him, because 
he had to take the gun and the dogs to a 
man who was waiting for them. 

"What man," asked Bobbie, and then he 
became so interested in what Fred told him 
about the man that he forgot all about want- 
ing to go home. 

Fred said that the man lived in a house 
almost as big as all out-doors, and almost as 
high as the sky. He said the house was full 
of lion's skins and leopard's skins and tiger's 
skins, and in one room there was a live lion 
tied to a table, so it couldn't get away and 
eat people up. 

"Will we see it?" asked Bobbie. His eyes 
were big and shining. There was a colored 
picture of a big lion in his ABC Book, at 
Lisa Lion, but, my ! he never thought they 
were alive before. 

"Maybe we won't see it," said Fred, "but 
we'll hear it growl. Fve heard it growl awful. 
And once it, it, it ate a man right up, but he, 
it, it made him awful sick to his stomach and 
he threw the man up, and he wasn't dead at 
all. I saw the man." 

Now Fred didn't mean to be a bad boy. 
He was just telling stories the way he read 
them sometimes in books, for Fred had read 



Grimm's Fairy Tales, and Anderson's Fairy 
Tales, and The Red Fairy Book, and The 
Blue Fairy Book, and The Sky-Blue-Scarlet 
Fairy Book and a great many others; But 
Bobbie believed it was all true, and so he 
opened his eyes very wide and his face got 
red with excitement. 

Pretty soon they came to the house. It 
did not reach to the sky, and it was not as 
big as all out-doors. It was not any bigger 
than the house that Bobbie lived in. 

Bobbie said angrily, "This ain't the house," 
but Fred pulled him along and rang the bell. 

"Yet, it is," he said. "The man he, he, — 
but here the door opened and Fred asked 
for the man. His name was Mr. Goode. 

Mr. Goode came and talked to Fred, but 
Bobbie did not hear what he said for he was 
listening for the lion to growl. He did not 
hear any lion growl, and he did not see any 
lion's skins or leopard's skins or tiger's skins, 
so he began to cry. Then Mr. Goode took 
the dogs around the house to the barn, and 
Fred went with him, but Bobbie sat on the 
steps and cried as hard as he could. 

Pretty soon a tall man came along with 
yellow mustaches that curled up at the ends. 
He was walking very fast, and didn't see Bob- 
bie. As soon as Bobbie saw the man Ke 
jumped up and ran after him screaming, 
"Papa, boo-hoo! Papa, boo-hoo-hoo !" 

The tall man was Bobbie's papa. He turn- 
ed around and picked Bobbie up in his arms 
and carried him home. 

Bobbie's mamma was very much frighten- 
ed when she came home and couldn't find 
her little boy. She looked everywhere in the 
house. She even looked in the pantry draw- 
ers and on the shelves in the preserve closet. 
Then she looked out in the yard, and up in 
the trees, . though she knew Bobbie was too 
small to climb them. 

When Papa came home carrying Bobbie, 
she was crying and wringing her hands and 
tearing her hair, and was just going to send 
for the police to hunt for him. 

Mamma was so glad to see Bobbie alive 
and well that she hugged and kissed him 
about twenty times, and did not scold him at 
all. 

After Mamma had stopped kissing him, 
Papa took Bobbie between his knees and ask- 
ed, "Bobbie why did you run away?" 
"I don't know," said Bobbie. 
"Didn't Mamma tell you to stay home?" 
"Yes." 
"Then why did you run away?" 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



10 



7 



"I, I forgetted to stay home." 

"Then," said Papa, "I must give you some- 
thing so you will remember better next tim.e." 
So he laid Bobbie across his knees and 
spanked him very hard. And Bobbie cried 
hard, too, because it hurt, and when Papa 
stopped spanking him, Bobbie promised that 
he would never run away any more. 

Then Bobbie and Bobbie's papa and mam- 
ma went out and sat on the piazza and watch- 
ed the sun set, and the lady who lived next 
door brought them over some ice cream. She 
said they had more than they could eat at 
her house, and she thought it was a shame 
for it to melt and go to waste. 

Bobbie sat on Papa's lap and ate his ice 
cream, and he thought how much nicer it 
was to be home than to be running away, so 
he said as loud as he could, "Bobbie loves 
Papa and Mamma. Bobbie will not run away 
from home any more." 



WHEN BOBBIE WAS FIVE YEARS OLD. 
By Garrett Williams. 

From the time Bobbie was four years old 
he wanted to go to kindergarten. Some days 
he wanted to go so bad that he cried, and 
when Bobbie cried he could be heard all over 
the house. Mamma told him each time that 
he could go when he was five years old, but 
Bobbie didn't want to wait. 

Every day he would ask "Am I five years 
old yet?,' and when Mamma said no, Bobbie 
felt very badly. Once he told his mamma 
he didn't believe he would ever be five years 
old, because it took him so long to grow. 

One morning when Bobbie woke up Mam- 
ma told him he was five years old. O, how 
happy Bobbie was ! He could scarcely wait 
for breakfast to be over. He would not eat 
anything at all until Papa told him if he did 
not eat he would not be strong enough to go 
to kindergarten. Then Bobbie ate a whole 
saucer of oatmeal and drank a big glass of 
milk. 

After breakfast Mamma took Bobbie by 
the hand, and they walked three blocks and 
turned a corner, and then walked three blocks 
more, and came to a big house. A great many 
little boys and girls were going into the house, 
and Mamma said "Here it is ;" then she and 
Bobbie went in too. 

They went down a long hall and into a 
room where there was a lady that Mamma 
talked to. The lady smiled at Bobbie, and 
when she smiled she wrinkled her nose, and 



her eyes looked kind, just as if she wanted 
to kiss some one, so Bobbie didn't feel at all 
afraid. He walked close up to her and said, 
"Why do you make your nose go that way?" 

The lady laughed and wrinkled her nose 
more than before, but she did not tell him 
why she did it. 

Then Mamma kissed him good-bye and 
went away. When Mamma went away a 
queer feeling came into Bobbie's stomach, 
and two big tears jumped right out of his 
eyes and splashed on the floor. Bobbie was 
so surprised that he jumped too. The lady 
with the kind eyes and wrinkley nose took 
his handkerchief, which Mamma had put in 
his pocket before they started' from home, and 
wiped his face for him. Bobbie said, "I'm 
not crying. The tears just came all over my 
cheeks before I could stop them." The lady 
said sometimes her tears did that way too. 
The lady's name was Miss Grant. 

The children were calling, "Miss Grant, 
Miss Grant"; and laughing and talking and 
shouting. One little girl called, "Miss Grant, 
Johnnie Jones pushed me." A little boy pull- 
ed at her skirt and asked if he could play in 
the sand, so, as soon as Bobbie's tears had 
stopped coming, Miss Grant made them all 
get in a line and march around the room and 
take their seats. 

Bobbie had such a good time when eleven 
o'clock came he didn't want to go home. He 
sang and marched and played in a sand bed 
and looked at pictures and played games, and 
all the time the lady with the kind eyes stay- 
ed with them, and played with them, and 
showed them how to do things. She told 
Bobbie what the little boys' and girls' names 
were and called him dear, and dear child, and 
darling boy just as his mamma did. 

At eleven o'clock Bobbie marched out with 
the others, but at the door he ran back to 
where Miss Grant stood watching them, and 
put up his face for a kiss, and told her he 
loved her and was coming again every day. 

Mamma was waiting outside to take him 
home, and all the way home Bobbie told her 
what a good time he had, and when they 
reached home he said, "Mamma how did I 
ever grow five years old so soon?" 

I wrote a letter to to Santa Claus, 

And this is what I said: 
Dear Santa, I'm an honest boy, 

I never had a sled. 
So bring me one all bright and new, 

A wee sled that will fly; 
I want no other kind of toy, 

Dear Santa Claus, good-bye. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



FOR CHRISTMAS 

THE CHRISTMAS TREE 

A short play for seven little children, one 
representing a small fir tree, four represent- 
ing presents, the other two being a little 
boy and girl. 

A child can be made to represent a fir 
tree by a cap and costume of dark green 
crepe paper, the arms being wound with 
strips of the paper, yet free to move. 

The presents are, a basket, a calendar, a 
yarn chain, and a paper mat. 

The Basket — 

Slant four oblong pieces of cardboard slightly 
and fasten edges with yarn or cord. Cut holes 
for the child's arms and make basket large enough 
so that only the head and feet of the child will 
show. 
The Calendar: 

Draw a picture such as kindergarten children 
can make on a good sized piece of cardboard, 
pasting a month from a calendar at the bottom. 
Tie a string or ribbon through the top of the card 
to be placed over the child's head. 
The Chain — 

Fasten a pair of mittens on a yarn chain such 
as the kindergarten children make. The child can 
have the chain around his neck and his hands in 
the mittens. 
The Mat — 

One of the paper mats that the children weave 
is held before the child. 

The little boy and girl face the audience. The 
Fir Tree stands at some distance. The Presents 
are not in sight. 
Little Boy: 

"We must have a Christmas tree." 
Little Girl: 

"Yes, do you know where one grows?" 
Little Boy: 

"By the side of the road there is one" 
Little Girl: 

"Let us go to it and ask it then, if it will come 
to us for Christmas." 

Children run to the Fir Tree and say: 

"Dear little Fir Tree will you come with us?" 
Fir Tree: 

"Little children, I can come with you, if you 
wish to hang on my boughs only gifts of love." 

Boy and girl clap their hands and say: 

"Dear little Fir Tree come with us and we will 
show you all our presents." 

Each takes one of the Fir Tree's hands and runs 
back across the room, where the Presents come 
out to meet them. The Basket steps forward. 
Little Girl: 

"Here is the basket, that we have made for 
Little Boy: 

"And here is the calendar, that we have made 
for father." 
Little Girl: 

"And see the chain, which we have made for 
little lame Tom's mittens." 
Little Boy: 

"And the mat for Uncle Jack's study." 
Together: 

"Dear little Fir Tree, we have made them every- 
one, and we would much rather give them away 
than keep them for ourselves." 
Fir Tree: 



"Little children, I shall be very proud and very 
happy to hold such gifts on my branches." 

The Fir Tree stretches out his arms, while the 
children gather the Presents around him. 

Boy faces the Tree: 

"Thank you, thank you little Tree." 
Girl faces the Tree: 

"Thank you dear little Christmas Tree." 

The children take each other's hands and bow. 



Oh, Christmas time is coming soon, 

And all the girls and boys 
Will hang their stockings up and ask 

For many kinds of toys, 



Jolly old Kriss, what a fellow you are, 

Riding all over the world in the air; 

Sliding down chimneys, through ashes and smoke, 

Fur-covered Kriss you're a regular joke. 

How do you manage to carry such loads? 
How do you manage to keep the right roads? 
How do you know all the good girls and boys? 
Why don't we wake with your clatter and noise? 



Now kitten cat, Daisy, just hear me, 
And mind each word that I say, 

And don't frisk 'round about nothing, 
To-morrow'll be Christmas day. 

I s'pose you don't know about Chsistmas, 
'Cause you haven't had one before; 

I'll tell you there'll be a big turkey, 
And presents for all and more. 



I wonder if old Santa Claus, 

When he was just a boy, 
Was very good at Christmas time, 

His parents' pride and joy! 
I wonder if his stocking hung 

Beside the chimney tall 
I wonder if dear Santa Claus 

Had any toys at all! 



I saved my cake for Santa Clause 

One Christmas eve at tea; 
For if riding makes one hungry, 

How hungry he must be! 
I put it on the chimney shelf, 

Where he'd be sure to go — 
I think it does a person good. 

To be remembered so. 

When every one was fast asleep 

(Every one but me) , 
I tiptoed in to mamma's room — 

O! just as still — to see. 
If he had been there yet. Dear me! 

It made my feelings ache — 
There sat a mizzable little mouse 

Eating Santa's cake! 



In the dawning, in the dawning, 

The first Christmas morning; 

Our dear Saviour who so loves us, 

Was born far away; 

When the daylight is breaking, 

And the bells are all chiming, 

We'll sing our gay carols 

In this glad Christmas morn. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



109 



JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER 

Birthday, December 17 
Suggestions for a talk with small children 

John Greenleaf Whittier was a great writer 
who lived in our country — America. He was 
born at Haverhill, Mass., and was called 
Greenleaf. His father was a farmer and they 
lived in an old house with a roof that leaked 
and the rain and snow sometimes came in on 
the bed where Greenleaf slept. He had a 
brother and two sisters and they were ver} r 
fond of each other. 

There was a big fire place in the house and 
in the evening the children often roasted 
apples or popped corn, while their mother told 
them stories of her early daj's. At nine 
o'clock they went to bed. 

Across the road from the house there was 
a barn and Greenleaf loved to play on the 
hay. He helped his father gather the corn 
and the pumpkins into the barn, and then 
sometimes they would have a husking bee. 
The neighbors would come from many miles 
and the barn would be lighted up with lanterns. 
First they would husk the corn and when the 
work was all done the children would play 
hide and seek and other games and make 
jaek-o'lanters of pumpkins. 

There was a brook back of the house and 
Greenleaf loved to wade in it. He did not 
wear shoes when the weather was warm and 
he wore his pantaloons turned up so he could 
wade in the brook. 

Greenleaf had very bright eyes and learned 
to see many things. The flowers, the trees, 
the birds, and insects, and animals in the 
woods all delighted him and with nature for 
a teacher he learned many things. 

His father and mother were quakers, who 
are gentle, loving people, and on Sunda3~s 
(they called it First-Day) they went to the 
meeting houses. The men sat on one side of 
the house and the women on the other. The 
Quakers do not pay any one to preach to 
them. They all sit still, the men wearing their 
broad-brimmed hats and the women large 
gra\r or drab bonnets. They sit very still 
until some one feels that he ought to speak 
and then he takes off his hat and stands up. 
When a woman speaks she takes off her 
bonnet. 

Greenleaf went to school in a little school 
house with one room and one teacher for all. 



There were no blackboards nor pictures on 
the wall. Here he learned to read and spell. 
When spelling the children all stood in a line. 
When a child could not spell a word the next 
one who could spell it went above him in 
the line. Greenleaf kept at the head of the 
line and felt very proud of it, but one day he 
missed one word and alittle girl spelled it and 
went above him. He felt very much ashamed 
and did not want to go home with the other 
children so he waited for them to go away. 
He pulled his cap over his eyes and hung his 
head; as he stood there he felt some one touch 
his arm. He turned and saw a little girl with 
her eyes full of tears. As she fingered her blue 
checked apron he heard her say: 

"I am sorry that I spelt the word; 

"I hate to go above you; 
"Because" - the brown eyes lower fell — 

"Because, you see, I love you." 

When Greenleaf grew to be a man, he wrote 
many poems. The "Barefoot Boy," and 
"Snow Bound," are two of them. 

Note — Study selections from some of Whittier's famous 
poems. 

PICTURE STUDY 

Madonna of the Chair — Raphael. 
(See cover page.) 
Raphael Zanzio was born in Italy. His father was an 
Italian painter and poet and Raphael was taught to love 
art and when a little child showed talent in that direc- 
tion. He had an excellent teacher and his first work 
resembled the style of his tutor, but he soon showed 
remarkable powers of originality and soon became 
known both in Rome and Florence as a great artist, as 
he is now throughout the world. His greatest works 
were done in Rome, and there was so great a demand 
for his productions and so eager was he to follow his 
chosen profession that he greatly neglected his health 
and he died at the early age of 37 years, 

Studying the Picture. 

With a spirit of seriousness and reverence pervading 
the room tell the story of the Christ Child and of His 
mission on earth; explain the meaning of "Peace on 
Earth" and how much better than peace is "Good Will 
Toward Men," of little children toward each other, etc. 
Tell the real meaning of Christmas. 

The picture has been called the favorite of the world 
and was originally painted on wood. The Madcn a is 
seated on a low chair, clasping the infant Jesus in her 
arms, who is nestling close to her. In the background 
stands the little St. John, with hands clasped. Raphael 
painted more than 100 pictures of the Madonna, but 
this is considered by many the best, and is the more 
beautiful because it is so simple. The dress of the 
Madonna was probably in vogue in Italy in Raphael's 
time. 



I 10 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



POEM:— "IT WAS AN OLD, OLD, OLD, OLD 
LADY." 

By H. C. B'unner. 

Dramatis Personae. 

Grandmother. 
Little Boy. 
1st Person. 
2nd Person. 
3rd Person. 
4th Person. 
The four people stand in a group at a distance 
from the Grandmother and Little Boy. The four 
people engage in conversation and comment con- 
cerning them. 

The two principal characters — Grandmother and 
Little Boy — sit on chairs in the front of the room 
facing each other. 

1st Person. There is that old, old, old, old lady. 
2nd Person. So it is and the little boy who is al- 
ways with her. 

3rd Person. I wonder how old the little fellow is? 
4th Person. His Grandmother says he is just 
half past three. 

1st Person. I think the way those two play to- 
gether is beautiful to see. 

2nd Person. The old lady can't go running nor 
jumping. 
3rd Person. 
4th Person. 
1st Person. 



to play now — as they 



And the boy — no more can he. 
Why? Is the little fellow sick? 
Oh, he is a thin little fellow with a 
poor little twisted knee. 

Plush! They are beginning 
always do. 

Boy. How warm the sunlight is today, Grandma, 
and how yellow it looks on the grass. 

Grandma. Yes, it is well we have this big maple 
tree to shade us, or we'd be too warm. 

Boy. What game shall we play, Grandma; Hide 
and Seek? 

Grandma. Yes, I like that game as well as any. 
You blind first, boy. 

2nd Person. See! He bends his face down on his 
one little sound right knee. 

3rd Person. And then you see he guesses where 
she is hiding in guesses — one — two — three. 

Boy. You are in the china closet, Grandma. I 
have found you with my first guess. 

Grandma. No, it isn't the china closet — but you 
still have two and three. 

Boy. You are up in Papa's big bed room — in the 
chest with the queer old key. 

Grandma. You are warm and warmer, but you 
aren't quite right, my boy. 

Boy. It can't be the little closet where Mother's 
things used to be. 

Grandma. Xo, you know we never hide there. 

Boy. So it must be the clothes press, Grandma. 

Grandma. Yes, you have found me with your 
three. Now I'll cover my face with my fingers and 
I'll guess where you are hiding — in guesses — one — 
two— three. 



Boy. And be sure you count one hundred, 
Grandma, so I'll have time to think of a good place. 

Grandma. Yes, I will and I'll count slowly, too. 

1st Person. Just think! Playing Hide and Seek 
and never stirred from their places — out under the 
maple tree. 

2nd Person. She's a dear, dear, dear, old lady and 
how she loves that little fellow. 

3rd Person. How they love each other — that old, 
old, old, old lady and the boy with the poor, little 
twisted knee. 



FINGER PLAY 

This is the store where mother will buy 
Some ripe, red apples and spice by and by. 
This is the soft, white flour she will take, 
And soon a good, apple pie she will make. 

This is the spoon in which as you know- 
Is measured all spice and salt for the dough. 
These are the cutters all sharp and all bright, 
To mark out in scallops the pie-crust so light. 

This is the straw that will surely tell true 
Whether our pie is baked well through and through. 
If you are here when our pie is complete, 
Ask mother to give you a piece for a treat. 



CRADLE HYMN 

Martin Luther 



Away in a manger, no crib for a bed, 
The little Lord Jesus laid down His sweet head. 
The stars in the bright sky looked down where He lay- 
The little Lord Jesus asleep on the hay. 

The cattle are lowing, the Baby awakes, 

But little Lord Jesus, no crying He makes 

I love thee, Lord Jesus ! look down from the sky, 

And stay by my cradle till morning is nigh. 



WHAT MEANS CHRISTMAS? 

Bright little -star, shining afar, 

Tell me, pray, 

What means Christmas day? 
Christmas, my child, is a song from above ; 
The sweet, happy song of God's great love. 
'Tis the music of heaven on earth below, 
'Tis the Spirit of Christ in the world aglow; 
For in every heart iz the pulse and thrill 
Of loving and giving, of peace and good-will. 



There'll be dolls and books and pictures, 
And candies and fruits, such a treat! 

And if you're a good kitten, Daisy, 
You'll get a nice plateful to eat. 



All hail, jolly Christmas, 
The children's own day. 

The time of all times 
Is most joyous and gay. 

O wonderful Christ-child, 

Of far Galilee! 
For blessings so countless, 

Our thanks are due thee; 

Our young hearts are thine, 
And thy words we obey; 

Who said let the little ones 
Come unto me. 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



1 1 1 



ETHICAL CULTURE 



ETHICAL VERSE 

JESSIE'S CHRISTMAS PRESENTS 

"Oh! I ana so glad, I've a shilling to spend," 

Said Jessie one cold winter day; 
"And to-morrow it's Christmas, the shops are so 
grand, 

And every one's happy and gay." 

"I'd like to buy father a grand walking stick, 
And for mother some gloves lined with fur, 

And as for dear baby, I think a nice ball 
Would be the best present for her." 

But Jessie was only a wee little girl, 
And a shilling meant riches to her; 

She had no idea of what it would buy 

When she thought about gloves lined with fur. 

She was dressed like Red Riding Hood, in a warm 
cloak, 
With a hood and a soft wooly muff. 
She was ccsy and warm, though the snow-flakes 
fell fast 
And the biting No:th wind was so rough. 

But just at that moment, she saw a sad sight. 

A little girl, just her own size, 
Stood, holding out matches, which no one would 
buy, 

"While the tears gathered thick in her eyes. 

And as Jecsie looked at her thin tattered clothes, 
And her poor little arms bare and red, 

She forgot all the gifts she intended to buy, — 
"I'll give her my shilling," she said. 

When no one was looking, she took out the coin, 
Dropped it into the thin pleading hands, and 

Then for fear she should alter her mind, 
walked on 

Without even once looking behind. 

That night, when she sat on her dear father's 
knees 

And talked about glad Christmas Day, 
"I can't give you a present dear daddy," she said, 

"For I've given my money away." 

When she told him about the poor sad little girl, 

Her father said, "Mother and I 
Would rather our darling was loving and kind 

Than have all the gifts money could buy." 



WHILE THE STARS C^ CHRISTMAS SHINE 

Emilie Poulsson 

While stars of Christmas shine, 

Lighting the skies, 
Let only loving looks 

Beam from our eyes. 

While bells of Christmas ring, 

Joyous and clear. 
Speak only happy words, 

All love and cheer. 

Give only loving gifts, 

And in love take ; 
Gladden the poor and sad 

For love's dear sake. 



SCATTER GLADNESS. 

If you have a word of cheer, 
Speak it where the sad may hear; 
Can you coin a thought of light? 
Give it wing and speed its flight; 
Do you know a little song? 
Pass the roundelay along; 
Scatter gladness, joy and mirth 
All along the ways of earth. 

— Progress Magazine. 



A DEVOTIONAL EXERCISE. 

The following exercise always interests the little 
ones. It can be shortened or lengthened at any 
time without confusion to the children: 

Teacher — What does the Great Teacher say to 
little children? 

School — Little children, love one another. 

Teacher — What else did He say? 

School — Do unto others as you would have oth- 
ers do unto you. 

Teacher — What is the value of a good name? 

School — A good name is rather to be chosen 
than great riches, and loving favor rather than sil- 
ver or gold. 

Teacher — Can. a little child have a good or had 
name? 

School — Even a child is known by his doings, 
whether his work be pure or whether it be right. — 
American Primary Teacher. 



MEMORY GEMS. 

Honesty. 

Truth needs no color, beauty no pencil. — Shake- 
speare. 

The basis of high thinking is perfect honesty. — 
Strong. 

Nature has written a letter of credit on some 
men's faces which is honored whenever presented. 

Self-control. 

Self-mastery is the essence of heroism. — Emcr- 



He who reigns within himself is more than a king. 
—Milton. 

I have only one counsel for you: Be master! — 
Napoleon. 

Perseverance. 

Success in most things depends on knowing how 
long it takes to succeed. — Monsequin. 

Perseverance is failing nineteen times and suc- 
ceeding the twentieth. — Dr. Anderson. 

Promptness. 

Promptness takes the drudgery out of an occu- 
pation. — The True Citizen. 

Be prompt to catch the minutes as they fly, and 
make them yield the treasures they contain, or 
they will be lost forever. — The True Citizen. 

Napoleon onCe invited his generals to dine with 
him; but, as they did not arrive at the moment 
appointed, he began to eat without them. They 
came in just as he was rising from the table. 
"Gentlemen," said he, "it is now past dinner, and 
we will immediately proceed to business." 



T 12 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



KINDERGARTEN GROWTH 

[NOTE:— Under this heading we shall give from time to 
time such items as come to our notice relative to the estab- 
lishment of new kindergartens as well as articles or state- 
ments in the public press or from noted educators favor- 
able to the kindergarten cause,] 

Good Words for the Kinderg-arten 

Elbert Hubbard says in Fra: 

Within thirty years a sure evolution has been 
going on in the method of teaching children. T) 
changes have been so great that they have truly 
amounted to a revolution. These changes in method 
have sprung from the influence of one man. 

That man is Friedrich Froebel. 

Froebel was the inventor and originator of the 
Kindergarten. 

The Kindergarten was the greatest, most impor- 
tant, most useful innovation of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, save none. No rapid-transit scheme of moving 
men from this point to that with lightning-like 
rapidity, no invention of calling up folks 500 miles 
away and talking to them can compare in value 
with that which gives love for brutality, trust for 
fear, hope for despair, the natural for the artificial. 

The Kindergarten! The Child-Garden — a place in 
which the little souls fresh from God bloom and 
blossom! 

You can not make the plant blossom. You can, 
however, place it in the sunshine and supply it ali- 
ment and dew; but Nature does the rest. 

So it is with teaching. All we can do is to com- 
ply with the conditions of growth in the child, and 
God does the rest. 

We are strong only as we ally ourselves with Na- 
ture. We can make head only by laying hold on 
the forces of the Universe. 

Alan is a part of Nature — just as much so as are 
the tree and the bird. In the main, every animal 
and every organism does the thing that is best for 
it to do. Froebel thought that human nature in all 
its elements is as free from falsity and error as Na- 
ture is under any other aspect. 

The idea that man is constantly prone to do that 
which is hurtful to himself was revolting to this 
wise and gentle man. 

The Kindergarten System is simply the utiliza- 
tion of play as the prime factor in education, broe- 
bel made the discovery that play was God's plan 
of educating the young, so he adopted it. 

The Old and the New Pedagogics. 

Before Froebel's day everybody seemed to think 
that play was a big waste of time in the children, 
and a sin in grown-ups. That which was pleasant 
was bad. Some people still hold to this idea, but 
such folks, I am glad to know, are growing a trifle 
lonesome. In eighteen hundred fifty, the year be- 
fore Froebel died, he said, "It will take the world 
four hundred years to recognize the truth of my 
theories." 

Only seventy years have gone, and already we 
find the Kindergarten Idea coloring the entire 



scheme of pedagogics. Like a single drop of aniline 
in a barrel of water, its influence is shown in every 
part. 

Napoleon's character stands out sharp and clear, 
etched against the sky. He killed a million men, 
made homeless and houseless five million women and 
children, and left a trail of death and desolation be- 
hind him. We may admire the power of the man, but 
his life does not influence us; we do not imitate 
him, and between him and us there is nothing in 
common. He stands away out yonder with folded 
arms, upon a barren rock at Saint Helena, looking 
out upon the sad and solemn sea — and we are here. 
More Expression — Less Introspection. 

Two men of modern times have influenced the 
inner life of the race to a profound extent. Yet 
they are not widely known, nor are their names 
household words. They have mingled their lives 
with ours, and the river of their existence is lost in 
the ocean of our being. 

There is not a single home — among the better 
class of homes — in Europe or America but shows 
the influence of William Morris. The simplicity, 
genuineness, truthfulness and quiet good taste of 
Morris have influenced the entire housekeeping 
world. 

Not a schoolroom in the world of civilization that 
does not show the influence of Friedrich Froebel. 
The Kindergarten Idea has also crept into the 
homes, and is influencing and educating the parents, 
too. 

The use of pictures as a means of exciting self- 
activity is seen everywhere; children are being 
taught to observe Nature, and they are encouraged 
to bring to the school the curious things they find in 
woods or fields — birds' nests, flowers, fungi — and 
these things are discussed with animation in open 
court. 

There are fewer books and greater interchange of 
thought and feeling — more expression and less in- 
trospection. 

Disgrace through the dunce-cap, "standing on the 
floor;" humiliation through corporal punishment, 
when the entire school quit study to look on; use of 
the ruler on the open hand on account of lessons 
not memorized — all these things are becoming beau- 
tifully less. Naggings, prohibitions, chidings and 
threats have now no legitimate place in any school. 

The End of Squeers and His Brood. 

But the things I have just mentioned, and which 
every man of, say 40 years, so well remembers, are 
as nothing compared to the inquisitorial horrors 
that childhood of a hundred years, or even fifty 
years ago, had to endure. Thomas Carlyle once 
wrote: "Most people seem to think that when Jesus 
said, 'Suffer little children to come unto Me and 
foibid them not,' He held a rod behind Him and 
was only trying to coax the youngsters within easy 
reach.'' 

It is not necessary here to catalog the villianies 
of the past, done in the name of education; but the 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



"3 



matter was summed up by a friend of mine, an 
Englishman, a few weeks ago, when he said: "I 
believe most emphatically in Hell, for I've been 
there. When I was seven years old my parents 
placed me in a boarding-school for boys, and I re- 
mained there five years. The fagging and beastly 
brutality of the big boys toward the little ones was 
only a reflex of the mental attitude held toward us 
by the head master and his wife, who were 
neither better nor worse than the average teacher 
of the time. They were 'educated' folks, and piled 
up forty lines of Virgil on you for trivial acts or 
omissions; and when you were hopelessly bankrupt 
they canceled the score with a cat-o'-nine-tails and 
the dark room, with bread and water. My life 
there seared my very soul, and filled my heart with 
so much hate that I am at times a victim to it yet. 
The only compensation for that nightmare of my 
childhood lies in the fact that I saw the wickedness 
and atrocious error of a system that sought to sup- 
press and break the spirit, instead of giving it 
wings." 

■And that is the kind of education the Froebel 
System has supplanted. We have kindness now, 
and faith and love; and he who has the most sym- 
pathy, the greatest patience, shall be crowned with 
honor, and above all he shall feel the approval of 
his Other Self. 

We will call him Rabbi — Teacher — Master 

Ionia, Michigan. To the Kindergarten Magazine: 
I have been most interested in reading about the pro- 
gress of the kindergarten and the various articles and 
letters that have been published in your paper and I 
thought you might like to know what we have ac- 
complished in Ionia. Three years ago next June, the 
first pure kindergarten was opened in the city hall where 
two large sunny rooms proved nearly ideal for the work. 
Previous to this time, a sub-primary was the only form 
of kindergarten work in the schools and each first grade 
teacher did as much as possible along kindergarten 
lines. With a splendid assistant well trained in music 
we started forth. Many townsmen were much opposed 
to our being located in their new city hall, but we invit- 
ed all to visit us and see our work and now I feel sure 
that all Ionia fully appreciates the value of a kinder- 
garten. We have eighty-four children enrolled, dividing 
them in two sections, one for the morning and one for 
the afternoon . Our kindergarten band has interested 
many people and Dr. Winship of Boston published the 
picture of the same in the "American Primary Teacher." 
We plan to entertain all the mothers at least three times 
a year in various ways, inviting them to Hallowe'en, 
Christmas and May parties and this month Miss Edith 
E. Adams, of the State Normal School Kindergarten 
will conduct a mother's meeting in the evening. We 
have made a special effort to interest every one in this 
great kindergarten work and feel that we have succeed- 
ed in permanently establishing a kindergarten in con- 
nection with the Ionia schools. I only hope that every 
kindergartner enjoys her work as much as I and has met 
with such appreciative people who have helped to make 
the kindergartena success. I am always willing to do 
or say a kind act or word to help any kindergarten. 

THE KINDEROIAKTNEK 



NEWS NOTES 



Portland, Ore. Miss Marjorie Taylor has been 
placed in charge of the Unitarian Church Kindergarten. 

Bar Harbor, Me. A movement is on foot to secure 
the Ledgelawn Avenue Public Library Building for a 
kindergarten. 

Dover, N. H. Miss Bertha Wimffheimer opened her 
Kindergarten here, October 3, and is meeting with suc- 
cess. 

Reading-, Pa. The Cotton Street neighborhood, which 
has long felt the need of a kindergarten, has been sup- 
plied by a change that is proving very satisfactory. Miss 
Howe is in charge. 

Rutland, Vt. Miss Marjorie Barton of Royce Street, 
who graduated from Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
Training School in Boston last June, has taken a posi- 
tion at Revere, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. The lecture by Dr. H. D. Willard on 
Michael Angelo under auspices of Lucy Wheelock 
Kindergarten Training School at Parker Memorial Hall 
was a very enjoyable event. A reception and tea 
followed. 

Salt Lake City, U. The officers and board of direct- 
ors of the free kindergarten are much pleased with the 
way the year has started. An average of twenty-five 
daily are in attendance, and the day nursery in connec- 
tion is also proving a big success. 

Nashville, Tenn. Among the educational institu- 
tions of Nashville is the Kindergarten opened this fall 
on Terrace Place by Mrs. Pearl Hedges of this city. Her 
kindergarten opened October 4 with flattering pros- 
pects. Mrs. Hedges is a trained teacher of recognized 
ability in both Sunday School and day school work. She 
has of late years been associated with Mrs. McHenry 
and Miss Halverson in the kindergarten work. 

Milwaukee, Wis.— Miss Minetta F. Sammis, of the 
Michigan State Normal College at Ypsilanti, has been 
elected to the kindergarten position in the Milwaukee 
State Normal School, made vacant by the resignation of 
Miss Ruth W. Norton, who has held the position for the 
past four years. Miss Norton was married Nov. 7 to 
Dr. Samuel Warren Hamilton. After a six month's tour 
abroad, Dr. and Mrs. Hamilton will make their home 
in Utica, New York.— Miss Nina C, Vaudewalker of the 
Milwaukee State Normal School addressed the Minne- 
sota Educational Association at Minneapolis, Oct. 27, on 
"The Kindergarten as the Basis for the entire Education- 
al System." 

Nashua, N. H. With a careful solicitation of the dif- 
ferent kindergartens of the city this morning, a Tele- 
graph reporter got a very line estimate of the little tots 
who attend the kindergartens from the age of 4 to 6 
years. There are many cute incidents which happen at 
the different kindergartens which please the parents as 
well as the teachers. After the little folks get acquaint- 
ed with the ideas that the teachers are trying to instil 
in their young minds, they do not mind going to school 



1*4 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



alone for half a day, but on the contrary, many are un 
happy if obliged to remain at home. The kindergarten 
is certainly a great blessing to the mothers as well as 
the children. — Telegram. 

Portland, Ore. With the opening of the boys' 
classes at the Irvington Club under the direction of A, 
M. Grilley last Saturday afternoon was inaugurated a 
movement for outdoor playgrounds in Portland during 
winter months. Equipment has been provided for the 
playground which will be in use whenever the weathe 1 ' 
permits, and in inclement weather the clubhouse will be 
used. For the smaller children it is proposed to main 
tain a kindergarten during the winter months. This 
will be in charge of Miss Katherine Taylor, who had 
charge of the playgrounds in the Park Blocks during 
the summer. Quarters will be provided in the club- 
house assembly room. 

Denver, Colo. Kate Douglas Wiggin, the author, 
ess, spends part of her year in England and finds the 
associations and surroundings of her life there most 
attractive, but unlike Anne Warner French, who has 
just repudiated America, she remains loyal to her 
country and her countrymen. Her home is in New 
i r ork City and she has a summer home in Maine. 
Miss Wiggin is really Mrs. George C. Riggs, but she 
uses her pen name in literary work. Mrs. Wiggin is 
different from Mrs. French in another particular, She 
has a large reading public in America and few Ameri. 
can writers have more friends. Much of her writing 
has been based on experiences abroad. Mrs. Wiggin 
is much interested in educational matters and she 
organized the first free kindergarten for poor children 
on the pacific coast. — Denver Times. 

Chicag-o, III. The students of Pestalozzi-Froebei 
Kindergarten Training School of Chicago were entertain- 
ed at Park No. Ill by Miss Mary Goldsmith, director, 
and Miss Laura Hassenstein, director, of Chicago Com- 
mons Kindergarten. During the afternoon the students 
were happily surprised by a visit from Kate Douglas 
Wiggin who talked to them informally on what the 
kindergarten has meant in her life and literary career. 
The occasion will be long remembered by all who were 
present. The Alumnae of the Pestalozzi-Froebei Kind- 
ergarten Training School of Chicago gave a Harvest 
Festival, Nov. 18th. The program consisted of Thanks- 
giving Processional in Costume, Pastoral Tableaux, 
Nature Folk Songs, Games, Dances conducted by Miss 
Mari Ruef Hofer followed by a Sale of Nature Materials 
suitable for School Use, Exhibit of Objects made from 
Nature Materials, Grains, Grasses, Boughs, Cotton Bolls, 
Leaves, Etc. 

N ew York. The National Association for the Pro- 
motion of Kindergarten Education in No. 1 Madison 
Avenue, organized in 1909 to arouse interest in the 
kindergarten cause throughout the United States, hag 
been authorized by the Supreme Court to change its 
name to National Kindergarten Association. It is said 
there are four million children now deprived of school 
life at a time when they have no wage-earning value, but 
are most sensitive to impressions, and this organization 
is using every method in its power to stimulate an in- 



terest in the subject, realizing that additional kinder- 
gartens will greatly increase the average intelligence of 
the country. Edwin S. Marston is president of the 
association and George W, Perkins, treasurer. Among 
the board of directors are John D. Archbold, William 
S. Ball, Mrs. W. D. Gaillard, Mrs. John Greenough, 
-Herbert F. Gunnison. Miss B. Locke, Mrs. Ceorge 
Grant Mason, Mrs. Levi P. Morton, Mrs. Robert Over- 
field, Mrs. Henry Phipps, Mrs. Charles Cary Rumsey, 
Miss A. Schurz. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. The Grand Rapids Kinder- 
garten Training School, under the excellent manage- 
ment of Clara Wheeler and her able assistant, May L. 
Ogilby, has a very large attendance, students coming 
from several of the adjoining states. Several new and 
interesting features have been added for the winter 
term, including special training in vocal music, and a 
course in primary methods. Special work in nature 
study, with field classes, is also being arranged for the 
senior students. Among the senior students from out 
of the city who have registered for advanced work are 
Misses Nora Barbour, Fort Wayne, Ind.; Willie Mc- 
Alpine, Helena; Ruth Shapre, Springfield, OhiojGarnett 
Burt Ingeborg Simpson and Pearl Hanson, Manistee; 
Marguerite Crotser, Petoskey; Isabella Choleston, Helen 
Look, Lowell; Esther Crowley, Manistee; Amy Dickin- 
son, Grand Haven; Florence Jacobs, Fowlerville; Lorna 
Murphy, Lowell; Harriett Steketee, Holland; Josephine 
Townsend, Algonac; Anna Warnshuis, Holland, and Ola 
Wellman, Bellaire. 

St. John, N. B. The reports of the Free Kinder- 
gartens for the past month show that there is a growing 
interest and realization of the benefits of the work for 
the children, both on the part of parents and citizens. 
Each Kindergartner reports a large number of new 
scholars, room being made for these by many of last 
year's pupils entering school. In some cases mothers 
have been so eager to bring their little ones at the ear- 
liest age possible that they have had to be advised to 
keep them home for another year, for some seemed 
mere babies. Another thing that shows the apprecia- 
tion of parents is that many of the little ones bring cents 
for the Kindergarten bank regularly. This money is • 
used for the children's good in some extra supplies or 
comfort. Through the kindness of benefactors the 
rooms have all been thoroughly renevated during holi- 
days and the scholars much appreciate their nice clean 
quarters and improved sanitary arrangements. Ap. 

preciation on the part of Kindergartners is expressed 
for visits made to the schools and helpful gifts of cloth- 
ing, fruit and flowers. The Kindergartnershave direct- 
ed the thoughts of the children from the home and 
family to the life of nature, where the growth of veget- 
able, fruit and seed has been studied, leading the 
thought to the Giver of all good gifts, the little minds 
thus developing for a real Thanksgiving— Globe. 

Philadelphia, Pa. The Alumnae Association of the 
Philadelpia Training School for Kindergartners (1333 
Pine Street) holds its annual meeting, Saturday, January 
13th, 1912, at 3 o'clock, at the Industrial Art School, 
Broad and Pine Streets, The Association will have the 
privilege of listening to a lecture by Miss Agnes Ripplier 
on "Women at Work." (Mrs.) Margaret Morris Sibley, 
Corresponding Secretary. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



"5 



BOOK NOTES 

Live Dolls in Fairy Land. By Josephine Scribner 

Gates, with illustrations by Virginia Keep. Cloth, 140 

large pages, 7x9 1-4 ins.; beautifully illuminated cover. 

Published by The Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis, 

Ind. Price $1.25 net. 

A wonderfully fascinating book for little children and 
especially suitable for Christmas gifts. There are ten 
illustrated stories about live dolls, and one under the 
caption "Sunshine Annie." 
The Girl That Goes Wrong-. By Reginald Wright 

Kauffman, author of "The House of Bondage," Etc. 

Cloth, 226 pps.. 5x7^ ins. Published by Moffat Yard 

& Co., New York. Price $1.25. 

The inexpressible conditions of human bondage of 
many young girls and women in our cities demand a 
fearless and uncompromising warfare. The terrible 
peril that lingers just around the corner from every 
American home, and threatens to undermine the very 
foundation of civilization, must be stamped out with 
relentless purpose. The facts contained in this new 
work have been verified by the author while collecting 
material for his novel on White Slavery. 
Honey Bee. By Anatole France. Translated by Mrs. 

John Lane, illustrations by Florence Lundburg. 

Cloth, 172 pps., Illuminated cover, 7x8 3-4 ins. Price 

$1.50 Published by John Lane Co., New York. 

Anatole France, the greatest of living French novelists, 
has written for children a story overflowing with poetic 
imagination, wisdom and humor — divine qualities to 
which the heart of the child is always open. "Honey 
Bee" is the story of a golden-haired princess who reign- 
ed over the dwarf. It is of absorbing interest to child- 
ren. 
The Jaunts of Junior. By Lillian B. Hunt. Pictures 

by Arthur B. Phelan. Cloth, 52 large pages, 8^x11^ 

ins. Price, $1.25. Published by Harper Bros., New 

York. 

A delightful book for children and especially attractive 
at the Christmas time. It abounds in beautiful full page 
illustrations and tells in rhyme a story of Junior's 
Jaunts in a way that ail children are sure to enjoy. 

WOMAN'S PART IN GOVERNMENT WHETHER 
SHE VOTES OR NOT. By William H. Allen, Direc- 
tor, Bureau of Municipal Research and Training 
School for Public Service, author of "Efficient Dem- 
ocracy," "Civics and Health," etc. Cloth, 375 pps. 
5x7j^ inches. Price, $1.50 Net. Published by Dodd, 
Mead & Company, New York. 

This is a new kind of book about government. It 
makes you want to work for better government between 
elections. It also tells you many ways to do it. It is a 
handbook on straight-seeing, straight-thinking and 
straight-acting on public questions between election 
times. It Js for editors, speakers, club workers, stu- 
dents, givers, voters and not-yet-voters, men as well as 
women. "It aims not to settle but to raise questions, 
to encourage self analysis and study of local conditions, 
to stimulate interest in methods and next steps of get- 
ting done what we all agree should be done to make 
democracy efficient." 



The Fourth Physician. By Montgomery B. Pick- 
ett. Cloth, 51-4x8 inches. 144 pages. This is a Christ- 
mas story of a new and distinctive type. It is based on a 
play which won first prize over eleven hundred others 
submitted in a recent contest. Andrew Alexnder Bruce 
says of this book in The Quarterly Journal: "A little 
novel which is full of psychological and sociological 
interest, but which is so fascinating in its style and so 
interesting in its theme, that it is only after we have 
laid it aside that we realize its depth and its meaning. 
It is a beautiful Christmas story, but it is a story which 
is more than beautiful. It is a novel, but it is some, 
thing more than a novel. It is timely at this Christmas 
season, and it will be timely at all Christmas seasons. 
Published by A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. 

How To Read and Declaim. By Grenville Kleiser- 
428 pages. Cloth. 5x7 y ^ ins. $1.25 net; by mail $1.39.' 
Funk & Wagnalls Company, Publishers, New York. 

This book is a course of instruction in reading and 
declamation having as its prime object the cultivation 
of taste and refinement in the student. The book is 
divided into five parts. Part One— Preparatory Course: 
Twenty lessons on Naturalness; Distinctness; Vivacity; 
Confidence; Simplicity; Dehberateness, and kindred 
topics. Tart Two — Advanced Course: Twenty lessons 
on Thought Values; Thought Directions; Persuasion; 
Power; Climax, etc., etc. Part Three — Articulation and 
Pronunciation. Part Four — Gesture and Facial Ex- 
pression . Part Five is made up of the most up-to-date 
and popular prose and poetic selections that have v re- 
cently been put together. 

The All Sorts of Stories. By Mrs. Lang. Edited by 
Andrew Lang. Illustrated by H. J. Ford. Cloth, 377 
pages, 5 1-4x7 1-4 ins. Price $1.60 net. Published by 
Longmans Green & Co., New York City. 
This book has many fascinating stories both old and 
new, fairy tales, etc. Especially interesting at the 
Christmas season. Beautiful gilt-edges and an at- 
tractive Christmas Gift. 

The Story of the Roman People. By Eva March 
Tappan, Ph. D., author of "European Hero Stories," 
"The Story of the Greek," "American Hero Stories," 
"Our Country's Story," "England Story," etc. Editor 
of the "The Children's Hour." Cloth, 252 large pages, 
6x8^ ins. Published by Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 
New York, and Chicago. Price, $1.25 net. 
An elementry History of Rome, told so interestingly 
that it will be eagerly read by all interested in Roman 
history. 

Courage, Ambition, Resolution. Compiled by Grace 
Browne Strand, cloth, 62 pps., 5x7V2 ins. Price, $.50 
Published by A. C. McClurg & Co , Chicago, 
A beautifully gotten up book with many quotations 

on the subjects named in the title, A very acceptable 

Christmas gift. 

Conduct, Health, Good Fortune. Complied by Grace 
Browne Strand, cloth, 5x7>£ inches, price, $ .50. Pub- 
lished by A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. 
A book of quotations relating to Conduct, Health, and 
Good Fortune. Similar to the volume listed above. 
Honey Sweet. ByEdnaTurpin. Illustrated by Alice 



n6 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



E. Beard. Cloth, 316 pps., 5 1 -1x714 inches, published 
by The MacMillan Co., New York. Price, $1.25 net. 
A most wholesome interesting- story, attractive alike 
to children and adults. 

Catch Words of Cheer. Complied by Sara A. Hub- 
bard, Cloth, 51 pages. Price, $1.00. Published by 
A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. 

This is the third series of this helpful little work, con- 
taining helpful quotations for each day of the year, from 
Great Authors, Statesman, Philosophers and Divines. 
Gotten up in a very attractive style and suitable for 
Christmas gifts. 

Building- Your Girl. By Kenneth H. Wayne. Cloth. 

141 pages, 4x7 ins. Price, 50 cents. Published by A. 

C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. 

The scope of this helpful book is indicated by the 
contents which follow: The New Position of Femininity; 
The Girl in the Home; The Physical Basis in Girl Build- 
ing; A Girl and Her Reading; Your Girl and Her Ethi- 
cal Training; Your Girl and the Elements of True 
Womanhood; Your Girl in Relation to Domestic Science 
and Charm; Your Girl and Her Relation to Marriage; 
Your Girl on the Threshold of Real Life. 

The Children's Book of Christmas. Beautifully 
bound in cloth, 111 large pages, 7 3-4x10 ins. Publish- 
ed by The MacMillan Co. Price, $1.50 net. 
This book contains 49 poems and stories in large type 
and of special interest to children. There are 8 full page 
colored plates, 21 other full page illustrations. It 
is just the book that children delight in. Extract 
from a letter to a little girl who writes that her play- 
mates tell her there is no Santa Claus: "Virginia, your 
little friends are wrong. They have been afflicted by'*-* 
the scepticism of a sceptical age. They do not believe 
except they see. They think that nothing can be which 
is not comprehensible by their little minds. All minds, 
Virginia, whether they be men's or children's, are little- 
In this great universe of ours man is a mere insect, an 
ant, in bis intellect, as compared with the boundless 
world about him, as measured by the intelligence cap- 
able of grasping the whole of truth and knowledge. 
Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus. He exists as 
certainly as love and generosity and devotion exist." 

Home Life in All Lands. By Charles Morris, author 
of "Historical Tales," "History of the World," etc. 
Book 3, cloth, 340 pps., 5x7yi inches. Regular price, 
$1.00 net; School edition, 60 cents net. Published by 
J. P. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
This is Volume 3 of this interesting series, and is 
entitled "Animal Friends and Helpers." The book 
contains many illustrations with instructive and inter- 
esting talks relative to many different animals and birds. 
Ideal for school or home reading for the young. 

The Streng-thoftheWeak. Cloth, 450pps. 51-4x7 1-2 
ins. Price 50 cents, net. Published by the Broadway 
Publishing Co., New York City. 

An interesting romance which has the virtue of mak- 
ing its characters act and think like people in real life. 
The writer shows a familiarity with the habits and cus- 
toms of the South, as well as its traditions and supersti- 
tions. Sweet womanly qualities, with the love of home 



and children, are shown to exert a stronger influence 
over men than mental ability, wealth or social position. 

At the Ag-e of Eve. By Kate Trimble Sharber, with 
illustrations by PaulNaylen. Cloth, 351 pages., 5x7 Ji 
inches. Price $1.25 net. Published by Bobbs Merrill 
Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 

A charmingly written story in which the author, Kate 
Trimble Sharber, sets forth the thoughts and ideas — yes, 
and ideals— of a young woman on matters grave and 
gay in such a captivating manner as to hold the atten- 
tion of the reader until the last leaf is turned. When 
you have made the acquaintance of Ann Fielding you 
will not be content till you know all there is to tell about 
her, and will be glad to find her sweet and true 
throughout. A few things you will wish she had not said ) 
but will be glad that she did say a great many more, 
and when you close the book it will be with the wish 
that "They may live happy ever after." 

Marriage and Divorce and The Downfall of the 
Sacred Union. By Jeanette Laurance. Cloth, 45 

pages, 5x7^ inches. Price $ Published by 

Broadway Publishing Co., 835 Broadway, New York 

City. 

A book out of the ordinary on these subjects— one 
that will command attention and interest. 
The Winning of Barbara Worth. By Harold Bell 

Wright. Cloth 5L1 pps., size, 51-4x73-4 inches. 

Published by The Book Supply Co., Chicago, 111. 

Price $ L. 30 net. 

In this present-day story of desert life andthenation- 
al reclamation work we have as clean and wholesome a 
book as a man ever wrote; a story of big things, strong 
people, and high ideals. He has delineated the passions, 
the longings, the motives, the loves and hatreds of men 
and women with added skill, and he has also with finer 
power analyzed human emotions and penetrated more 
keenly the depths of the human soul. The plot, through 
which there runs an intense love interest, is mighty in 
its conception and is carried to a satisfactory close with 
the smoothness of running water. It is one of big in- 
cidents and rapid action, and bears a message as broad 
as humanity itself— The Ministry of Capital. In his 
descriptions the author has exceeded his own past efforts. 
He knows the desert and desert life, and has so vividly 
clothed his story with the local color and breezy atmos- 
phere of the West that we also are privileged to see and 
know the great silent land and feel its spirit call. 
A Book of Programs. By Jane L. Hoxie. Paper, 

100 pps., 5x7 y 2 ins. Price 25c. Published by F. 

Steiger & Co., New York. 

This book provides a general program, a nature pro- 
gram, an industrial program, a festival program and a 
Sunday School program covering an entire school year. 

The Treasure Babies.— By Maria Thompson Daviess, 
with illustrations by W. B. King. Cloth, 51-4x8 ins., 
204 pps. Published by the Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indian- 
apolis. 
A most delightful book of stories for small children, 

especially interesting at this season. Excellent for 

morning exercises. 



BOOK NOTES-Concluded 

The Problems of Youth. By Louis Albert Banks. 
Cloth; 391 pps , 3x8 ins. Price, $1.30 net. Published 
by Funk& Wagnalls Company, New York City. 
Dr. Banks bas shown in his long and varied ministry 
wonderful tact in reaching and holding the attention of 
the young men and women who have chanced to come 
within range of his strong personality. Many have been 
the touching occasions where he has personally sought 
out in their own homes these chance strangers to his 
church. It is evident tbat such an intimate acquain- 
tance with the young, in learning their temptations, 
and appreciating their difficulties, eminently fits him to 
speak now of "The Problems of Youth." This he has 
done in this intensely interesting and practical book. 

Parent and Child. A Treatise on the moral and re" 
ligious Education of Children. By Sir Oliver Lodge, 
D Sc, F. R. S. Boards, 73 pps. 4^x7 ins. Pub- 
lished by Funk & Wagnalls Co., New York. Price, 



Among the subjects ably treated are: Child Nature, 
Parental Influence, Imparting of Knowledge, Prepara- 
tion for Life; Preparation for Science; Preparation for 
Literatare; Preparation for Religion. 

The Indian Book. By William J. Hopkins. Cloth, 

240 pages. Size 6x8 ins. Published by Houghton 

Mifflin Co., Boston, New York, and Chicago. 

23 wholesome Indian Stories for little folks with 24 

full page illustrations. One of the most interesting 

Christmas books for children published this year. 



WILL CARLETON'S 

MAGAZINF 

EVERY WHERE 

Contains each month the latest Poems, Sketches, 
Editorials, and Literary Talks of Will Carleton, author 
of "Farm Ballads", "Farm Legions", "City Festivals", 
"Over the Hill to the Poorhouse", etc. Each one brim- 
full of the same qualities that have made him world- 
famous. 

Contains each month poems by the greatest woman- 
poet Margaret E. Sangster. Also some of the best work 
of other distinguished poets, 

Contains best of additional literature by popular 
authors. 

Contains ten complete Departments, each ably and 
interestingly edited. Handsomely Illustrated, and fine- 
ly printed in clear type on super-calandered paper. 

Price, $1. 00 per Year. 10 cents a copy. 
SPECIAL — To any one mentioning in his or her 
letter this advertisement, we will send Will 
Carleton's Magazine for Six Months, on receipt 
of Twenty-Five Cents. Address, 

EVERY WBEREPUBLISHING CO. 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



The most charming scenery in the world is to be found in 

Beautiful New England 

Every foot is historic ground, rich in literary associa- 
tions, and hallowed by the struggle for American In- 
dependence. As a teacher you need the 

New England Magazine 

with its wealth of local pictures illustrating these very 
scenes. Children become interested and gaima clearer idea 
of this historic section of our land and the events which 
have made it world-famous. Each number contains 
six full page engravings that are alone worth the price 
of the periodical. 

Our SPECIAL OFFER to 
TEACHERS 

To all readers of The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 
we will send the New England Magazine for one year at 
33 1-3 per cent, reduction from the regular price of $1.75. 
Send us $1.30 between now and the first of January and 

we will credit you with one full year's subscription. 

The New England Magazine 

Old South Building, Boston 



READ 



The best school journal published the South, the land 
of opportunity, and one of the best in the Union, 

THE EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE, 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 

Get in touch with the New South, learn something of 
its problems and how they are being solved. $1,00 for 
twelve issues, or $1.45 with the Kindergarten Primary 
Magazine. 

American Primary Teacher 

Edited by E. A. W1NSHIP 

Published Monthly Except July and August 



An up-to=date, wide awake paper for the grades. Illustrated 
articles on Industrial Geography, New Work in the Grades, 
Drawing, Fables in Silhouette and other school room work. 

Send for specimen copy and prospectus. 

Subscription, $1.00 a Year 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING CO. 

299 BEACON STREET, BOSTON 

CLASSICS FOR SCHOOL AND HOME 

We now offer more than 200 titles 
to the public in our 

Three and Five Cent Classics 

We have a catalogue showing the titles and contents of 
these classics. We will send samples and a copy of our 
graded catalogue. Best and Cheapest Supplementary 

Reading for any teacher or school superintendent. 

On account of the excellence and low price of these 
classics they are making friends wherever they are 
known. 

D. H. Knowlton & Co., Farmington, Maine. 



Every home, every child 
ought to know these pictures. 

The Perry 
Pictures 



- — I 


; ■ 


f 


• •". 'THE ' - ••• ' :# 
: PERRY 
PICTURES [fj| 


h- s 



Teachers' Agencies 



-THE- 



DON'T READ AT RANDOM 

Read This Course 

(Thirty-fourth C. L. S. C. Year) 

The Spirit of American Government. By J. Allen Smith, 
University of Washington $1.25 

The Twentieth Century American. By H. Percy Robinson, 
British Journalist, Washington correspondent London 
Times 1.75 

Materials and Methods of Fiction, By Clayton Hamilton. 
Introduction by Brander Matthews, Columbia University, 1.50 

Twenty Years at Hull-House. By Jane Addams. Etched 
Illustrations 2.00 

The Chautauquan Magazine (Monthly — Illustrated. Mem- 
bership included if desired). Containing: As We See Our- 
selves — In drama, novel, short story, essay, journalism, 
etc. (Benj. A. Heydrick, Commercial High School, New 
York) ; A Reading Journey Through South America 
(H. M. Van Dyke), American Engineering (Carl S. Dow 
of Boston), The monthly magazine also serves in many 

interesting ways as a teacher for the reading course 2.00 

Total $8.50 

All four books (cloth bound) and the Magazine. . . .$5.00* 
*Remit30c extra for postage or prepaid express. "Collect" charges are more. 

"Easy for Anybody, Worth While for Everybody 33 

If in doubt, send stamp for handbook of testimonals. 
Address CHAUTAUQUA INSTITUTION, Chautauqua, N. Y. 

GET THE CHAUTAUQUA IDEA 



Another Book of Delight Stories for Primary Grades 

By Mrs. Lyda B. McMurry 
MORE CLASSIC STORIES 

This is a companion book to Mrs. McMurry's "Classic Stories for 
the Little Ones." These are two of the six books for use in the first 
three grades published under the general title of "Literature for 
Little People." The other books are "Rimes and Stories"; "Stories 
of Indian Children"; "The Little Cliff-Dweller"; and "Robinson 
Crusoe for Boys and Girls." All are excellent stories for school use. 

"More Classic Stories" will be easy reading for second and third 
grade. Some of the stories are The Town Mouse andthe Country Mouse; 
The Shoemaker's Helpers; The Wonderful Pot; Beauty and the Beast; etc. 
Short poems rythmic and full of bright imagery which supplements 
the stories appear throughout the book. List price, 35 cents. 
Special prices to schools. 
Order from the Public School Publishing Co., Bloomington, 111. 



Reproductions of the World's Great Paintings 

ONE CENT EACH lo \£ll™T 

Send 25 cents for 25 art subjects, or 25 for children, or 25 Madonnas, or 25 
Kittens, etc., or $1.00 for the four sets, or $1.00 for art set of 100 pictures. 

Smaller, Half Cent Size, 3x3y 2 . Larger, Five Cent Size, 10x12. 

Bird Pictures in Natural Colors. 7x9. Two cents each for 13 or more. 

Large Pictures for Framing. 22x28 inches, including margin. Price 75 cents 
each ; 8 for $5.50. 

Send three two-cent stamps for Catalogue of 1,000 miniature illustrations, 
two pictures and a colored Bird picture. 

The PERRY PICTURES COMPANY 
Awarded Four Gold Medals Box 1120, Maiden. Mass. 



NORTHWESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

310-311 Providence Building 
DULUTH, MINN. 

The TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teachers, Tutors and 
Schools, No. 120 Boylston street. 

The Pratt Teacher's Agency, New York 

70 Fifth ave. Recommends college and 
normal graduates, specialists, and oth- 
er teachers to colleges, and schools. 
Receives at all seasons: many calls for 
primary and grammar grade teachers. 
Win. O. PRATT, njr. 

Unemployed Teachers 

IF FOR ANY REASON YOU HAVE 
NOT ACCEPTED WORK FOR THE 
SESSION OF 1911-1912 WRITE ME. 
MANY UNEXPECTED VACANCIES 
OCCUR ALL DURING THE FALL 
AND WINTER. THERE ARE ALSO 
MANY SCHOOLS WHICH DO NOT 
OPEN UNTIL LATE IN THE FALL. 
OVERFLOW TEACHERS ARE CON- 
STANTLY NEEDED SOMEWHERE; 
WE CAN GENERALLY TELL YOU 
WHERE. IF OPEN, WRITE FOR 
INFORMATION ABOUT THE 
SOUTHS NUMEROUS OPPOR- 
TUNITIES. 

W. H. JONES. Mgr. and Prop. 
COLUMBIA. S. C. 

CHILD LORE 

MAGAZINE 

"It Fills the Need." 

Every mother of a boy or girl feels 
the need of supplying reading of the 
right kind, — reading that interests, 
educates, helps. CHILD LORE solves 
the problem. It is simple enough 
for the child, interesting enough for 
anybody, and strong in its appeal to 
everybody. 

Subscription Price, $1.00 a year. 

Sample copy for a stamp. 

A FEW SPECIAL OFFE 

Child Lore 

McCall's 

Everyday Housekeeping 

Child Lore 

Everyday Housekeeping 

Child Lore ) 
McCall's S 

Child Lore 

Everyday Housekeeping 



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Uncle Remus 

Child Lore 
McCall's 
Uncle Remus 



} 



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RS. 

$1.50 

$1,15 
$1.10 

$1.65 
$1.50 



Books for Kindergartners 

Kindergarten in the Home 

By V. M. Hillyer, Headmaster Calvert 
School, Baltimore, Md. Based on exper- 
ience; admirably concise. This will make an 
invaluable aid to Kindergartners and mo- 
thers. Fully illustrated with diagrams and 
line drawings. Svo. $1 .25 net. 

Tales Come True 

By Margaret Coulson Walker, author of 
Lady Hollyhock and her Friends, Bird Le- 
gend, etc. A book designed as an aid to 
mothers and kindergartners. A delight also 
to the child itself. Fully illustrated in col- 
or and black and white. Square, Svo. $1.25 
net. 

Lady Hollyhock and Her 
Friends 

By Margaret Coulson Walker. An estab- 
lished favorite; on many library lists and 
in many school libraries. Lavishly illustra- 
color and black and white. Square; Svo., 
$1.25 net. 

Portrait catalogue, containing 33 
portraits of authors, -will be sent free 
on request. 

THE BAKER & TAYLOR CO. 



33 East 17th St. 



New York 




THE TEACHERS HELPERS 



The Teachers* Helpers are without question the finest 
PLAN BOOKS for teachers published. They are 
edited by some of the ablest and most practical teach- 
ers in the country. They give programs, methods, 
songs, drawing, and devices for each month in the 
year, and are beautifully and profusely illustrated. 
Four books In the series; named Autumn, Winter, 
Spring, and Summer respectively. The Summer 
number covers work for the whole year and is larger 
than the others. Cover designs done in beautiful 
three-color work. Money refunded to any purchaser 
whc is not more than satisfied. . 
PRICES: Each Number(except Summer) $ .35 
Summer No. [larger than others] .50 
Send today for c«py or ask for further informa- 
tion. Address 

Teachers' Helper, 

.Department n, Minneapolis, Minn. 

V ■ 



Some Great Subscription Offers! 

In Combination -with the 

Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 



"A Study of Child Nature," &SnK 

And the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine one year, both fcr 
while our stock lasts. \V> have but a few copies on hand. 

"I Mfc or»H I ■%nfir'c " bv Anna Bedlam and Car- 
LIIL » ttHU LYIIC&, rie Bullard. $1.00, and THE 
KINDERGARTEN-PRIMAKY MAGAZINE one year for 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Needlecraft, regular price $ 1.25 our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

McCall's Magazine, regular price $ r.50, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Housekeeper, regular price $1.70, our price 

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Home Needlework, regular price #1.75, our price 

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Health Culture, regular price $2.00, our price 

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Primary Education and School Arts Book, regular price 
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The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

kindergartt n Review, regular price $2,00, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
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The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
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American Primary Teacher and School Century, regular 
price $3.25, our price 

Many other combinations. Give us the names of the Magazines 
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$1.10 

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FOR CHRISTMAS 



Christmas-tide, By Elizabeth Har- 
rison. This Look will help mothers and 
teachers to give their children the right 
Christmas spirit and also help them in 
the wise selection of presents for children. 
In addition to Miss Harrison's Christmas 
talks and stories it contains a reprint of 
Dickins' beautiful Christmas Carol. 
Price, $1. Postage. 7c. 




Jiristrrias, jiff; 
Tide. !Z 



Th° Coming of the -Christ- rhild. The story of the com- 
ing of Christ and of the first Christmas, told in such a way 
as to acquaint the child with the faces that figure most prom- 
inently in Madonna and Holy Family pictures. Well lllus- 
trated ; 32 pages. Third grade. Price, 6c. ; postage, 2c. 

NEW CHRISTMAS RECITATIONS, DIALOGUES, SONGS, ETC. 

Thirty New Christmas Dialogues and Plays. By Clara J. 
Denton. This is the up-to-date book. For all grades. 175 pps. 
New fresh material. It will please you. Price 30c. 

The New Christmas Book. Right up to date. Sixty recita, 
tions, 10 dialogues and exercises, 4 drills, 10 songs, some with 
music, 5 tableaux, 4 pantomimes, CO quotations and a novel 
entertainment. 165 pages, 30c. 

Little Plays and Rhymes for Liitle People, Contents: Plays; 
T Court of the Little New Year; The Christmas Snow Flake; 
A Cl^ristmas Play for the Tiny Folks; May Day Play; Easter 
Exercise; Memorial Day Exercises; Bargains for .-•cholars- 
A Closing Exercise; Christmas Stories; The Vegetable Par 
ty at Roy's; Lazy Kitty; The Reward of the Cheerful Candle; 
Memory Gems; Rhyme for Free Hand Cutting; Drawing and 
Seed Laying; Rice only 6c. postage ic. 

Christinas Chimes, with Kindergarten Exercises, 6c. 

Feast of Lights, for Primary Classes, 6c. 

Christmas Crowns, 6c. 

Christmas Recitations, 6c. 

Select Readings and Recitations for Christmas, thirty-two choice 
readings and recitations, ioc, postpaid. 

Filmore's Christmas Recitations and Dialogues— Very satisfac- 
tory. Prepaid 10c 

Fin deSiecle Christmas Exercises — Great variety. Postp'd 15c, 

CHRISTMAS DIALOGS, GUPTILL'S ORIGINAL. By Eliza- 
beth F. Guptill. Few persons have the ability to write dialogs 
as successfully as the author of this collection. Here are many 
of her choicest productions. The contents are not only In- 
tensely interesting, but the dialogs can be given anywhere, and 
with few requirements. For children of all ages. 25 cents. 

CHRISTMAS DIALOGS AND PLAYS. A superb new collection 
of strictly original dialogs and plays, all expressly for Christ- 
mas. Written by the most successful authors, such as Jean 
Halifax, Faith Dennlson and Catherine Wentworth Rothsay. 
Original, clever, appropriate, delightful. 25 cents. 

— k ^— ~ ^^ Christmas Celebrations 

The matter in this book is all new. 
It is bv far the largest, choiestandbest 
arranged collection for Christmas pub- 
lished. Three parts. Part 1 for Pri- 
mary Grades contains 1 acrostic, 4 dia- 
logues and exercises. Waiting for 
Santa (drill), 29 recitations, new songs, 
and 16 primary quotations. Part II, In- 
termediate Grades, has 1 acrostic, 6 dia- 
logues and exercises, Stocking Drill, 
3 new songs, 9 quotations. Part III, 
Higher Grades, contains 1 dialogue. Ev- 
ergreen Drill, 17recitations, 3 new songs 
the origin of Christmas, a Christmas 
Prayer, and eight quotations. The book 
also contains 4 tableaux for all grades. 
Illustrated. 160 pages. Price, as cents. 

CHRISTMAS PLAYS 

THE HIGHWAY ROBBERS. A play for twerve boys, by 
Eleanor Allen Schroll. Nine of the boys have speaking parts. 
Three larger boys appear only In the first scene, but have no 
speaking part. This is a thrilling play for boys, teaching a 
good lesson impressively. Time — 20 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

A CHRISTMAS RAINBOW. A play for four girls and four 
boys, six or seven years old, by Adaline Hohf Beery. The chil- 
dren play Sunday-school, and at the close represent the rain- 
bow in tableau, in colors, with appropriate recitations and 
action. Time — 12 or 15 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

HOW SANTA CAME TO THE HOME. A play for small 
children, by Lizzie De Armond. The characters are Santa 
Ciaus and Brownies (about ten boys In all); also Pollle, Jennie, 
Fannie, and nine other little girls, and Miss Bessie. Time — 
12 or 15 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

THE ORPHANS' CHRISTMAS EVE. A play for fourteen 
girls and boys, by Elizabeth F. Guptill. Price 10 cents. Time 
— 20 minutes. 

A very Interesting story (or plot) of two orphan children, 
who start out to find their uncle's home. They not only find 
It, but many cousins who welcome them to their Chrlstma» 
ealebratlon. An Ideal play for children. 




KRIS KRINGLE JINGLES. By Effie Louise Koogle. Songs 
of the Christmas time for young and old. A versatile collection 
embracing Songs of the Christ Child, Songs of Jolly Saint Nick, 
Songs of the Yule Tide, many old favorites almost forgotten, 
etc. There are solos and choruses abundant. The book will 
furnish ample provision for the Church or School Entertain- 
ment, or for any other occasion. This Is the only collection of 
Christmas songs of this character. $2.50 per dozen, postpaid. 
Sample, 25 cents. 

A HOME FOR THE CHRIST. A play for eleven boys, by 
Adaline Hohf Beery. In this play the boys each contribute his 
services and his talent toward fixing up a suitable home fur the 
Christ. Time — 12 or 15 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

THE SHIRKERS. A play for ten or more small children. 
Six small boys and girls represent Mother Goose's children, 
and four or more boys represent little Moon Men, and Santa 
Claus, by Elizabeth F. Guptill. Time — 15 minutes. Price 10 
cents 

SENDING A CHRISTMAS BOX. A play for six girls and 
one boy, by John D. McDonald. In this play the girls plan to 
send a Christmas Box to the missionaries, and are compelled 
to call in a boy to help pack the box and address It. An inter- 
esting play. Time — 12 or 15 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

WHY CHRISTMAS WAS LATE. A play for small children, 
by Lizzie De Armond. The characters are Santa Claus. Brown- 
ies, Northwind, Jack Frost, Elves and Gnomes. Time — 12 or 
15 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

THE BROWNIE'S VACATION. A play for boys from seven 
to ten years, by Elizabeth F. Guptill. The characters are 
Brownies, seven in number, and Santa Claus. Time — 15 min- 
utes. Price 10 cents. 

CHRISTMAS 

BOOKLETS 

We list a few but 
have more. When 
a card is sold out it 
cannot be replaced 
hence order early 
as possible. 

R. 50. A handsome card folder, embossed in gold and 
colors, size 3x3%, 2c each, 10 for only ltic. ; postage 2c. 

R. 51. Very beautiful embossed card folder, size 2%x3% 2c 
each. 10 for only 16c. ; postage 2c. 

R. 52. A most exquisite little folder, size 3x4 inches, 2c 
each, 10 for only 16c. ; postage 2c, 

These are 4x3 ins. in 

autifully embos'd 

de of cardboard. 

ope. Price, each, 2c. 

Ic. Per dozen, 3c. Ask'for 






CHRISTMAS EOOKLETS 
size, contain four page 
in many colors on a " 
Each in separate envel- 
Per dozen, 20c. Posta 



ETS, n The 
iges IP 1 ea 




No. 120b. No. 120c. is a similar booklet but size SVpx 
3 inches. No. 120d is also similar hut size about 4^ 
x2*4. All are furnished in assorted designs. 

No. 121b. "CHRISTMAS BOOKLETS * These are similar to 
above but much larger, some be- /I f i ng nearly 4x5 ms. in 
size. Manv have beautiful cut- tM out designs. Similar 
Booklets are frequently sold at ~ from 8 to 10c. Only 4c 
Pistacre, lc. Per dozen, "40c. Postage. 4c. 

Mo. 122b. CHRISTMAS BOOKLETS o These 
are the regular 10c. goods. Con- |%r> tain 8 
pages, usually tied with ribbon or \j\j % cord, 
Each, 6c. Postage, Ic. Per dozen, ** 6 5 C , 
Postage, 4c. All have greetings, poems, etc. 

No. 123b. Same as above but oblong in shape, 
(open end.) Prices same as for No. 122b. 
ASSORTED BOOKLETS, 3c. These arefmade up 
of regular 3c, 4c. and 5c. booklets. Extra values. 
MORE EXPENSIVE BOOKLETS, We have some big bargains 
in these, ranging in price from 10, 15. 20, 25 and "Oc. each. Why 
NOT do this: Send us the amount of money you want to in- 
vest, tell us how manv cards or booklets you wish to buy and 
leave the selection to us. Your money will be returned if not 
satisfied, or goods exchanged if you prefer. 



. Little Folk Series. Each book contains 
)J 16 pages and cover, beautifully bound in boards, 
every page illustrated and printed in colors, con- 
taining appropriate verses, etc. "Tales of all kind9 
for Little Minds". "Little jokes for Litte Folks," 
"Short Stories for Little Boys and Girls", "Tiny 
Tinkles and Little Jingles": Regular price 10c 
each, our price only 5c each, postage 3c. 

Dainty Series of Beautiful Books. A 

series of large, beautiful books, for boys and girls, 
attractively bound in boards, with floral decora- 
tions; the subjects include; Honor Bright, Voyage 
of Mary Adair, Story of Joseph, Golden Apple, 
Mother s Little Man, Big Temptation, Princess 
Token, Our Soldier Boy. Size 6)4 x 8%, a regular 
25c book. Having purchased these in large quan- 
e offer them at 15c each, postage 6c. 

all Orders to The J. H. Shults Co., Manistee, Mich. 






INDEX TO CONTENTS 



Jenny B. Merrill, 



Editorial Notes ... 

The Social Side of the Kindergarten, 

The National Child Welfare Conference, 

its Work and its Relation to Child Study, G. Stanley Hall, 

How Every School May be a Child Welfare 

Conference, - - - William H, Allen, 

The Kindergarten Out Doors: Gardens, I Anna E. Harvey, 

The Kindergarten Out Doors: Walks and 



117 

118 

120 

124 
125 



Excursions, II 
The University and the Kindergarten, 
Kindergarten Daily Program. 
Abraham Lincoln, - - - 

Picture Study, 
Kindergarten Growth, 
Helpful Hints and Suggestions, 
Ethical Culture, 
Current Events, 
Book Notes, 



Mrs. Alma Oliver Ware, 126 
Dr. Burtis Burr Breeze, 130 
Nora Keough, - - 134 
Grace Dow, - 139 

139 

140 
141 

142 
- 143 

144 



Volume XXIV, No. 5. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 



WATER COLORS 



The Devoe Water Color Boxes. 

The quality of the Devoe colors is 
much superior to those ordinarily fur- 
nished for school use, and really high 
class work can be produced with them. 
They are used in many of our large 
cities, are recommended by drawing su- 
pervisors, and give entire satisfaction. 
Boxes made of J apanned Tin. 
i, 6 cakes, Crimson Lake, Gamboge, TJlt. Blue, 
, Burnt Sienna, Orange; with camels' hair brush 
only i2c. Postage 4c. 6 boxes 60c, postage 




Little (Jem. 

New Green 
with handle 

2CC. 




Box No. 4Yz G. Contains 8 half pans, com- 
prising the six standard colors, warm 
and Cool Gray, with one quill brush. 
Postage, each, 5 cents. Price »0.30. Per 
doz $2.05. Per hundred $16.75 

We also supply all other Devoe Water 
Color boxes at these reduced prices. 



The Little Artist Complete Color Out- 
fit: The outfit consists of an enamel 
mixing palette with its seven com- 
partments filled with semi-moist 
colors (which may be replenished 
with color from tubes), consisting of 
the six spectrum colors, Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, 
Violet, and Charcoal Grav. A good quill brush with detach- 
able wood handle is included, and the whole is inclosed in a 
strong cardboard case, daintily labeled. Price, per box, $0.15 ; 
postage, $0.03 



The Three Color Box No. 2. A box con. 
taining 4 cakes; 1 Carmine, 1 Ultrama- 
rine, and 2 Perfect Yellow, with two quill 
brushes. Postage, each, 3 cents. Price, 
«0.20. Per dozen, $1.70. Per hundred, $U50. 





Alizarin Crimson 
Burnt Sienna 
Charcoal Grey 
Chinese White 
Cold Grey 
Crimson Lake 



Per dozen. 



Warm Grey 



Gamboge 
Lamp Black 
Light Fed 
Ivory Black 
New Blue 
New Green 



Yellow Ochre 




Art Vellum, very beautiful colors, per yard, 
Art Canvas, rich colors, per yard, 
Binder's Cloth, per yard ... 

Book mending paper, in strips, per envelope 
Powdered Paste per % pound box 
Calender pads, per ltiO 

Metal eyelet binders per 100 large dr small 
Eyelet sets for binding papers with eyelet9 
Eyelet Punch . - i ' • 



40 


" 


04 


20 


" 


05 


10 


" 


00 


05 


44 


05 


40 


(< 


51 


10 


11 


10 


1.00 


u 


55 


1.10 


M 


11 




Japanese Water Color 
Brushes 

Price per dozen, 40c 

Best Quality Camels Hair Brushes 

Made of selected camel's hair and ferruled to polished 
wooden handles. An excellent quality for all school uses. 
I-i seven sizes, No. 1 being the smallest and No. 7 the largest. 



rtllton Bradley Water Colors 

We also furnish all the Bradley Water 
Color boxes, etc., at lowest prices. 

No 112 Box. No. 112. Long box containing 4 cakes; 1 Car- 
mine, 1 Ultramarine, 1 Perfect Yellow, and 1 black, with one 
No. 7 Brush. Postage, each, 4 cents. Price, $0.24. Per dozen, 
$2.35. Per hundred, $18.50. Cakes, for refilling boxes Nos. 2 
and 112. Price, per dozen, $0.20. Postage, per dozen cakes, 5 
cents. Per gross, 52.25 



'■ACADEniC'J 
.lolst Water 
Colors. In 

Collapsable Tubes 

Orange 
Prussian Blue 

Sepia 

Vandyke Brown 
Vermilion 

Violet 



90c 

Devoe Water Color Cakes 

For refilling boxes or pans. Red. green, yellow 
blue, black, etc. Per dozen, 24c. Postage, 4c. 



Enameled Water Cups ^ 

These water cups are made of tin, whit e 
'enameled on inside. Perfectly rust proof 
Per doz., 30c. post'a, 13c. 3 doz.. 75c. post 25c. 

Superior Gold and Silver Paint 

These paints are very satisfactory for decorating or 
lettering on metal, glass, paper, wood, etc. Gives a 
smooth, brilliant finish, holds its color, will not rub 
off, dries quickly; just the thing for decorating calen- 
dars, valentines, booklets, etc., made by pupils. 

Price, 10 cents per bottle for either kind. Postage, 4c. 

Miscellaneous Decorative Material 



i.40 Postage, $0.04 




No. 1. Per doz. 2oc 

No. 2. Per doz. 30c 

No. 3. Per doz. 35c 

No. 4. Per doz. 40c 



No, 5, Per doz, 45c 
No. 6. Per doz. 50c 
No. 7. Per doz. 50c 
Postage, 2c per dozen, 



(1 



EASY DYES" 



For dyeing Tilo Matting, Tilo Strands, Raffia, Burlap, etc 
and for all textile art work. Especially valuable in primary 
schools.Putupin tubes with full directions for use. We keep 
in stock the following colors: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green , 
Blue, Violet, Old Rose, Heliotrope, Medium Brown. Price 
ner tube, isc. Postage, 4c. Per dozen tubes. $1.30; post'g 38c 

Toy Knitter. —This little Toy 
amuses and keeps the children 
busy; they make Cords and 
Braids with same for horse reins 
and fancy work; the children are 
delighted. Instructions with each 
one, Price, each, 5c; postage, 2c; 
per doz., 40c., postage 8c. 

Mosaic Tiles.— In eight different 
colors ; 3 4 inch square and % inch 
thick, indestructably made of 
clay and burned. An endless va- 
riety of designs can be made 
with same; parquetry and weav- 
ing patterns can be used. A box containing 100 assorted tiles 




; postage 20c. 




Door and 
House 

Numbers 
3 in. nickel 
pl'td; tang 
fasteners; 
Each, 7c. 





Ink Well 
Carriers 

A necessity in ev- 
ery school room ; ca- 
pacity 18 wells. Or- 
der at least one as a 
sample. Price, 90c 



Dissecting Set 

In neat leather case 
with clasp. One fine 
nickel-plated pair of 
scissors; fine nick- 
el-plated forceps; fine steel dissect- 
ing knife; two adjustable bone han- 
dle dissecting needles. Price, $'.oo 

Acme Flower Press 
Acme Flower Press Simple, strong, portable, satisfactory. 
The quickest drying press ever invented. When hung in 
the sunlight and air or over a stove dries specimens so quick- 
ly that their natural colors are preserved. From one to fifty 
or more specimens may be pressed at one time. For reduced 
P'lre, see in sidecover page. 

Mottoes in Large Letters on Heavy Paper. 

Four cents each, postpaid. Easily read across the room. 



God Bless our School i : WELCOME, FRIENDS. ! 



; Gome, let us Live with 
j the Ghildren-Froebel. 



i You are Invited to visit; 
Our School 



Address The J. H. Shults Co., Manistee, Mich. 



A Great Dictionary Triumph! 



Series Containa 
3,880 Pages, 5,300 
II lustra- 
tions, 56 
full-page 
plates. 




Combines Low Prices v . - A - , T », . . 

cuiny, Laird € Lee s Webster s 

Bult and 

E8Uty NEW STANDARD 

SwwVgY 



DICTIONARIES 



J^ — =FOR= — ^d 

Schools, Academies, 

Colleges, Universities, 

Libraries and 

jb&~ general use. 



Laird & Lee's Webster's New Standard American Dictionary — 

Fnrwrlnnprlir FHifinn FnU flflXible straight, pr-aia cowhide, polished 
I^IllyyUlUpCUlO L/U111U11 colored edges, patent thumb index, 1,280 pp., 
2,000 illus. (in a box), $4.00. % leather, marbl d edges, thumb index $3.00 

Laird & Lee's Webster's New Standard Dictionaries- 
High School and Collegiate Edition ggw>HMrie..i«r,iooo 



patent thumb indexed, $1.75. 



pages, 1,400 illustrations, 
Half leather, not indexed $1.50 



Students' Common School Ed. [Revised] JB&Smot! 

840 illustrations, gold and blind stamped 80c 

Intermediate School Edition ^IW.^C 
Elementary School Edition ggig^^^ggjg 

A good dictionary is just as essential to good school work as an arithmetic, a grammar, 
a history or a geography. We have made it possible for principals, teachers, students, 
and all educational institutions to obtain a new, first-class, high-grade, Standard 
Dictionary of the English Language, and at prices within the reach of all. 

The flexible cowhide binding', Encyclopedic Edition, makes a 
BEAUTIFUL. GIFT for any member of the family or friend. 

All school-book supply houses and dealers carry these dictionaries. Ask for the 
Laird & Lee Editions. Accept no others and you will get the best. "3PH 

LAIRD & LEE, Publishers 1732 Michigan Ave., CHICAGO, ILL 



Envelope Openers 



Made of steel . nickel finish, length 9 inches 

Each, 25c 

SBBB aaw> 

Nickeled steel, length 9 inches 

Each, 20c 

Wire Filing 
Hook 

Well made 
and handy 

10 CTS. EACH 

Delivered 

only with other 

goods 

PAPER CLIPS 

No. 120. ever handy. eteel 

blued. I* ln<*h«* wide, on 
No. 121, «»er hoady eteel 

blued i* Inches wide. o«t 
No. \'i.'l. eser hfiadv it eel 

Waed.iH Inches wide, 10* 
No. 123, »rtrA heavy, steel 

tolued. 3 loobM wide, 1&« 




HORSESHOE 
No. 124. Brio, 1*i2K In. 
" 126, " 2W»3H " 
- 126, " 2Hz4 " 
" 127. Nick*]. 1Ks2K " 
" 128. " I*i3H " 
b i2# t ~ 2H»2« " 




TIGER 

MeUl blued eteel •prlng 
witb extra Urge trip. 
No. 130, 2H inch*. Im* 
e«cli, ■•• 



* ENVELOPE 
RACK 

Made of Plated Wire 

Is Deal and 

perfectly clean 

Price, SOc Each 

Size 4 Inches 
by 8 laches 

J. H. Shults, "Manistee, Mich. 






FIRST STEPS TO A UERARY CAREER 

A Primer for Writers. Tells How to Write; 
What to Write; How to Prepare Copy for the 
Printer and How to Turn Failure into Success. Do 
you want to learn? Subscribe for 

THE BOOKSELLER AND LATEST 
LITERATURE 

and read the series of articles of interest to every 
aspiring writer. All who are interested in current 
literature will find this magazine desirable. An 
epitome of Books, Authors and Magazines of the 
day. $1.00 a year. Sample copy free. Address, 

The Bookseller and Latest Literature 

208-10 Monroe Street, Chicago, Ills. 

Three and Five Cent Classics 

We will send sample and our graded catalogue to 
any teacher or superintendent. 

BEST AND CHEAPEST SUPPLEMENTARY 
READING 

They find friends everywhere and are used north, 
west, south and east, everywhere in the United States, 
and even in the far away Philippines. 

D. H. KNOWLTON & Co., PUBLISHERS, 

Farrnington, Maine. 



REMARKABLE CLUB OFFERS 



FOR 



Standard Magazines 



No'lJ Educatorjournal 
X Primary Education 

„ „5 Educator-Journal, 
Wo ~\ Popular Educator 

„ „( Primary Education., 
No 3 ( Popular Educator 

„ . , ( Educator-Journal, 
No*4} World To-day 

- T .5 Primary Education, 
No 5} world To-day 



$1.00 
1.25 

$2.25 Both for $1.65 

$1.00 
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Address 

THE EDUCATOR-JOURNAL CO. 

28 S. eridan St. Indianapolis. Ind. 



NEWS NOTES-Continued 

Brockton, Mass. The day nursery and kinder- 
garten in connection with the fall carnival is a welcome 
haven for mothers who visit the carnival. Over one 
hundred children under three were cared for in the 
nursery daily and nearly three hundred in the kinder- 
garten. Some of the kidlings sleep peacefully in their 
little nests but there are others who have to be cajoled 
to take their usual nap and there are still some few who 
much prefer to sit up and play with their pink toes. It 
is certainly a pretty sight to see the white-gowned, 
white-capped nurses taking care of the little ones. 
When the nap is over forth comes baby to sit at the 
little table and enjoy the toys that are prepared for his 
benefit. There are plenty of these amusements, steam 
engines that wheel around, and little horses that move, 
and dolls that bob up straight when you tip them over, 
but strange to relate it is often the toy that the other 
chap has that is the only toy that will satisfy this baby. 
Many of the children are placed in the kindergarten 
for a short time while the mothers take a stroll about 
the grounds. Others come in late in the day after little 
feet have become too tired to trot about and then the 
kindergarten games and music help them to forget how 
tired they are. The weaving interests all the little ones, 
who are ever ready to make something '"to take home 
and show papa," — poor papa who couldn't come to the 
big fair. A busy mother on the grounds was Mrs. Henry 
Berman of Edson Street. She came to the fair with 10 
children, all her own, too. She "cached" four of the 
little ones at the kindergarten and nursery and took 
the other half-dozen with her on her stroll about the 
grounds. Late in the afternoon she rounded up her 
nock and departed. — Brockton Enterprise. 



Ill habits gather by unseen degrees, 
As brooks make rivers, rivers run to seas. 

— Dryden. 



Vessels large may venture more, 

But little boats should keep near shore. 

— Franklin. 



He who fights and runs away 
May live to fight another day. 

— Goldsmith. 



Dutch Ditties 

FOR 

CHILRDEN 

FIFTEEN SONGS 

WITH PIANO ACCOMPANIMENT 

Words and Music 

by 

ANICB TERHUNE 

Pictures by ATbertine Randall Wheelen 

yl.25 net 

NEW YORK: G. SCHIRMER 

BOSTON: BOSTON MUSIC CO 

LONDON: SCHOTT & CO. 



Cheap and Excellent Books 

SONG KNAPSACK, 142 songs for schools, 10c; $1 
dozen. 

"PAT'S P T ._, 124 pp. All the music to the KNAP- 
SACK songs. Sweetest, sanest, jolliest song 
book made. Cloth, 50c. 

PRIMER OF PEDAGOGY, by Prof. D. Putnam. 
Just what the times demand. Cloth 122 pp. 25c. 

MANUAL OF ORTHOGRAPHY AND ELEMEN- 
TARY SOUNDS, by Henry R. Pattengill. Up-to- 
date. 104 pp., 25c. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF U. S., by W. C. Hewitt. 

118 pp., complete, new, cloth, 25c; $2.40 per doz. 
MEMORY GEMS, 1000 GRADED SELECTIONS, by 

H. R. Pattengill. 143 pp., linen morocco finish, 

25c. 

MORNING EXERCISES AND SCHOOL RECREA- 
TIONS, by C. W. Mickens. New, 267 pp., 50c. 

PRIMARY SPEAKER FOR FIRST AND SECOND 
GRADES, by Mary L. Davenport. Fresh, 
elegant. 132 pp., 25c. 

OLD GLORY SPEAKER, containing 80 of the 
choicest patriotic pieces written. 126 pp., 25c. 

HINTS FROM SQUINTS, 144 pp. Hints comical, 
hints quizzical, hints pedagogical, hints ethical, 
hints miscellaneous. Cloth, 50c. 

SPECIAL DAY EXERCISES, 165 pp., 25c. 

Best medicine ever to cure that "tired feeling" 
in school. 

HENRY R. PATTENGILL, Lansing, Mich. 



FOR SALE— 7 Kindergarten Tables at $5.00 each; 3 doz. 

fith Gifts at 25 cents each ; 2dozen 5th Gifts at 25 cents each ; 

2 dozen 4th at 10 cents; Wz dozen 3rd at 10 cents; 1 dozen 

2nd at 30 cents; 1% dozen peg boards at HO cents per dozen. 

Address, Sue W. Frick, York, Pa. 



WANTED— A copy of the Kindergarten-Primary Maga- 
zine for October, 1904. Address, Jennings & Graham, siai 
W. Fourth St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

"WANTED— Position as kindergartner. Graduate of a 
good training school. Address, W. 278 River Street, Man- 
istee, Mich. 

WANTED— Back numbers of the Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine, as follows: February, May, June, September, 
1889; December, 1890; January, March and April, 1891. Ad- 
dress, Mrs. Helen B. Paulsen, Buckhannon, VV. Va. 

WANTED— Back number of Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine for February, 1910. Address, A. I'unniugham, 
Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind. 



WANTED— September and October numbers of the 
Kindergarten Primary Magazine for 1904. Address 
C. M. T. S., care of Jennings & Graham, 222 W. Fourth St., 
Cincinnati. Ohio. 



WANTED— Kindergarten-Primary Magazine for Janu- 
ary and October, 1894, and October, 1897. Address G. Dunn, 
& Company, 403 St. Peter Street, St. Paul, Minn. 



WANTED— One copy each of Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine, as follows: June and September, 1894; January, 
April and May. 1895; October, November and December, 
1863: February, 1898; September to December, 1905; January 
to February, 19H6. Address. The University of Chicago 
Press, Library Department, Chicago ,111. 



WANTED— Back numbers of Kindergarten-Primarv 
Magazine for September, 1909, and February 1910. J. H. 
Shults, Manistee, Mich. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



PITTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY 
KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 



ALICE N. PARKER, Superintendent. 
Regular course, two years. Special ad- 
vantages for Post-Graduate work. Twen- 
tieth year begins September 27, 1911. For 
catalogue address. 

MRS. WILLIAM McCRACKEN, Secretary, 
3439 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

82 St. Stephen Street, Boston. 

Normal Course, two years. 

For circulars address 

Miss Lucy Harris Symonds 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

HORTBNSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

the Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 326 Bull Street, 

Savannah. Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

Two Years' Course. Terms, $100 per year. 

Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 

•»T»RING FIELD — TOVP.VIF, AI>OW. M*S<5 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 



For Information address 

MISS CAROLINE T. HAVEN, Principal, 

Central Park West and 63d St. 

NEW YORK 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 

Two Years' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
G39 Peachtree Street. ATLANTA. GA. 




CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

1300 Michigan Boulevard, 
CHICAGO. ILL. 

Fall Term opened September 12th, 1911 

One year Primary Course, 
Two year regular Kindergarten Course, 

Mrs. J. N. Crouse, Elizabeth Harrison, 

Principals 



for KINDERGARTEN and 
PRIMARY TEACHERS 

Spool Knitting. By Mary A. Mc- 
Cormack. Directions are clear and ex- 
plicit, accompanied by photographs. 
Price, 75 cents to teachers. 

Practical and Artistic Basketry. 

By Laura A. Pinsley. Illustrated. 
Price $1.00 to teachers. Stitches are 
taken up in the order of their difficul- 
ty. Cud work is given a place. Care- 
fully graded. 

Outlines for Kindergarten and 
Primary Classes, in the study of 
Nature and Related subjects. By E. 
Maud Cannell and Margaret E Wise. 
Price 75 cents to teachers. 

Memory Gems. For school and 
home. By W. H. Williams. Price 
50 cents to teachers. Contains more 
than 300 carefully chosen selections. 

Send for Catalogue 

The A. S. BARNES CO. 

381 Fourth Ave., New York 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

OF 

The Buffalo Kindergarten Association 

Two Years' Course. 

^or particulars address 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER, 
<fl Delaware Av#»nne. - RufTalo. N. V 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Tears' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
Ifl Washington St.. East Orange, N. J. 



CLEVELAND KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with the 
CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE) 

2050 East 96th Street 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Founded In 1894) 
Course of study under direction of Eliza- 
beth Harrison, covers two years In Cleve- 
land, leading to senior and normal courses 
in the Chicago Kindergarten College . 

MISS NBTTA FARIS, Principal. 

MRS. W. R. WARNER, Manager. 



CARNEGIE COLLEGE 

Home Study-Free Tuition 

Carnegie College gives Free Tuition 
by mail to one representative in each 
county and city. Normal, Teacher's 
Professional. Grammar School, High 
School, College Preparatory, Civil Ser- 
vice, Bookkeeping, Shorthand, Type- 
writing, Greek, Latin, German. Spanish, 
Italian, Drawing and Agricultural 
Courses are taught by correspondence. 
Applicants for Free Tuition should 
apply at once to Dept. C. 

CARNEGIE COLLEGE 

ROGERS. OHIO 




BOWLDEN BELLS 

FOR SCHOOLS 

From $8.00 to $25.00 

FOR CHURCHES 

From $25.00 to $125.00 

Write for free 

catalogue. 

AMERIGflN BELL S 

FOUNDRY CO. 

Northville, Mich. 



The Kindergarten-Primary 

Magazine 



Only 50c. for remainder of School year 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 






Kindergarten \ 
Institute 



Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Course (two years), 
and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificates for £ 
Horne-making Course, non-professional (one year). 






Class Rooms and 
Students' Residence 



GERTRUDE HOUSE, 

54 Scott St., CHICAGO. 



Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 
Chicago. 
Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 
Directors: Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 
Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 
For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, 54 Scott St. 



GRAND RAPIDS KINiERQAR= 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Winter Term opens September 27th. 

CERTIFICATE. DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 
MAY L. OGILBY. Registrar 

Hiepard Building, - 23 .Fountain St. 
GRAM) RAPIDS, MICH. 



Miss Hart's 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

For Kindergartners 
1615 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 
Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Five practice Kin- 
dergartens. Opens September 28, 1911. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 
The Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 



OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 

FROEBEL KINDERGARTEN TRAIN- 
ING SCHOOL. 

Medical supervision. Personal attention 
Thirty-five practice schools 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MARY E. LAW, M. I).. Principal. 



The Teachers' College 

of Indianapolis 

For the Training of Kindergartners 
and Primary Teachers. Accredited by 
(he State Board of Education in Classes 
A B and C. Regular courses, two. three 
and four years. Primary Training: a part 
of the regular work. Classes formed in 
September and February. Free scholar- 
ships granted each term. 

Special Primary Classes in March, May 
June. July. Send for catalogue. 

MRS. ELIZA A. BLAKER, President. 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Institute. 

23rd and Alabama Streets. 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

509 S. Wabash Ave., Opposite Auditorium 

Mrs Bertha Hofer Hegner, Superintendent 
Mrs. Amelia Hofer Jerome, Principal.; 

FIFTEENTH YEAR. 
Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A course 
in Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
become ramiliar with the Social Settle- 
ment movement at Chicago Commons. Fine 
equipment. For circulars and information 
write to 
MRS. BERTHA HOrER-HEGNER, 

West Chicago, 111. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number of 
students. 
Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 
H. N. Hlglnbotham, Pies. 
Mrs. P. D. Armour. Vice-Pres. 
SARAH E. HANSON. Principal. 
Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago I'niversities. 
For particulars address Eva B. Whit- 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 
ave.. Chicago. 



The Adams School 

Kindergarten Training Course 

(Two Years) 

Nine months' practice teaching dur- 
ing course. Address, 

The Misses Adams 

26 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, Va. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training in Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. Post- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1516 Columbia Road N. W.. WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

Hummer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
uorrett oo., Maryiana. 



THE HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 

For information address 

MISS HAR.RIETTE M. MILLS. Principal 

New York University Building 

Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Courses given for credit at 

New York University Summer School 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

2119 Allston Way, Berkeley, Calif. 

Grace Everett Barnard, 

principal. 



Four Good Things 

1. The Pennsylvania School Journal. 

Sixtieth Volume. Monthly, $1.50, 600 
double column pages. 

2. Songs of the Million. "Flag of the 
Free" Sons Books. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. Favor- 
ite Songs in Each Book. 25 cents per 
copy; Send for Contents. 

3. "Lincoln Art Series," Thirty Choice 
Pictures, size 22x28 and 24x50. 50 cents ; 
Four for $1.0j. Send for Illustrated 
Circular. 

4. "Good riemory Wck." 20 cents. 
The influence of Good Songs and 
Hymns. Good Pictures and Good Mem- 
or j- Work in the School Room and in the 
Home is felt, in blessing, through all 
our lives as men and women. 

Address J. P. McCASKEY, 
LANCASTER. PA. 




KINDERGARTEN 

SUPPLIES 

And all kinds of Construction 

Material for Kindergartners and 

Primary Teachers. Catalogue 

Free. Address, 

Garden City Educational Co. 

no So. Wabash Ave., CHICAGO 



EDUCATIONAL SPECIALTIES. ?££ 

Game. 15c ; History Game, 15c; 2i50 Les- 
son Plans, 50c ; Educational Puzzle, 10c ; 
Year's Subscription to N. T. School 
News, 40c. W. C. MOORE, PUB., New 
Egypt, N.J. 



Ol)£ HfindergarUrt primary yCta^azirtd 



VOL. XXIV— JANUARY, 1911— NO. 5. 



The Kindergarten- Primary Magazine ec i ual P a ^ . for ec l ual ser . vice regardless of sex. 
Greater things are predicted for the future. 



Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

E. J.yell Earle, Ph. D., Editor, 

Business Office, 278-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 

J. H. SHUI/TS, Business Manager. 

MANISTEE, MICHIGAN. 

All communications pertaining to subscriptions and adver- 
tising or other business relating to the Magazine should be 
addressed to the Michigan office, J. H. Shults, Business Man- 
ager, Manistee, Michigan. All other communications to E. 
I-yell Earle, Managing Editor, 59 W. !)6tli St., New York City. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine Is published on the 
first of each month, except July and August, from 278 River 
Street, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable In advance. 
Single copies, 15c. 

Postage is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in 
the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine islands, 
Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa i, Shanghai, Canal Zone. 
Cuba and Mexico. For Canada ndd 20c and for ail other 
countries in the Postal Union add 30c for postage. 

Notice of Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a con- 
tinuance of the subscription is desired until notice of dis- 
continuance is received. When sending n tice of change of 
address, both the old and new addresses must be given. 

Make all remittances to Manistee, Michigan. 



EDITORIAL NOTES 

If we can not get the best now let us use 
the best we can get and strive for the better. 



Dr. Claxton, Commissioner of Education, is 
an apostle of the present needs in education. 
Philosopher he may or may not be, but a 
doer of practical things he certainly is, and 
we need people who do things now, using the 
best at their command, not waiting for some- 
thing better, but developing the better by the 
doing. 

And let us remember that the children are 
here now; that if the kindergarten is to do 
anything for the little ones of today it must 
do it quickly. To wait for perfect conditions 
before establishing kindergartens means the 
waiting of eternity to many children. It 
means robbing them of their birthright en- 
tire because it cannot be bestowed in full. 



During the past two or three years the 
world has had an object lesson demonstrating 
the fitness of women for large responsibilities 
along educational lines by the marked success 
of Ella Flagg Young, superintendent of Chi- 
cago schools, and Grace Strachan, district 
superintendent of Brooklyn, the apostle of 



Why should any one question for a mo- 
ment the equity of the proposition — "equal 
pay for equal service, regardless of sex" — yes, 
regardless of everything. The service deter- 
mines the value wholly and it alone should fix 
the price. The example of New York is most 
wholesome and we trust there will be many 
followers. 



The gracious influence of the Froebelian 
System of child development is by no means 
confined to those who have become the di- 
rect beneficiaries of its benignity. All de- 
partments of education have profited by it. 
There is probably not a single regular kin- 
dergarten in the rural schools proper yet the 
blessings that have come to the little ones 
through the use of the gift and occupation 
material of the kindergarten is incalculable, 
even when used as "busy work." The trials 
of "sitting on a hardwood bench" to the child 
whose previous life has been almost a con- 
tinuous round of play has been greatly am- 
eliorated by the bright, attractive material 
and something has been gained. The result 
of course is by no means a test of the value 
of the kindergarten, nor need we fear that it 
will be so considered by people of intelligence 
anywhere. It is a boon! a blessing! there- 
fore let us be thankful. 



Philander P. Claxton, the new Commis- 
sioner of Education, has outlined far reaching 
plans for the work of his bureau in the fu- 
ture, and will ask congress for an appropria- 
tion of $250,000 for the present, whereas, 
heretofore, $80,000 has been the largest 
amount at the disposal of the U. S. Commis- 
sioner of Education. Mr. Claxton says that 
65% of the children of America are in rural 
districts, and will ask for $40,000 to be used 
in employing experts to study the problems 
with a view to improving educational condi- 
tions there. The N. E. A. at the last meet- 
ing appropriated $10,000 for a somewhat sim- 
ilar purpose. It is to be hoped that in all 
this investigation the needs of children from 
5 to 7 years will be carefully considered. 
They suffer most from the inefficiency of rural 
schools. 



ii8 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



THE SOCIAL SIDE OF THE KINDER- 
GARTEN. 



BY JENNY B. MEEEILL, PD. D. 

Former Supervisor of Kindergartens in Manhattan and 
the Bronx, New York. 

Some years ago in an endeavor to state 
the fundamental reasons for my belief in the 
kindergarten I wrote a "Kindergarten Creed." 

The first, the very first article of this creed 
reads : 

"I believe that children need each other's 
society for their highest development." 

In the multiplicity of play activities in the 
kindergarten, in the over-zealous advocacy of 
"gifts and occupations," in the endeavor to 
hand on and on a well rounded definite series 
of "things to do," there has been times of par- 
tial forgetfulness of the life to live with each 
other or in other words, the development of 
the child's social self. 

Notwithstanding this seeming forgetful- 
ness of the importance of the social life of 
the kindergarten, notwithstanding the fact 
that it is not written about as frequently as 
its importance demands, it will be found upon 
investigation that in the opinion of Froebel 
himself it is the cornerstone of his system of 
education. 

This is certainly indicated by the motto, 
"Come let us live with the children," which 
he gave to mothers and kindergartners. 

It is true that this motto was intended to 
place a needed emphasis upon the relation- 
ship of adult life to child life, upon the en- 
trance of the adult into companionship with 
children for needed guidance, rather than 
merely the social life of child with child, but 
it does not exclude the latter. 

A bright young mother recently para- 
phrased this classic motto by advising that 
we change it to : 

"Come, let the children live." 

I presume she realizes that the adult some- 
times overshadows the child. 

It is, however, only the story of the gold 
and silver shield repeated. There is truth on 
both sides. Froebel caught a glimpse of both 
sides of the shield. He knew what the child 
meant to the child. He also saw the need of 
adult life entering into the play of children. 

"The only child is the spoiled child" is gen- 
erally regarded as a truism. If any one 
wants to exercise his sense of pity upon a 
child, let him find the child whose mother 
tries to entertain him all day or sends him 



out alone with a stolid nurse to perambulate 
the streets or park for hours with instruc- 
tions that he is not to be allowed to play with 
other children. I met such a child the other 
day, a sturdy boy who was clearly angry 
through and through ! I stopped and. tried 
to divert him. His nurse was above the aver- 
age, but sadly did he need another child. 

"He is not allowed to play with other child- 
ren," was the response I met, and expected. 

The danger of physical contagion seems to 
be one of the chief reasons for keeping the 
well-to-do child away from his fellows. But 
the mother's fear seems often to bring to the 
child these dreaded ills in spite of his isola- 
tion, and the losses he suffers from this lack 
of companionship overbalance the sting of 
child diseases. Poverty of spirit, poverty of 
experience, poverty in self-forgetfulness are a 
few of the serious losses of the child who is 
socially ostracized, the child who is doomed 
to play alone. 

Child psychology is being written more and 
more from its social aspects. "We are mem- 
bers one of another" must be learned at an 
early age. It is quite true that there is an 
early period of individual living during which 
the child delights to play alone much of the 
time. He pulls and kicks, he holds and lets 
go, he crows and jumps, unable to do much 
more than take in and experiment upon his 
physical surroundings, including his own 
body. Many months do not pass, however, 
before he recognizes a difference between ob- 
jects that move of their own volition, as his 
dog, his cat, the horse trotting by, and those 
objects, such as his own toys, which he must 
move himself. He loves changes, he loves 
motion, he loves to watch things that come 
and go. He arrives at a peculiar fellowship 
with animal life which is, in some ways, near- 
er his own life than that of adult human be- 
ings. His ball is his favorite plaything, for 
is it not almost alive? 

Babies, even, seem to recognize other ba- 
bies as they begin to develop into their social 
life. They are, as it were, on their own so- 
cial level. I was visiting in a house recently 
where a baby boy of eighteen months was 
playing alone. His aunt arrived bringing his 
little cousin who was about two years of age. 
The baby's interest was immediately centered 
in the little girl, apparently not observing his 
aunt at all. The whole face of the boy light- 
ed up. He touched the little girl's coat gent- 
ly; he laughed; he pulled her sleeve; he was 
radiantly happy in her presence. It was a 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



IIQ 



beautiful picture- to one who could see the 
dawning social life in these two children, the 
need of one baby for the other. 

Hundreds of mothers have written me ask- 
ing how to begin kindergarten work in the 
home, evidently not realizing that it had al- 
ready begun on just simple lines as the above 
instance. Their queries related to the hand 
work of the kindergarten ; paper folding, 
weaving, sewing, and cutting which they 
were in danger of introducing at too early 
an age. It does not seem to be fully recog- 
nized as a fundamental kindergarten idea 
that "the child needs the child," more than 
he needs even toys, or the hand work of the 
kindergarten. Balls and blocks are essential 
to the child's early education, but I wish in- 
deed that every one interested in the growth 
and recent developments of the kindergarten 
could be made to fully believe that in many 
kindergartens where a paper-weaving mat, 
a sewing card, and a pricking needle have 
never been seen, hundreds of children are 
being taught by means of the games and so- 
cial life of this child-garden to live in broth- 
erly companionship and are in process of 
training for future citizenship. 

Why is the kindergarten so fundamentally 
necessary a part of every child's education? 

I maintain that it is not because of its hand 
work, mainly, but because of its social func- 
tion in bringing little children together where 
they learn to forget themselves and their pos- 
sibly selfish ways and enter, little by little, 
into the life of a small, embryonic commun- 
ity. This is the secret of children's often 
marvelously good behavior in kindergarten. 
It is not that they are entertained or charmed 
into goodness. 

The home fills this social need in the com- 
munity life of the child, in part, if there are 
brothers and sisters, cousins, and little 
friends admitted freely to the child's play- 
1 room during the first four years or possibly 
five. Normal children have, by the beginning 
of the sixth year, begun to break away from 
the home environment, or to need other social 
experiences than those of their home life. 

In some of our states the school-entrance 
age is still set at five years. The need of 
more occupation than the home can supply 
has led many a mother to send her little child 
to school at this early age. In the city of 
New York in 1890 there were in one prim- 
ary school thousands of children only five 
years old and some a few months younger, 
sitting in constrained positions at desks for 



twice the length of time that children of that 
age are now kept in our kindergartens. Where 
there 'was a kind, understanding teacher, 
many children loved even this school life be- 
cause of its socializing pleasures. They en- 
joyed just the fact of seeing each other every 
day. They loved to meet each other for a 
few moment's romp in the stone-paved, dingy 
school yard at recess time. They loved to 
sing and march and clap together. They 
loved just to be together, and they loved the 
daily going out into the street side by side 
when the school day was ended, and the re- 
turn to mother. At present these social ad- 
vantages are enjoyed in thousands of free 
kindergartens, but the injurious lessons in 
reading and writing so detrimental to child- 
ren's eyes are put off for a year. When we 
have grown still wiser, they will be put off 
even longer. 

What are the social advantages that the 
kindergarten offers to the five-year-old child 
above his home and school life? 

In the first place, the kindergarten offers 
the child a gradual transition from the home 
life to school life, which is surely desirable. 

The kindergarten insists upon smaller num- 
bers than the school allows. There is a 
danger creeping in here, especially in mission 
kindergartens. The custom of claiming un- 
necessarily large room and insisting upon 
two kindergartners working together has led 
to an evil in the life of the kindergarten, 
worse even than the mat or much decried 
sewdng card. This evil lies in the crowding 
of tables and of the story circle. The long 
line of march and the necessity of too rigid 
discipline follows such crowded conditions 
and must be avoided or the best social fea- 
tures of the kindergarten are lost. 

The mission kindergarten and the kinder- 
garten connected with the day nursery admit 
children young enough to play undirected 
much of the time or in groups of two or 
three. In one of our New York kindergartens 
groups of four, five, and six children often 
play and work together. In this way social 
life and the "living-together" spirit can best 
be observed and guided by the intelligent kin- 
dergartner. A child who has the ability to 
lead or organize a game or play can be more 
quickly detected and encouraged. 

It is difficult to lead a few primary teach- 
ers and, now and then, a superintendent to 
realize that we are rousing the kindergarten 
child to activity for social purposes. It is 
easy to suppress children, to drill, to train 



120 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



them — and perhaps these methods are neces- 
sary in the crowded schoolroom. But in the 
well-conducted kindergarten, the children 
govern themselves. 

The genuinely social life of the kinder- 
garten leads the child to an intelligent giv- 
ing up of himself. It leads him to yield his 
lower desires, to gratify higher ones. I do 
not claim that this is consciously done, but 
it is learned by practice. 

Community life such as that given the kin- 
dergarten child enlarges human relationships 
at a time when they need enlargement, at a 
time when the young child needs to find 
equals or "near equals." His efforts to find 
his social level provide him with the right 
moral atmosphere. He learns to respect the 
rights of others.' He alternates as leader and 
follower. He is allowed to choose at times, 
but must also give way to the choice of the 
majority in a game. 

The instinct to imitate makes it easier for 
the kindergarten child to conform to rules 
than if he were not helped by the modifying 
stimulus of other children's presence and 
opinions. Public opinion may govern the 
child to a great extent even at this early age. 
He feels the force of the example of a com- 
pany of good children. He feels the spirit 
of the jingle as he sings lustily with the 
others: 

"We all sit still together. 
We'll all stand up together." 

If he were not to use his hands at all dur- 
ing a term of kindergarten, the child who 
has learned through story, song, and game 
to love his neighbor, to control himself, and 
to be helpful will have gone a long way on 
the road to future usefulness as a member 
of his family and of the community. — The 
Mother's Magazine, Elgin, 111. 



The human race is divided into two classes 
— those who go ahead and do something, and 
those who sit still and inquire, "Why wasn't 
it done the other way?" — Oliver Wendell 
Holmes. 



Life is so short for us all ; let us make the 
most of it for ourselves and for each other. — 
Sir Walter Besant. 



If every child was brought up right, wick- 
edness would cease from the face of the earth. 
— Ennis Richmond. 



THE NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE 

CONFERENCE; ITS WORK AND ITS 

RELATIONS TO CHILD STUDY. 

G. STANLEY HILL 
President of Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 

Child study has now so many departments 
— medical, hygienic, criminological, legal, reli- 
gious, pedagogic, linguistic, social, and the 
rest — its literature is so vast, and the acade- 
mic chairs and journals and sciences devoted 
to it are so numerous, that no one can master 
all its fields. Specialization in it is already 
well advanced. It has a great and growing 
influence upon education and the list of re- 
forms in method, matter, buildings, hour- 
plans, text-books, and ideals that now stands 
to its credit, is a long and noble one. Indeed, 
it is not too much today to say that in every 
educational problem he who tells us authori- 
tatively what the nature of the child requires 
speaks the final word. Nothing in the history 
of education has contributed so much to make 
teaching professional and scientific. Profound 
as all this influence has been, it has been from 
the start silent and spontaneous. Now, how- 
ever, we are organizing a more active and 
aggressive campaign to extend the applica- 
tion of its results and its influence outside the 
school proper to the thousands of child-wel- 
fare institutions which Dr. Theodate L. 
Smith, of Clark University, has tried to class- 
ify into eighty or ninety species, of which 
the following ten are the genera, viz., insti- 
tutions for defectives, delinquents, depend- 
ents, those that deal with health and disease, 
morals and religion, protection, recreation, 
sex, motherhood and eugenics, and general. 
Our Child Welfare Conference which held its 
second annual five-day meeting last week 
aims to unite all these into a national orga- 
nization in order to secure the same advan- 
tages of co-operation, avoidance of duplica- 
tion, the closing of gaps, enhanced efficiency, 
etc., that the Associated Charities have gain- 
ed by co-ordinating local relief work. Our 
program is first local, to bring all child-wel- 
fare agencies outside the school in each city 
together so that they may know each other's 
work, catch each other's spirit, profit by each 
other's experience, and impress the commu- 
nity more strongly. We wish them to effect 
state, and last of all, a national organization 
of organizations with perhaps a head or s 
central bureau at Washington, for the conser- 
vation of American Childhood, which is the 
most precious of all our national resources 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



121 



and indeed of all earthly treasures. This 
federal bureau ought ultimately to be repre- 
sented in the President's cabinet and rank 
with the departments of state, agriculture, 
the navy and the rest, and should eventually 
include education as well as all the agencies 
connected with child labor, hygiene, relief, 
delinquency, juvenile courts, and all the other 
above-mentioned scores of organized interests 
of the rising generation, always including eu- 
genics. The practical ends aimed at are the 
following: 

I. All social workers and all heads of in- 
stitutions caring for dependent or delinquent 
children and their helpers should have special 
training for their work. Child philanthropists, 
too, need to know children better and draw 
upon all this fund of paidology. The work 
of all these institutions could be better done 
and every dollar contributed by patrons would 
have enhanced value by training of this sort. 
There are no more devoted friends of chil- 
dren than they, but to the high virtue that 
prompts to their work they should now add 
science for the sake of the children, not to 
mention their own interests. Slogan I. No 
worker for exceptional children untrained for 
his or her work. 

II. From 1 to 3 per cent, of the children 
of the land, hundreds of thousands in num- 
ber, who are defective, dependent, or delin- 
quent should be studied. We now spend 
nearly $1,000,000 yearly upon classes of the 
population, old and young, that are a fearful 
drag upon the advancement of civilization. 
If a new pestilence were to break out that did 
damage of this magnitude, we should turn 
every available agency to the work of inves- 
tigating causes and cures and should not be 
content with merely ameliorating present con- 
ditions. This last field of observation is now 
very inadequately utilized for the permanent 
lightening of this heavy national burden. Ex- 
perts in every such institution should work 
together systematically to draw lessons from 
this field, so ripe in harvest, and where the 
scientific wastage is too incalculable. The 
end should be prevention even more than 
cure. Every child publicly cared for fihould 
be systematically tested, his hereditary and 
personal history laid under tribute for the 
good of others and for that of science. This 
work, too, is already well begun in certain 
favored localities. Slogan II. No exceptional 
child unstudied — each must teach us all the 
lessons in it. 

III. In every institution for the training o! 



teachers, some special course should be given 
in order that they may get and keep in touch 
with every child-welfare agency outside the 
school in their community. We urge, too, 
that all upper-grade pupils be informed of 
the work for dependent, delinquent, and de- 
fective classes in their vicinity as part of thefr 
education for citizenship and also that every 
teacher of child study and every pedagogical 
department in normal schools, colleges, and 
universities conduct extension work in this 
field and make systematic surveys of all child- 
helping agencies about them with the double 
purpose of learning and helping. We have 
found it profitable to assign topics in this 
field fcr thesis work and also to organize a 
series of committees of citizens to advance 
local playgrounds, promote better probation 
work, improve the milk supply for babies 
during the fatal hot months, to promote school 
gardens, vocational training to help depend- 
ents and the neglected school hygiene, thea- 
ters, festivals, recreations, etc. It is to this 
great and new task to which we students of 
children feel called and are now applying 
ourselves that we invite your good will and 
if possible, your active co-operation in your 
several fields of labor. We believe the time 
has come to unite on the one hand all ex- 
perts in paidology and practical agencies, to 
put what we know to work and to utilize 
children in institutions in every way for our 
science, which now has so much to say not 
only on juvenile vice and crime and pedia- 
trics, on nursing, feeding, and dress of in- 
fants and children, their contagious diseases, 
games, habituation, vocations, social activities, 
adolescence, the psychology of poverty, crim- 
inal legislation, the child's relation to nature 
and to the city, on arrested development, 
truancy, gymnasia, bathing, prostitution, 
story-telling, but even has something new 
and great to tell concerning wedlock and race 
suicide. So our third slogan is: Teach this 
applied child study everywhere from the high 
grammar grades up, put it to work for the 
charities, as college and university extension 
work. 

Let me now tab off a few of the specific 
contributions which the larger child study 
has made toward better knowledge and treat- 
ment of some of these classes, altho each of 
the following points needs a chapter or an 
hour : 

1. No one is qualified to deal with boys 
in groups who does not know and has not 
pondered the studies of the gang which con- 



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stitutes a unique and integral part of genetic 
social psychology. This the judge of the 
juvenile court, the probation and truant offi- 
cers, heads of boys' clubs, or adult improved 
or controlled organizations of boys for reli- 
gious, moral, and other ends, and those in- 
terested in school self-government should 
know by heart. A large fraction of all juve- 
nile delinquencies are due to the gang spirit 
which is of course that of the savage tribe. 
The reformer here has succeeded in propor- 
tion as he knows enough to become a true 
member and leader of the gang, for even 
members of such organizations as the Junior 
Endeavorers, Knights of King Arthur, etc., 
are in boy language members of God's gang, 
or of the church gang. Gang psychology is 
the master key to juvenile crime. 

2. Purity workers of all kinds must know 
the genetic psychology of sex or they can 
never cope with the gigantic evil of vice of 
which this is the key. Would that I had time 
to point out the positive injury done by well- 
meaning ignorance here, the harm done by 
those who strive to help. Nowhere have our 
ideas undergone such sudden enlargement 
and transformation in recent years as in this 
domain concerning the age of greatest dan- 
ger, the predisposing and active causes, the 
modes of cure, the nature and consequences 
of error, etc. We can now detect several of 
the roots of sex aberration in the infant in 
arms and a group of others in the child be- 
fore school age. We know, thanks to t&e 
Freud School, the peculiar and hitherto un- 
suspected vulnerability of the years from 
eight to ten. We can appreciate the great 
significance of physiological age. We know 
from special studies something of the magni- 
tude of this generally hidden evil in school 
and college and our ideas of self-abuse and 
of gonorrhea have undergone great change, 
while the effects of the social evil and the 
methods of moral prophylaxis are now re- 
vealed in a new light. Here lie the roots 
of nearly all the psychoses of later life and 
of many of the elements that Emmanuelists 
and mind-curists have reached. The time is 
at hand when these topics and eugenics will 
be taught in the schools, but here, if any- 
where, every worker must have special train- 
ing and should earn a certificate before being 
permitted to enter this field. 

3. The nature of the transforming era of 
adolescence, as it is now understood, is chang- 
ing our ideas and methods of education at 
this age in home, school, and church and in 



all special and private institutions for excep- 
tional youth. Over the door of every such in- 
stitution should be written, "Let not him or 
her who knows not the laws and facts of 
adolescence enter here." It is in many res- 
pects the most plastic and vulnerable of all 
ages, easiest helped by those who know it and 
easiest harmed by those who know it not. 
How harmful the moral or physical trainer, 
or the Sunday-school teacher of youth who 
does not understand it, and what a blessing 
are those true shepherds who can penetrate 
to the secret soul of the budding girl or the 
boy in the awkward age ! 

4. At least 1 per cent., or some one hundred 
and seventy thousand American children of 
school age, are subnormal or in some way 
arrested, altho only a small percentage of 
these come into institutions. I need only re- 
fer to the clinical work for this class lately 
done by Witmer at Philadelphia, Goddard at 
Vineland, Healey and Macmillan at Chicago, 
Chase and O'Connor at Clark, and others in 
this country. Their achievements constitute 
one of the most brilliant chapters of psycholo- 
gy applied with the most beneficent practical 
results. Here we have an almost ideal rela- 
tion. These children are being studied more 
thoroly than any other class ever were and 
they are adding much to our knowledge so 
that they are at the same time material for 
research and are being helped themselves by 
being segregated in special classes or schools 
and given the special individual care they 
need. Standards of ability, physical and men- 
tal, are being established for each age, on 
which we can grade subnormality, and a 
wealth of data for heredity is also being slow- 
ly accumulated. Thus, it is no longer suffi- 
cient to herd and care for these unfortunates. 
Each such child is a class by himself and 
must be specifically studied by the expert 
methods now being evolved ; and nowhere 
has pedagogic genius and inventiveness ac- 
complished better results. 

5. Again, take playgrounds, games, and 
toys. How grossly ignorant and negligent 
we were a few years ago until various studies 
of childhood showed that in play children both 
practice and train themselves for future voca- 
tions and what is still more important, are 
rehearsing many, if not most, of the practical 
activities and vocations of the race thru its 
ancient phyletic history! So, in right play- 
teaching we are working in the very depths 
and not in the shallows of the soul. Thus we 
woke up to the fact that many city children 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



12 



did not know half a dozen of the scores or 
hundreds of plays and games they should and 
had no place to play in. We realized that if 
the boy without a plyground did not make 
the man without the job, he was at any rate 
dwarfed and distorted, if not a half-evolved 
being. The present magnificent playground 
movement is a direct product of the better 
knowledge of the nature and needs of the child. 
With what we are now learning of the psy- 
chology of toys, it is easy to predict a new 
dispensation impending in this field, too, when 
play material shall come to its rights. 

6. The work of the Story-Tellers' League, 
library and other story-telling represent a 
contemporary revival of the antique method 
of education which was universal, for once all 
education was story-telling. Here pedagogic 
psychology has much to teach that would 
render this work more effective and intelli- 
gent concerning not only the history of the 
art from the Homeridae down, the nature of 
tradition, the advantages of oral-ear over the 
later long-circuited tract of the eye that reads 
and the hand that writes, but its best and 
surest teachings concern the nature of the 
story material and the kind of tale that knits 
up the very brain itself into a better-organized 
unity. Concerning the most vital point of 
matter, the modern story-teller is usually 
singularly and pathetically astray. While 
children do not want a tale with a too direct 
or obvious moral, every story should bear 
essentially upon conduct and form sentiment. 
It should be an instrument and every story- 
teller should be able to stand and answer as 
to what he expects to do and to accomplish 
with each tale. The school canon of stories 
should include only the best classics, standard 
works which introduce the child into the very 
best things in Greek, mediaeval, and other 
material which have shaped the masterpieces 
of literature, the tales of Troy, of the Greek 
dramatists, of Reynard the Fox and animal 
legends, the Niebelungen and Arthuriad 
groups, the wandering Jew, Bible, some of 
Shakespeare, etc. Story-tellers are too prone 
to strive for entertainment only and be con- 
tent to amuse, to have little idea of real edifi- 
cation or even what it means ; and here the 
natural corrective lies in the history of their 
art and in the better knowledge of the nature 
of childhood. Until this reform is effected, 
story-telling will never take the place it de- 
serves in our educational system. 

7. The big-brother movement is in great 
need of pedagogic psychogenetic explication. 



Its history and its motivation date back to 
Plato who held that it was a shame to any 
boy not to have an older mentor, hero, inspir- 
er, and that it was a disgrace to a young 
man not to make himself a special ideal or 
spiritual father of a younger boy. This prin- 
ciple has a long special ideal or spiritual 
father of a younger boy. This principle has 
a long history from the apprenticeship to the 
fatherland to apprenticeship to a trade. It 
has other outcrops in a system of the personal 
advisers lately in use in many high schools 
and colleges of this country, in the ancient 
method of fagging, or initiation, of the con- 
trol and hazing of freshmen and all the man- 
ifold monitorial care of younger by older 
children and youth. Indeed, this is one of the 
ideal types of friendship and prompts the 
mentor to always be at his best as a pattern- 
setter to his ward. As a godfather or guar- 
dian, or quasi — or supplementary parent to 
boys or girls, older youth are themselves 
given great and new reinforcements to mental 
and moral progress. 

8. At the opposite extreme, we have the 
psychology of orphans which shows what 
fatherhood and motherhood mean by their 
loss, and here belong sad lessons of parental 
cruelty and abuse, the effects of disharmony 
between the parents and divorce, also the ef- 
fects of institutionalization compared with the 
placing-out system. Defective parenthood 
has many outcrops from inability and unwill- 
ingness to nurse, which is absolutely neces- 
sary to complete motherhood and the failure 
to do which always involves other parental 
defects to the problem of the duties of unwed 
mothers toward their children and problem 
of foundling asylums with their fearful 
mortality. Shall we rehabilitate these un- 
fortunate mothers at the expense of their 
children, or shall we teach them to face the 
shame, retain their children, and develop 
them and themselves? Shall our agency con- 
tent itself with trying to secure marriage or 
support from the fathers? Upon all these 
problems genetic psychology has distinct new 
light to shed which will make every agency 
here more effective. 

This list of things genetic psychology is 
now able and willing to do for child workers 
might be greatly extended were there time, 
and this survey is of course extremely inade- 
quate. 

But let me in closing touch more briefly a 
few of the challenging questions now put up 
to the psychologist by the practical workers 



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in fields where we have more to learn from 
them than to teach them, to some of which 
problems we are still, tho not to our credit, 
rather dumb. Here it behooves us to listen, 
ponder, go to work and feel ourselves put on 
our mettle and more or less at fault till we 
can say some authoritative word. For in- 
stance, how shall we treat young girls in re- 
formatories who have gone wrong and are 
so prone to relapse to vice as soon as they get 
out? Our present methods are inadequate 
and radical reconstructions are now needed 
for this very unique class to whose nature 
and needs we cannot reason from another 
class. We want to make these studies and to 
send our experts to these institutions. Again, 
how shall we balance up the pros and cons 
between those who would raise the age of 
consent and those who deem it already in 
many places too high? Once more, child 
labor has its advantages as well as its abus- 
es. How shall we foot up this account for 
different industries, ages, communities, social 
classes, etc. Again, what shall we do for 
high-grade idiot girls who can just support 
themselves outside institutions but are prone 
to be the victims of scoundrels and mothers 
of human spawn of degenerates? Shall we 
keep them always sequestered or tubo-liga- 
ture them and let them loose, or what? And 
the same in modified terms for young male 
imbeciles of this grade. Again, how can we 
reconstruct the juvenile court, the success of 
which as at present organized seems now 
hanging in the balance, for it is in most places 
too much like an adult tribunal with sworn 
witnesses, publicity, jury, habeas corpus, ap- 
peal, when it should be based on pure equity 
principles and so organized that it can work 
well as a system and without being so de- 
pendent on the personality of the judge, who 
of course ought to be an ideal father for all 
the delinquent boys in his bailiwick, altho 
this requires a supply of genius which we 
cannot rely upon? Again, how can we elim- 
inate the evils of the placing-out system 
which has spread so fast and far that, altho 
statistical data concerning its success are 
lacking, we are beginning to hear serious re- 
ports of its evils in the way of spreading 
moral infection and of manifold bad relations 
between adopted and natural children. What 
are the facts about the appalling mortality 
and morbidity of foundling asylums and how 
can both be reduced? How can we extend 
the educative influence of moving pictures 
which have greater pedagogic possibilities 



than any invention since printing and how 
can we reduce their present dangers to eyes 
and morals? But such questions are legion 
and I must close. Here child psychology 
has a vast and to a great extent newly opened 
field for applying what it knows and for learn- 
ing more, and here all child helpers can great- 
ly increase the intelligence and the efficiency 
of their work by coming in contact with the 
rich store of facts and principles for which 
this section stands and which we in a sense 
hold in trust as its custodians. Here we must 
have a new and vital bond between knowing 
and doing, for the two in many fields are yet 
sadly isolated. The National Child Welfare 
Conference is a forum where genetic psycho- 
logists work for the exceptional child, get 
together and put mutual questions, report 
results and pool their knowledge for mutual 
benefit. Our motto always is that the cause 
of the child is the most precious of all the 
world's causes because it controls the future. 



HOW EVERY SCHOOL MAY BE A 
CHILD WELFARE CONFERENCE. 

WILLIAM H. ALLEN 

Director of the Bureau of Municipal Research, 261 Broad- 
way, New York City. 

(Synopsis) 

Out-of-school conferences on child welfare 
can be successful only as they effect confer- 
ences on child welfare within the school and 
between school teachers and parents. 

Because the majority of our twenty million 
school children are in small cities and rural 
districts, they are certain not to be funda- 
mentally benefitted by any conference that 
does not center in the schools. The same 
energy which an outside agency will spend 
in getting data for one thousand children, 
will interest one thousand principals in secur- 
ing more complete data for five hundred 
thousand children. 

The teacher whose pupils present to her 
one hundred and ninety days each year the 
best index of how thirty to fifty families live, 
can accomplish more than an out-of-school 
conference where one hundred and ninety 
people listen to a lecture and adjourn to meet 
again another day. 

In New York City there are two hundred 
and thirty members of local school boards 
charged with the duty to learn about school 
progress, sanitary conditions, and teaching 
efficiency of schools which are supposed to 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



!25 



minister to nearly eight hundred thousand 
children. Systematically for years effort has 
been made to prevent these local board mem- 
bers from knowing the essential facts about 
school progress and school problems. Snub- 
bed and almost reviled, this asset has been 
lost to New York City, tho potentially more 
valuable than any national conference. As 
a consequence no one can tell the parents of 
New York why two hundred thousand chil- 
dren have failed of promotion this school year, 
why there is a difference of one hundred 
thousand between net enrollment and average 
register, whether the part-time day, which 
New York City is spending millions to abol- 
ish, is better for the child than the full-time 
day, or why public imagination and sense 
of duty are focused upon giving out-of-door 
fresh air to a handful of children while neg- 
lecting to consider physical and mental 
breakdown, due to lack of out-of-door fresh 
air for hundreds of thousands. 

To make every school a child-welfare con- 
ference, the supreme need at the present time 
is a demand on the part of the national and 
state bureaus of education for essential in- 
formation as to the welfare of each teacher's 
pupils. 



THE KINDERGARTEN OUT OF 
DOORS: GARDENS. 



A writer in Primary Education says : "The 
Kindergartner must visit as often as possible 
the primary room which is to receive her pu- 
pils next year to see what is needed in order 
to offer that which she herself knows so well 
and which she forgets is still a mystery to the 
primary teacher whose training has not in- 
cluded kindergarten methods." "Still a Mys- 
tery!" That is the trouble. We forget that 
kindergarten principles and methods are still 
a mystery to the great rank and file of the 
teaching force in America. We are concerned 
about the new problems and' developments 
before us and forget that these teachers will 
not be interested in kindergarten methods un- 
less they understand them and to understand 
them, they must begin where we began ten, 
fifteen, twenty years ago. Let us endeavor to 
dispel the mystery, for to understand is to 
approve. 



Every school that fails to train its pupils in 
both morals and manners is remiss in its duty 
and false to its opportunity. — Educator Jour- 
nal. 



ANNA E. HAEVEY 
Adelphi College, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Lord Bacon says : 

God Almighty first planted a garden, and, 
indeed, it is the purest of human pleasures. 
It is the greatest refreshment to the spirits 
of man, without which buildings and palaces 
are but gross handiworks. And a man shall 
ever see that when ages grow to civility and 
elegance, men come to build stately, sooner 
than to garden finely. As if gardening were 
the greater perfection. I do hold it in the 
royal ordering of gardens there ought to be 
gardens for all the months in the year, in 
which severally things of beauty may be there 
in season. 

"God Almighty first planted a garden" ; 
and it was in the garden that man first be- 
gan. Yet though man was obliged to leave 
this garden, the garden instinct did not leave 
man ; and, as our first parents turned with 
longing eyes and looked back, so, throughout 
the ages, that longing is ever present. It is 
doubtless true that conditions and experi- 
ences may dim the longing in the adult ; but 
the little child, or growing boy or girl, has 
this undeveloped instinct to get nearer to the 
heart of nature. 

It was an appreciation of the prime im- 
portance of this instinct that led Froebel to 
plan a garden, where each child should have 
his own plot of ground, and a share in an- 
other reserved for united work by all, as a 
part of his wonderful system of education ; 
and happily and significantly he called it his 
"kindergarten" ; thus doing, he made the gar- 
den one of the essential parts of his great 
system. 

It is surprising that educators throughout 
our country have been so slow to recognize 
this valuable adjunct to the regular curri- 
culum. We read that the pioneer work in 
this movement was started by the German 
States as early as 1814. Yet only since 1895 
has England included "cottage gardening" as 
an optional study for boys ; and the United 
States has been equally tardy. I believe 
Massachusetts, the state of good schools and 
good roads, had the first school garden, in 
Roxbury, in 1891. New York did not become 
vitally interested until 190:2, when Mrs. Henry 
Parsons converted an empty lot, which had 
been used as a tenement dumping-ground, 
into "The Children's School Farm." 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



But the work has prospered. We may re- 
joice that in eight years interest in it has 
grown so that, at present, school gardens 
brighten the lives of hundreds of our chil- 
dren in the public and vacation schools, and 
in the settlements. So popular is the work 
that 'Mrs. Parsons' son, Henry Griscom Par- 
sons, has a class at the New York University 
for training teachers in the "art of garden- 
ing." We read of the work in Chicago, 
Cleveland, Philadelphia, in many of the 
Western states, and in New England, where 
school gardens have not only attained a high 
degree of excellence, but are recognized as a 
most important part of the educational sys- 
tem. The seed is sown and the garden is 
growing. When the little children of today 
are the men and women of tomorrow we shall 
see the fruit. 

What the fruit will be, we may easily sur- 
mise. The longer we keep the child in the 
garden, and the stronger we make him, the 
longer we can keep him from the cramping 
influences of the worldly pursuits of his later 
life. Happy are the little men and women 
of the tenements, who may be brought into 
this little Eden and smell the flowers of Para- 
dise. And happy too the children of the 
country, who have eyes but see not, to whom 
familiarity has made nature stale— happy will 
they be when their eyes are opened to see, 
and their minds stimulated to appreciate, not 
only what is in the garden, but what is in 
our beautiful world. So there is work to do. 

It should not be by the hand of man that 
the gates should be closed to these little ones 
who have not tasted of the tree of knowledge. 
On the contrary, it is the duty of all to whom 
little ones are given, to see that ignorance, 
prejudice, and indifference are thrust aside, 
and that the little child is given the oppor- 
tunity to get close to the mother of us all. 
And why? Let me tell you one of many sig- 
nificant stories. 

In the city of Brooklyn a few years ago, a 
young woman was assigned to a kindergar- 
ten in one of the most depraved parts of the 
city, crowded with dirty tenements, built of 
wood, filled with numberless families. The 
outlook from the kindergarten rooms was 
over back yards where ashes, tin cans, bot- 
tles, filth, and rubbish of every kind were 
lodged. The young kindergartner began 
with a window box; then she interested the 
janitor and then a few parents; and at length 
she had a tiny garden in the back yard of the 
school. And that is not all. By patient, 



painstaking work, visiting in the homes and 
doing a little at a time, this young woman 
has been able not only to have a beautiful 
garden connected with her kindergarten, but 
she has managed to convert those filthy back 
yards into gardens that delight the eye and 
uplift the soul. She tells me that, although 
the people of the neighborhood are exceed- 
ingly poor, their interest in the school gar- 
den and in their own is so great that she 
scarcely expresses a wish for some necessity 
or even what might be termed a luxury for 
the garden, but the parents, with combined 
effort, see that she gets it. 

Now this is more than the story of the 
planting of a garden. It is a story of Froe- 
bel's kindergarten for grown children. It is 
the story of the sweeping-away of the ashes, 
the rubbish, the filth of the entire commun- 
ity, the tearing-down of the veil of conditions 
and circumstances, and the bringing into 
light of that old garden spirit that our first 
ancestors knew when they loved the simple 
and the good. It is this love of the simple 
and the good that the garden develops in the 
child. He tills the ground. He plants the 
seed. He fosters it with loving care. He 
watches it spring into life and come into 
sturdy growth. And for his reward he sees 
it bear fruit and flower. No child can do this 
thing without knowing full well what he 
means when he sings, "My heart is God's lit- 
tle garden." 

And furthermore, no child can do this thing 
without realizing that his garden is not only 
for himself, but that there are other gardens 
besides his own, and that in the places where 
there are no gardens it is for him to plant 
them. For 

It is everybody's business 

In this great world of ours 
To pull out all the weeds they find, 

And make room for the flowers ; 
So that every little garden 

No matter where it lies, 
Shall be like one that God made, 

And called it Paradise. 



II. THE KINDERGARTEN OUT OF 
DOORS: WALKS AND EX- 
CURSIONS, 

MRS. ALMA OLIVER WARE 
Principal Kindergarten Training School. South Bend, 
Ind. 

We kindergartners have learned that in the 
big circle of life every segment has its value, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



127 



and who can say but what that of early child- 
hood is the rainbow of prophecy as to what 
all the future life may be? In fact, all future 
educational life is but the unfolding or round- 
ing out from the fundamental notions and 
experiences received in some germinal form 
at this period. 

The most impressionable time in the child's 
whole existence is when he is from four to 
six years of age, just the period when the 
kindergarten claims him. These early im- 
pressions are the germs from which spring 
all later thought-activities, and however much 
they may be modified by future experience, 
they ever remain "the fountain light of all his 
day." The observations in early life, partic- 
ular kinds of observations and many of them, 
will largely determine the quality and 
strength of the child's mental capacity later 
on. The quality of thought is influenced by 
that which remains in the mind ; and strength 
by the vividness of that which has been ob- 
served or its direct appeal to his interest. 

There are double doors to the child's con- 
sciousness. While impressions are surging 
in, if that were all, our task would seem an 
easy one indeed ; but in the wonderful work- 
ing of that much-discussed self-activity, out- 
ward swings the door and forth springs an 
impulse propelled by an instinct which has 
gained the accumulated strength of many 
successive generations. On the threshold im- 
pulse meets impression and ever they work 
hand in hand: heredity and environment. 
These are the two great forces that make or 
mar the young life. It is our task, O kinder- 
gartner, so to adjust the weight of each as to 
secure the happy equilibrium. We attempt 
it by giving such environment as will stim- 
ulate the best reaction to the impulse, know- 
ing for the unfolding life that each time we 
do this we increase the possibility of its be- 
coming habitual. 

What are some of the strong old instincts 
which ripen at this kindergarten age? Ever 
since the early birth of a self, when our an- 
cestors in an unconscious effort to express 
individuality reached out to grasp for them- 
selves the apple of knowledge, has each suc- 
ceeding generation exhibited a similar investi- 
gative tendency. 

Thru the inherited knowledge which has 
come to us as the result of successive stages 
of experience, we begin to see 1 that the in- 
vestigation is legitimate and wholesome if 
guided in the right direction. In the kinder- 
garten the consideration of investigation must 



be a preponderance on the side of environ- 
ment or the value of "sense-perception." This 
seems carrying coals to Newcastle, as we have 
carefully studied that dominant word which 
stands as the keynote to Pestalozzi's method 
of instruction, but if we hold to this funda- 
mental and add to it the leaven of Froebel's 
"self-activity," we will have the full loaf of 
"apperceptive mass" which is the child's 
most valuable asset when he enters the grade 
work, and the teacher in the grades finds it 
uphill work without it. This, I believe, is 
our contribution to the educational life of the 
child : not what we teach him, but what we 
help him to find and store away as a basis for 
future thought. His own self-activity makes 
him an explorer, but we influence its direction 
and at this stage the wisest teaching that we 
can do is that of opening the right gate just 
at the auspicious moment. Last summer 
after our Denver meeting I journeyed over 
the great Rocky Mountain Ridge and rested 
on the other side at a beautiful ranch in a 
valley near Glenwood Springs. Here I saw 
a strong illustration of this idea in the method 
of irrigating the cherry orchards and alfalfa 
fields. A bold natural stream came dashing 
down the well-worn hollow in the mountain- 
side, making its rapid way to Grand River, 
but gates were closed or opened which turned 
that mountain stream into such directions as 
would gain the most desirable results for the 
future productivity) of the mother earth of 
which it was a part. That mountain stream 
symbolized the instinct of the child and its 
eager, onward rushing, the child's impulsive 
acts — shall we allow the bold stream of in- 
vestigation to rush unguided on its way or 
direct its course to where the result will be 
a rich harvest of food for future thoughts? 

This I take to be the educational value of 
the walks and excursions of the kindergarten. 
Do not for one moment think that I am over- 
looking the purely physical benefits accruing 
from the exercise in the open air, but that is 
a foregone conclusion and must be so accepted 
at every step in this discussion. 

We must help the young explorer to go in 
the right direction. Every mother and teacher 
knows what I mean and could give us many 
examples of a wrong expression of this in- 
stinct because at the critical period of its 
maturity there was lacking the wholesome 
stimuli. 

What does the grade teacher wish as men- 
tal content when she substitutes textbooks 
for things? She immediately begins to find 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



what sorts of images the child has already 
formed — for abstract thinking is the work of 
the imagination, and though the imagination 
is a wonderful magician, it works in a per- 
fectly scientific way and can no more build 
up finished conclusions out of nothing, than 
dreaming of millions could give you your 
daily bread. 

No one can fully estimate the working 
value in education of good, clear images. 
And this again is our opportunity : to go with 
the child to where his investigative instinct 
can gain such images as will be clear and 
strong and of the right sort, thus forming a 
storehouse from which the succeeding years 
may draw and upon which the whole struc- 
ture of education may be started and evolved 
from gaining in clarity of concept with each 
succeeding stage, for images change in qual- 
ity. We walk to the park or to the open 
square, perhaps to the lake-front or to the 
seashore ; it may be there's a hay-ride to 
some distant country house, some day a 
street-car ride with a picnic at the end. If 
you had asked me fifteen years ago what was 
the purpose of all this, I should no doubt 
have answered promptly that the outing 
brought relief from the tedium of the school- 
room and helped us in our work of illustration 
next day. This is still true, but there is 
more. 

The kindergarten works no more in an 
isolated way, but while seeking to do its part 
as seems best for the immediate stage of the 
child, yet works with a knowledge of what is 
its obligation to the stage that is to follow. 
''The intelligent, co-operative kindergartner," 
says Dr. Dewey, "works not in the grades but 
for the grades." And yet we sometimes find 
the kindergartner floundering in her unintel- 
ligent effort to put the cart before the horse. 

The child sees that which touches his own 
personal experience, or which may be inter- 
preted through the light of his own experi- 
mental life. It is very different when he has 
an image and we attempt to clarify the con- 
cept about it. We had better be careful lest 
our own be a little hazy or vague, like that 
of the young lady who was endeavoring to 
have her group of children understand the 
colors of the rainbow. She had learned them 
very correctly in textbook order and stepping 
to the blackboard drew a small down-swinging 
crescent. An assistant gasped, which so 
strongly suggested alarm that the question 
was asked, "What is wrong?" The arch was 
then drawn with the whit? chalk and then 



the colored crayon applied in short sections 
transversely, first red, working to two or three 
inches, then orange and so on. She had not 
walked with open eyes but was teaching al- 
together from text-books, when one good, 
clear image may be the basis for many text- 
books. She, like Mr. Bradley Headstone in 
Dickens' Mutual Friend, "had acquired me- 
chanically a great deal of teacher's knowl- 
edge." 

Don't you think that we oftentimes forget 
the stage of the child and expect him to see 
as we see? In a kindergarten which I knew, 
the kindergartner and children went out for 
a walk to the lake-front, and much care was 
taken to help the children to see "far away on 
the water to where the sky seemed to meet 
the lake," hoping that they would be able 
next day to paint sky and water showing 
horizon-line. Next day when the time came 
for the representation of the scene one little 
lisping fellow of less than five years stolidly 
refused to take the brush and "paint from left 
to right above and below the pencil line" 
placed there by the kindergartner. The 
young lady asked him if he remembered the 
walk to the lake. "Yeth," he answered. 
"Then didn't you stand with us and look 
out far over the water?" No answer came 
and in despair she said, "Well, Robert, how 
have you seen the lake?" "Wite and nathty, 
where my papa let me paddle my toes in it." 
He was given the brush, the paint box and 
water, and allowed to paint the thing as he 
saw it and it is needless to add that he 
painted no horizon line, but he made it "wite" 
and frothy as the waves ripple upon the 
shore. This reminds me of the great Turner. 
When an old man, and critics had attacked 
his "Storm," Ruskin heard him muttering, 
"Soapsuds and whitewash, say they. What 
would they have? I wonder what they think 
the sea is like. They should have been in it." 

As has been suggested, the kindergarten 
age is one of image-making and getting ac- 
quainted with the world outside, bounded by 
no horizon-line as yet. How well I can re- 
call my early school days ; no walks to see 
the new buds on the trees, no hunting for 
first birds in the spring, no guided tramps to 
the lake and stream, but day after day books, 
a desk, and a bench, until as Richard Hovey 
says, "one grew sick of four walls and a ceil- 
ing." That was at five years of age, and 
when at seven the teacher wished me to un- 
derstand a lake she poured a glass of water 
on the schoolroom floor, but even today my 



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129 



image is of the spreading water with the 
floating dust-particles which had to be wiped 
up. The country child who had to walk a 
mile, or maybe two, to the country school- 
house had every advantage. He overcame 
distance, felt space-freedom, saw complete 
processes in the woods and homes about him, 
his images were strong and clear of field, for- 
est, and animal life — the tendency to explore, 
to investigate, found and worked upon na- 
ture's own material where every suggestion 
was to construction rather than destruction, 
as is the case where our city children are 
given everything "ready made." Our kinder- 
garten in America is a modern city institu- 
tion and a part of that complex civilization 
where child life is verv often most unchild- 
like. 

The kindergarten walk begins the habit of 
going with a purpose, seeking for something 
that the teacher feels quite sure will be found 
and that will satisfy some need of the child. 
The teacher should prepare as carefully for 
the walk or excursion of the kindergarten 
children as she prepares her story or other 
work of the morning. Once when we were 
talking about the farmer and his animals, the 
children were asked to tell what they knew 
about the cow. One boy said, "I know how 
to get the milk, for I saw a cow at Coney 
Island, and the man just pressed the button, 
so, and filled my cup," a patent arrangement 
like the soda fount. Very soon we had an 
excursion to where the children could see 
"real" cows and the discussions which fol- 
lowed were delightfully alive. When those 
children are ten years of age they will not 
ask, as a boy did of a farmer, "Don't you 
have to buy a great deal of gum for all those 
cows to be chewing?" 

One of the strong influences of the outdoor 
walk on the eager, impressionable mind of the 
child is the development of a sense of space- 
freedom. It is impossible to expect free ex- 
pression of mind or hand from children who 
live in cramped homes, in dwarfed domestic 
atmosphere, with no outlook but on chimneys 
or nearby walls. It has been said that the 
only way to secure free activity with blind 
children is to have them play in a large field 
where there is not a single obstruction, and 
that after a time they cease that pathetic 
appeal of the outstretched arm which we 
usually expect to see in them. If the sense 
of the space-freedom removes fear and gives 
free expression to these little ones, its value 
should be proportionately more to the normal 



child whose vision goes far afield. It is well 
known that our largest images are of the sea 
and the mountains; the one guides the vision 
out and far away over the broad and limitless 
deep, while the other has lines which if fol- 
lowed lead up, up— who knows where the 
imagination may take one? We have not 
taken enough thought of this sense of space- 
freedom ; we have too often been satisfied to 
go out on the school playground with its fine 
but adult appliances. This is good, having 
a most valuable function to perform, but can- 
not do for the little ones by way of enlarge- 
ment of primal impressions what the stretch 
of grass, the tall trees, or the flight of birds 
will do. Freedom of hand comes from free- 
dom of thought and this is a result of larger 
vision out of an awakened and enlarged sense 
of space-freedom. 

Our writing supervisors, our drawing 
teachers all urge freedom of hand with the 
use of the larger muscles ; we help them when 
we give our kindergarten children such im- 
ages out of a free environment as will stim- 
ulate to freedom of expression. In a certain 
kindergarten I found the director struggling 
to carry out my recent suggestion to secure 
more blackboard expression from the children. 
She was justifiably disappointed with the 
cramped, almost invisible, result. Upon in- 
quiry I learned that in that school there 
never had been a walk or excursion. 

There is a fine opportunity after an excur- 
sion for blackboard work so little usedj by 
most kindergartners. Too frequently there 
is a finely executed picture put upon the 
blackboard, perhaps by the art teacher, and 
left for weeks. There is no objection to that 
picture, but it serves its purpose in two or 
three days and should not be considered per- 
manent. I have found that the drawing by 
the children during the morning circle is also 
a fine opportunity to secure true criticism 
from each other, and they learn to meet pub- 
lic opinion. 

But impression alone is not educative, there 
must be interaction ; the manner in which 
investigation is directed toward securing right 
results and the training toward free but sin- 
cere accurate expression, however simple it 
may be, will be our task. 

In view of the child's future social develop- 
ment and knowing that as soon as he comes 
to kindergarten he is learning of an institu- 
tion other than home, his interests are broad- 
ening and he feels relationships with the out- 



i 3 o 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



side world of society as well as that of na- 
ture; do our walks and excursions meet this? 
Not by going around the corner that he may 
see horseshoes at the blacksmith shop only 
to draw better horseshoes the next day, but 
that he may feel his kinship with the worker, 
may see the cold, stiff, unyielding iron serve 
man's purpose through action of the wonder- 
ful forge fire. He feels the might and skill 
of the worker, respect follows, and a vague 
awakening of desire to do strong, skillful 
work. Anything that stimulates respect for 
good workmanship increases the possibility 
of better work, even in kindergarten, and it 
is just here that habits begin of effort to ac- 
complish, and accuracy in the doing. The 
results are clear and forceful from thus com- 
ing into direct relationships, interest is 
aroused which can be turned into an immedi- 
ate wholesome channel. Fear of others 
makes one a coward, but respect and admira- 
tion for the deeds of another breed self-re- 
spect and stimulation. 

Stories and pictures are valuable aids in 
teaching children of their relationships, but 
they can never wholly take the place of first- 
hand impression or experience. Never would 
a pictured sand-pile give to the children more 
than a suggestion of its possibilities, while 
no one can tell the suggestiveness of the real 
experience with one. In the same way there 
comes to the child's social nature through the 
walks and excursions that which nothing else 
can supply. 

The walk or excursion brings the child into 
immediate relationship with the larger world 
of nature, the broader view of society, meet- 
ing his out-reaching interests and stimulating 
his innate desire to do. 

In summing up, let me say that the walks 
and excursions stimulate investigation which 
is the dynamic factor in education ; give op- 
portunity for clear images which are the con- 
crete foundation of thought-activities ; and put 
the child into closer relationship with society, 
thereby broadening his interests and meeting 
the development of his institutional nature. 



The ends of culture, truly conceived, are 
best attained by forgetting culture and aiming 
higher. — J. C. Sharp. 



Men are seldom more innocently employed 
than when they are honestly making money. 
— Samuel Johnson, 



THE UNIVERSITY AND THE KINDER- 
GARTEN 

DE, BURTIS BURR BREEZE 
Professor of Psychology, University of Cincinnati 

The kindergarten and the university occupy the two 
extreme positions in our system of education. The 
one begins and the other finishes the formal attempt 
to prepare the child for the world in which he is to 
live. Whatever may have been the causes which have 
contributed to making the relationships between the 
kindergarten and the university what they are, the fact 
remains that these elements of the school system stand 
too far apart for the best interests of the kindergarten, 
and may I say also for the best interests of the univer- 
sity. I speak especially of the attitude of the university 
toward the kindergarten and the reluctance with which 
the kindergarten opens her doors to the university. 
The lack of sympathetic interest in the one is too often 
offset by the feeling of aloofness and suspicion on the 
part of the other. In the university there is a tendency 
to look upon the kindergarten as a plaything, too trivial 
to be worthy of academic consideration and too ab- 
normally feminine, poetic, and imaginative to be seri- 
ously treated. 

Child study, the corner stone of the kindergarten, has 
become almost a term of reproach in the university. 
The announcement of a course in child study in the 
university catalogue occasions an academic smile of 
superiority. The life history of the crawfish or the 
cycles of development of the butterfly may claim the 
serious attention of the university, but the nature and 
development of the child — "that's too trivial and be- 
longs in the kindergarten." It is unfortunate that this 
attitude has arisen, for the kindergarten is becoming 
more and more a factor in the educational program, 
and the study of the child and his proper education 
is one of the biggest problems of the times. Both are 
entirely worthy of academic consideration. 

On the other hand there is a feeling in kindergarten 
circles that the work offered in the university is too 
scientific and too abstract to be of any immediate prac- 
tical value for the kindergartner. There is hesitation 
in taking advantage of university instruction in the 
preparation of kindergartners. This hesitation is based 
upon the belief that the work offered in the university 
is too materialistic, difficult, and unpractical, and is 
therefore over the heads of the young people who are 
preparing to take up kindergarten work as a profession. 
Thoroughly impressed with the importance and serious- 
ness of her calling, the kindergartner is impatient when 
confronted with anything which does not drive straight 
at the immediate task in hand, and which interferes 
with the rules of action given her by the kindergarten 
system. This again is unfortunate, for too often it 
leads to a lack of perspective, without which Froebel's 
plan of education cannot be carried through success- 
fully. The very largeness of the kindergarten concept 
demands the highest and best in culture and scholar- 
ship to make it manifest in the actual day's work with 
the children. There ought to be no shrinking from 
anything that will give a better understanding and ap- 
preciation of the real principles of life as a whole. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



m 



The university stands for the highest and best en- 
deavor to lay bare these principles and the kindergarten 
should make the most of whatsoever the university may 
offer, even though it may not seemingly have a direct 
bearing upon the immediate work of the kindergarten. 
The more we find out about the real nature of the 
world the more evidence we discover that its various 
elements hang together in a system, — -"that through the 
ages one eternal purpose runs." What seems from the 
superficial point of view diverse and heterogeneous, 
appears, when we delve a little deeper into underlying 
principles, related and homogeneous. As we advance 
in science and art and literature we slowly round out 
a conception of life in which all its parts are bound 
together and unified by a few fundamental laws. This 
was the conception that prompted the poet to say to 
the flower plucked from the garden wall : — 
"Flower in the crannied wall, 
I pluck you out of the crannies, 
•Hold you here, root and all, in my hand, 
Little flower — but if I could understand 
What you are, root and all, and all in all, 
I should know what God and man is." 
Froebel's idea of the child is a world concept. For him 
the key which unlocks the secrets of the world is not 
the flower in the crannied wall, but the child. Within 
the child he saw the possibilities of the whole world, 
and he made it his life work to point out the rela- 
tionships of that which he saw within the child to the 
world without. He attempted to pick from the world 
the material and activities which presented to the 
child would bring about self-realization in the fullest 
mami.r. Self-realization for him meant the harmoni- 
ous synthesis of all the possibilities within, and of the 
world without, — a union of temporarily estranged ele- 
ments into a realized and unified world. To bring this 
about the kindergartner and those who direct her 
work should keep in touch with the highest develop- 
ment of research and scholarship ; in other words, 
should keep the totality of human knowledge in view. 
Froebel seized upon the maternal element as the guid- 
ing principle because he thought it the largest and deep- 
est and broadest tiling in life and because it touches 
the world in all its aspects, and is therefore best adapt- 
ed to call out the inner possibilities of child life and 
make them manifest in self-realization. However, any 
considerable advance in the future within the kinder- 
garten demands that the maternal element be supple- 
mented by another element, that of scholarship. All 
that art and science and literature can give is not too 
much to bring to bear upon its problems. Science has 
gone far towards the understanding of the nature of 
the flower since Tennyson's time, but before the ad- 
vance could be made the poetic conception had to turn 
into scientific observation and experimentation. 

Science has also gone far in the better understand- 
ing of the nature of the child since Froebel's time, but 
here again the philosophy of Froebel had to be turned 
into scientific observation and experimentation. The 
results of this scientific procedure have helped us more 
and more "to sec things in their unity and to grasp 
them in their totality." Froebel speaks of the "orig- 
inal wholeness of things" and in many places I see 



this concept used in kindergarten literature. It is a 
big concept ! An idea to conjure with ! But before 
we make use of it in educational prescriptions we 
should know some of the facts concerning these rela- 
tionships which bind the diverse elements of the world 
into a "grand" and "all embracing" and "divine unity." 
Otherwise the concept may in our hands prove to be a 
mere fragment. Again, let me reiterate that the very 
bigness of the kindergarten ideas demands the broad- 
est and deepest preparation for those who propose to 
put them in operation. 

The kindergarten must broaden and enrich its pre- 
parative courses for its teachers or it will run the risk 
of degenerating into an apprentice system in which 
each beginner learns her trade and plies it without 
much thought afterwards. The young kindergartner 
is, I think, too apt to do in any situation just what she 
has seen an older kindergartner do in similar circum- 
stances, and to apply rules of thumb dictated to her by 
the initiated. She needs a broader culture to give her 
independence of action. She needs a deeper insight 
into the principles underlying and surrounding the kin- 
dergarten rather than more rules of action to apply in 
given situations, in order to give her spontaneity. She 
must learn to think for herself. If in addition to the 
time that she now spends learning what to do in the 
kindergarten she were given more time and opportunity 
lo develop her own personality, the kindergarten would 
gain much, for a large part of the child's best devel- 
opment is brought about by unconscious absorption 
from the personality of the teacher — her culture, re- 
finement, and education. 

It has often been said that only rarely endowed and 
therefore rarely to be found persons can successfully 
conduct a kindergarten. This seems to me to put the 
emphasis in the wrong place. Native ability to handle 
children is, of course, an excellent thing in a kinder- 
gartner, but it is not the most important thing. A well- 
trained mind stored with knowledge, a well-balanced 
judgment, and enough of the scientist's attitude to 
properly evaluate facts, together with the mastery of 
the principles and practices within the kindergarten, are 
more to be desired than the variable special endow- 
ment which too often means only native tact and fem- 
inine sweetness of character. Whatever the native en- 
dowment may be, the stress should be placed upon the 
preparation, upon the education of the kindergartner. 
To possess native aptitude in music is to be desired if 
one is to be a musician, but this alone is not sufficient. 
Long years of hard work in preparation must be gone 
through in order to attain proficiency. The kinder- 
gartner is no exception to a very general rule. The 
high school graduate is not mature enough and does 
not have a sufficient grasp of the realities of life to 
appreciate the philosophy of the kindergarten. 

There are many subjects taught in the university that 
are of especial importance for the kindergarten teacher. 
I shall have time to mention only two or three of them. 
For instance, the selection of verse for the songs of 
the kindergarten demands a thorough knowledge of 
literature. The past has left us a rich legacy in this 
field and only that of good quality in form and 
thought should be given to children. The songs of the 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



kindergarten sung day after day make a deep im- 
pression upon children. They ought to be the best rep- 
resentatives of the different epochs of literary devel- 
opment, and at the same time should be good literature 
and art judged by the highest standards of our own 
times. There is a tendency to underestimate the abil- 
ity of young children to understand and appreciate real 
literature, and serious attempts are made to give them 
a peptonized substitute. Much of this stuff is being 
placed in the hands of our children to-day and kinder- 
gartners should be on guard lest it find its way into 
the kindergarten, and the best safeguard against this 
cheapened literature is a first-hand knowledge of real 
literature on the part of the kindergartner. 

Another department in the university in which the 
kindergartner ought to have an abiding faith is that 
of biology. In order to lead the child into any part 
of nature's domain, the leafy forest, the shaded brook, 
or the open field where life abounds, and in order to 
teach him to open his eyes to nature's wonderful se- 
crets, the kindergartner ought to have a real knowledge 
of the representative facts of animal and plant life. 
Without it distortion and misrepresentation are sure 
to creep in. The kindergarten will never knowingly 
tolerate a flimsy sentimentality about nature in place 
of a real love and knowledge of nature. The right 
emotional attitude toward nature comes only when the 
child is led to observe her accurately and to think 
clearly about her. As his knowledge increases he 
grows in a true appreciation of the fitness and beauty 
of nature. 

Another study that ought to occupy a prominent place 
in the kindergartner's preparation is that of psychology. 
I fear, however, that there is a misunderstanding as to 
the exact nature of this subject. Again and again 
teachers come to me asking to be allowed to enter 
advance courses in psychology. They assure me that 
they have had psychology before and that they are very 
much interested in it. I find out, however, upon fur- 
ther inquiry that the psychology that they have had is 
James' Talks to Teachers, an interesting and valuable 
little book, but it is not psychology, nor did its author 
intend that it should be taken as such. An interesting 
talk about psychology and its educational applications 
is too often taken for psychology itself. This con- 
fusion contributes to superficiality and is unfortunately 
a fruitful source of educational fads. Before attempt- 
ing to apply psychology we should first master the 
fundamental facts, principles, and laws of mental life, 
and this is what I would have the kindergartner do. It 
is not an easy task and in many places there is a de- 
cided reaction against attempting it. For instance, not 
long ago I received the following inquiry from a kin- 
dergartner of high standing, — supervisor of kinder- 
gartens and principal of a kindergarten training school. 
I quote from it because I believe it is a representative 
attitude among kindergartners toward the more scien- 
tific aspect of this subject of university instruction. 
She asks: 

"What use is this study of the science of psychology? 
It is interesting to know how mind works and also it 
is fascinating to me in connection with biological study 
— this evolution of consciousness. Also it certainly aids 



the teacher in helping the child's mind to develop, be- 
cause she knows how to present the lesson and what to 
expect in response from the child. But when it is 
learned by the individual, does it aid his growth of con- 
sciousness really and truly? Is scientific, psychology 
just a recapitulation of facts which scientists have dis- 
covered about the brain, or does it lead to something 
higher in self-culture? Will the race grow in con- 
sciousness and get nearer the truth through the study 
of it?" 

There are two practical questions which one may ask 
of any subject which he is pursuing: First, will it help 
him in his chosen work? Second, will it help him in- 
dividually? As we have seen, even these questions 
overlap one another. For whatever adds to the per- 
sonal equipment and enriches one's knowledge must 
make for greater efficiency. However, these two ques- 
tions are involved in the inquiry quoted. The first 
question is partly answered in the admission : "And it 
(psychology) certainly aids the teacher in helping the 
child's mind to develop, because she knows how to 
present the lesson and what to expect in response from 
the child." There is, of course, no doubt about this 
point. Systematic study of the nature of conscious- 
ness, its elements, its physiological correlates, and the 
laws of mental development, stands in the same rela- 
tion to the art of teaching as the study of chemistry, 
physiology, and anatomy to the practice of medicine. 
The teacher who attempts to teach without having 
made some endeavor to systematize her knowledge of 
the mental life of the child is like the grandmother who 
doctors with herbs and common sense. Both may do 
good, but certainly both have done harm, harm which 
might have been avoided if they had had some scien- 
tific knowledge of the nature of the things with which 
they were dealing. How many children have been and 
still are literally persecuted simply because teachers do 
not have adequate knowledge of the mental processes ! 
A few or even many teachers have escaped dis- 
aster, but there is no reason why all may not avoid 
mistakes in dealing with children by acquiring a little 
scientific knowledge about the laws of mental growth 
and control. 

Now the second question: "But when it (psychology) 
is learned by the individual, does it aid his growth of 
consciousness really and truly? Does it lead to some- 
thing higher in self-culture?" The answer follows 
from the answer to the first question. Anything that 
aids the individual to help others is cultural. In fact, 
this is the real test of the thing we call culture. If 
psychology can help one to a more efficient service to 
others, that is a sufficient justification for a serious and 
thorough study of it. Time will not allow me to take 
up in detail the principles of psychology which have a 
direct bearing upon the work of the kindergarten, and 
yet I cannot sit down without mentioning some of its 
important applications. 

The charge has been brought against the kindergar- 
ten that it develops a lack of concentration in its chil- 
dren. That the large number of different impressions 
and the rapidity with which they are given during the 
morning's work of the kindergarten foster a habit of 
mental distraction is maintained by the critics. The 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



*33 



truth or falsity of this charge might be established by 
a series of experiments and tests scientifically con- 
ducted and properly safeguarded. This has not yet 
been done and so there is no convincing evidence bear- 
ing upon the question raised. It is still a matter of 
opinion so far as actual facts are concerned. How- 
ever, a careful study of the nature and function of at- 
tention ought to furnish some guilding principles, and 
it does. One of the most characteristic things about the 
normal attention is the rapidity with which it shifts. 
Change seems to be a primal and fundamental law of 
mental life. Healthy consciousness is always moving. 
The rapidity with which it moves is underestimated by 
the casual observer. It is only when the experimen- 
talist times the flow of consciousness that we get a true 
conception of its flight. The ordinary recognition and 
discrimination of an object from other objects, plus 
the time for a simple reaction to the discriminated ob- 
ject, requires about three hundred thousandths of a 
second. The purely mental part of this process prob- 
ably takes place in less than fifty-one thousandths of a 
second. The length of time that attention rests upon 
a single thing or quality of a thing is surprisingly short. 
It is practically impossible to hold the attention upon a 
single thing for any length of time. The very life of 
consciousness depends upon change. Mental processes 
which cease to move cease to exist. To hold the at- 
tention of the child the kindergartner must continually 
vary the material of the day's work, either by pre- 
senting different aspects of the same subject matter 
or by changing the subject matter itself. By so doing 
she keeps the child's mind wide-awake and active. If 
the material of the kindergarten is properly organized, 
presented in the right order and in such a manner that 
it brings out the right relationships and so leads to log- 
ical systems of thought, the activity of the kindergar- 
ten ought not, according to the law of mental change, 
to lead to the condition of scattered attention or men- 
tal dissipation, but on the contrary to habits of con- 
centration and mental alertness. 

From another point of view we get still more light 
on the question when we consider the function of con- 
sciousness. Genetic psychology tells us that the func- 
tion of consciousness has been from the very first the 
control of the adaptive responses of the organizm, — 
the control of bodily activity for purposes of adjust- 
ment. Now these motor responses of adjustment have 
required in all stages of development only an instant 
of time, and, when the responses were made, conscious- 
ness moved on to the next adjustment and so on, even- 
new stimulus requiring a new adjustment. This con- 
stant change of consciousness has been one of its es- 
sential characteristics in all its stages of evolution, both 
in its phylogenetic and in its ontogenetic development. 
It is not strange, then, that the mind of the child 
shows this characteristic, and the kindergarten is wise 
in adjusting its program to fit the real nature of the 
child in this respect. 

The study of psychology ought to lead the kinder- 
gartner to first-hand observation of child life, and to 
give her a basis of empirical facts rather than gen- 
eral theories, which the educational enthusiast is too 



apt to force upon her. For instance, the culture epoch 
theory has been very much overlooked. It has been of 
value, no doubt, in emphasizing the fact that in child 
life there are epochs of development and that meth- 
ods of treatment should harmonize with the nature of 
these things. However, a careful study of the stages 
of child life fails to show any very close relations be- 
tween them and the different epochs of racial devel- 
opment. These relationships, assumed by the theory, 
are very much overestimated, more fanciful than real. 
They are taken by analogy from the facts of recap- 
ulation in the individual embryo of racial physiolog- 
ical characteristics. Instead of inferring what the 
stages of child development are from a rather frag- 
mentary history of racial development, and then mak- 
ing the inference the basis of a doctrine in education, it 
would be better to find out what the real nature and 
characteristics of these stages are by actual observa- 
tion of child life itself. 

Perhaps one of the most important factors to con- 
sider in the education of the young child is the rela- 
tion of the motor response to consciousness. Popular 
language has it : "No impression without expression." 
Yet the interpretation of this usually misses the point 
entirely and makes it innocent of any value as a prin- 
ciple in education. A deeper insight into the nature 
and growth of consciousness will reveal the fact that it 
is not the impression which occasions and determines 
the nature of the expression, but rather that the char- 
acter of the expression occasions and determines the 
nature of consciousness, and that genetically conscious- 
ness does not make new movements possible but new 
movements make consciousness possible. When this 
principle is thoroughly understood in all its bearings, 
it becomes the most effective key that the educator can 
use in unlocking the possibilities of the child's mind, 
and it really lies at the bottom of the kindergarten 
concept. The complete elaboration of this principle 
within the kindergarten awaits a full and complete un- 
derstanding of the laws of mental life. 

The scientific spirit and the scientific method will 
come to the kindergarten with a broader preparation 
of its teachers. The kindergarten need not sacrifice any 
of its more human and maternal character in embrac- 
ing a higher scholarship. The love and sympathy 
which the kindergartner has for her children is not 
diminished by a more thorough knowledge of them 
and the world in which they live. Such knowledge 
tempers and refines her love and sympathy, broadens 
and deepens her personality, and gives her power and 
efficiency. 



Is true freedom but to break 
Fetters for our own dear sake, 
And, with leathern hearts, forget 
That we owe mankind a debt? 
No! — true freedom is to share 
All the chains our brothers wear, 
And with heart and hand to be 
Earnest to make others free! 



134 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




KINDERGARTEN DAILY PROGRAM 

NORA KEOUGH 

[NOTE— Owing to the delay necessary to reach our sub- 
scribers in foreign countries we adopted the plan of print- 
ing this program one month ahead. Some of our Amer- 
ican subscribers, however, prefer the program in the issue 
ior the current month. We have theiefore decided to re- 
publish the program for January and subsequent months, 
followed by the program for the succeeding month, be- 
lieving this the best plan for the accommodation of all.] 

JANUARY. 

Thursday — Circle — Day of return after vaca- 
tion. Children's relating of Christmas 
doings. Their tree and what Santa Claus 
brought. 

Rhythms — Chosen by piano and followed 
by children. 

Table 1st — 'Free drawing of Christmas pres- 
ents. 

Table 2nd — Building church with Hennes- 
sey blocks. 
Friday — Free choice day. 

FIRST WEEK. 

Monday — Circle— The New Year. Its days, 
weeks, ana months. The name of New 
Year, 19 — . The names of days of week. 
How many? 

Rhythm — Those learned reviewed in turn. 

Table 1st — Free cutting and mounting of 
things to represent days of week. Mon- 
day, tub ; Tuesday, flat-iron ; Wednesday, 
mop ; Thursday, needle ; Friday, broom ; 
Saturday, dish and spoon ; Sunday, 
church. 

Table 2nd — Clay-modelling of Christmas 
presents. 

Games — Two Santa Claus games and squir- 
rel game from Jenks & Walker. 
Tuesday — Circle — The name of New Year 
19 — . The name of new month — January. 
The names of days of week. The names 
of months. 

Rhythm — Here we go round the Mulberry 



Bush, from Mari Hofer's Singing Games. 
March by twos. 
- Table 1st — Laying Hailmann cubes in groups 
of seven. Naming them the days of 
week. 

Table 2nd — Make forms with seven rings. 

Games — Pussy Corner; How do you do; 
Wednesday — Circle — The New Year facts re- 
viewed. The names of months: their 
number. The story of Father Time from 
Child-World. 

Rhythm — Toy Day. This time given to free 
play with children's Christmas presents 
brought to school. 

Table 1st — Lay Hailmann cylinders in 
groups of twelves to represent months. 

Table 2nd — Free drawing of the play things 
brought to kindergarten. 

Rhythm — March by twos and fours. 

Games — Toy Time. 
Thursday — Circle — Repetition of year work 
and yesterday's story. The thought of 
each month particularly. Four weeks in 
a month. 

Rhythm — March of twos and fours. 

Table 1st— Draw pictures of toboggan slid- 
ing down hill. The hill of chalk. 

Table 2nd — String beads in groups of four 
according to color. 

Games — Toy Time. 
Friday — Circle — Week's review. 

Rhythm and Games — Given to play with 
toys. 

Table 1st — Free cutting of Christmas toys. 

Table 2nd — Free choice. 

SECOND WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Esquimo week. A picture 
of esquimo life has been put upon the 
board. Study of this picture. The peo- 
ple that live in the north where it is al- 
ways winter. Their homes called iglos. 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



'35 



Rhythm — Skating, marching. 

Table 1st — Make igloas with half rings on 

the peg boards. 
Table 2nd— Clay modelling of igloas. 
Games — Pussy Corner, Competition games. 

Tuesday — Circle — The clothes of the esqui- 
mo and how secured. The hunting of 
the fathers for walrus, bears, etc. 

Rhythm — Skipping, marching. 

Table 1st— Sand-table work. Make esqui- 
mo village. Use cotton-batton for snow. 

Table 2nd — Cut esquimo from white paper 
doubled so they'll stand. 

Games — Tap stick number of times on floor ; 
imitated correctly by children. 

Wednesday — Circle — The Mother Esquimo's 
work, making the clothes. Their lives; 
food; care of the dogs. 

Rhythm — Skipping tag; in and out tag. 

Table 1st — Cut dog from black cardboard. 

Table 2nd — Cut sled from black cardboard. 
Harness together with black shoe-string. 

Games — Play games with bean bags that 
Esquimous do with arrows. Throw and 
land in given circle. This used as com- 
petition game. 

Thursday — Circle — Their lives, games, care 
of the dogs and all else of interest. 

Rhythm — Running around circle and adding 
one more each time. Running tag. 

Table 1st — Free-hand bear and mount. 

Table 2nd — Free-hand candle-sticks of gilt, 
candle of white, mount on brown. 

Games — Roll, throw, bounce ball. 

Friday — Circle — Review talk of week. 

Rhythm — Review. 
Table 1st — Cut free-hand anything of es- 

quimau life. 
Table 2nd — Mount as poster with chalk for 

snow. 
Games — Free choice. 

THIRD WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Holland week. The land 
of mills and dykes. All about dykes. 

Rhythm — Hopping on one foot. Hopping 
tag. Snow man. Skating. 

Table 1st — Build dyke with Hennessey 
blocks. 

Table 2nd — Clay modelling of wooden shoe. 

Games — With first gift balls. All on floor 
in row. Hide one and guess. Change 
their place and put right. Same game 
with children instead of balls. 



Tuesday — Circle — Wind-mills, boats, sports, 

skating. 
Rhythm — Snow man. Chimes of Dunkirk 

from Mari Hofer's Singing Games. 
Table 1st — Make poster in the blue and 

white of ship on the water. 
Table 2nd — Wind-mills with second gifts. 
Games — Same as yesterday with various 

articles. 
Color Games — Color pinned on child's back. 

Colors on end of yard stick. 

Wednesday — Circle — Costumes. Love of flow- 
ers, buds. 

Rhythm — Chimes of Dunkirk. 

Table 1st— Make tulips of cutting paper 
folded, wound on end of long straw over 
which is rolled green tissue paper. These 
make good window-box decorations. 
They have a conventional pattern effect. 

Table 2nd — Make wind-mills of second gift. 

Games — "I Spy." Competition game with 
blocks. 

Thursday — Circle — The Gretchen Christmas 
story re-told. The brave stork story re- 
told. The story of the Leak in the Dyke. 

Rhythm — Chimes of Dunkirk. 

Table 1st — Paint Dutch boys and girls. 

Table 2nd — Cut same. 

Games — Snow man. Drop the handkerchief. 

Friday — Circle — Review Holland. 
Rhythm — Review. 
Table 1st — Unfinished work. 
Table 2nd — Free choice of material. 
Games — Free choice of material. 

FOURTH WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Japan ; the country of sun- 
shine and flowers. Their love of the 
chrysanthemum. 

Rhythm — Teach Japanese bow to music. 

Table 1st — Make charcoal drawing of 
chrysanthemum on narrow panels. 

Table 2nd — Clay-modelling of flower in 
flower-pot. 

Games — Pussy Corner with Japanese de- 
rivation. (Truth on each corner, evil in 
middle). 

Tuesday — Circle — Their costumes ; their ex- 
treme politeness and never-changing pleas- 
antness. 

Rhythm — As yesterday. 

Table 1st — Make Japanese poster of colored 
papers for kimona and sash with wall- 
paper umbrella. 

Table 2nd — Begin weaving paper mats. 



1-3^ 



THE KINDERGABTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Games — Run around circle and bow low 
when you meet, as Japanese do. 

Wednesday — Circle — Customs, jinrikishas, 
eating on tiny table, chop-sticks, tea. 

Rhythm — As before. 

Table . 1st — Make Japanese fan of wall- 
paper with short split straw for handle. 

Table 2nd — Continue weaving mat. 

Games — Imitation and guess. 

Thursday — Circle — Japanese Fairy Tales, 

"The Wonderful Tea Kettle." 
Rhythm — As before. 
Table 1st — 'Paint Japanese lanterns. 
Table 2nd — Cut same. These make very 

pretty room decoration when strung across 

a dark background. 
Games — Mulberry bush, Little Miss Muf- 

fet. 

Friday — Circle — Review Japan. 
Rhythm — Review. 
Table 1st — Continue weaving. 
Table 2nd — Free choice. 
Games — Free choice. 

FEBRUARY. 

FIRST WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Mother Goose week. Let 
children repeat the Mother Goose rhymes 
that they know. 

Rhythm — All week teach action to the 
Mother Goose melodies from "The House 
That Jack Built," by Riley & Gaynor. 

Table 1st — Lay sticks to make skeleton 
action figures. Round tablet for head. 
Tell the story of the "crooked man" this 
way. 

Table 2nd — Tell this same story with char- 
coal and paper free-hand drawing. 

Games — Crooked Man dramatized. Bean 
bags. 

Tuesday — Circle — More rhymes. 

Table 1st — Humpty Dumpty Sitting on the 
Wall. Mount on gray paper; wall of 
white paper marked with black ; egg of 
white paper, free cutting. 

Table 2nd — "Humpty Dumpty" had a great 
fall. Same with egg at bottom of wall. 

Games — Crooked Man and Humpty Dumpty 
dramatized. "Three Little Pigs" dram- 
atized. 
Wednesday — Circle — Story of Hey Diddle, 
Diddle" from "Mother Goose in Prose," 
by Baum. 

Table 1st — Free drawing with black cray- 
ons of Jack and Jill. 



Table 2nd — Weaving. 

Games — Humpty Dumpty, Crooked Man, 

and Jack and Jill dramatized. Sense 

games. 

Thursday — Circle — Re-telling of story. 

Table 1st — Jack and Jill with colored cray- 
on. 
Table 2nd — Cutting and folding envelopes. 
Games — Same. 

Friday — Circle — Week's review. 

Rhythm — Week's review without direction. 
Table 1st — Make valentines from red paper, 

fold and cut. Mount on white. 
Table 2nd — Free choice. 
Games — Use this time to direct and mail 

valentines. Mail-boxes have been put up 

in kindergarten previously. 

SECOND WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Valentine's Day. Children's 
thought. A day of love. Song. A recipe 
for a valentine from Gaynor I. 

Rhythm period used for playing mailman. 
The valentines are gathered that were 
mailed in kindergarten mail-boxes. These 
are distributed to children on circle. 

Table 1st — Period and as much more time 
as needed is used for the valentine party. 
Children have brought their lunches. 
The lunches are divided and arranged 
tastily on tables spread in middle of kin- 
dergarten. Decorations in red and red 
candles add to the appearance. 

Tuesday — Circle — Talk of the mailman. What 
the children know about him. Story of 
"Jerry, the Postman," from Kg. Rev. 
Feb., 1907. 

Rhythm — March, one child as mailman. 

Table 1st — Make mailman of sticks and 
rings. 

Table 2nd — Make mailman of blue par- 
quetry and strips. 

Games — Little Dave, you are Welcome," 
from Jenks & Walker. . 

Wednesday — Circle — Eugene Field's "Sugar 

Plum Tree," read and told. 
Rhythm — Marching. 
Table 1st — Clay modelling of candy cones 

that hung on tree. 
Table 2nd — Wrap colored strips of paper 

around canes. 
Games — Dramatize the story. 

Thursday — Circle — Re-telling of yesterday's 
story. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGA21NE 



ttf 



Rhythm — Animals, dogs and cats. Blowing 

trees. 
Table 1st — Free drawing of sugar-plum 

tree, and things it grew. 
Table 2nd — Weaving. 
Games — Dramatize this story and "Puss in 

Boots." 

Friday — Circle — Review week's stories and 
songs. 
Rhythm — Review. 
Table 1st — Continue weaving. 
Table 2nd — Free choice. 
Games — Free choice. 

THIRD WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Geo. Washington. Who he 
was. Good child. Brave man. 

Rhythm — "Soldier Boy" from Mari Hofer's 
Singing Games. 

Table 1st — Draw free hand flags with col- 
ored crayons on white paper. Cut them 
out. 

Table 2nd — Cut hatchets. First traced, then 
free. 

Games — Competition game with flags ; 
"Marching Through Georgia." 

Tuesday — Holiday. 

Wednesday — Circle — Geo. Washington, a sol- 
dier. 

Rhythm — As above with soldier drill. 

Table 1st — Fold soldier tent. 

Table 2nd — Use tents and flags and make 
soldier's camp in sand table. 

Games — As above. 

Thursday — Circle — Soldiers. Their lives. Their 
obedience. 

Rhythm — Soldier drill; tramping horses; 
bugle. A very good rhythm is the com- 
bination of Clara Anderson's High-Step- 
ping Horses, bugle, then Gaynor March 
and run, bugle, and back to the horses 
quietly until no sound is heard. 

Table 1st — Making red, white, and blue 
badges. 

Table 2nd — Make fort with Hennessey 
blocks, and break down with 2nd gift 
cubes. 

Friday — Circle — A visit to an upper grade 
room with some definite object in view 
as to watch a drill or to see a dramatiza- 
tion of some story. 

Rhythm — This period used to tell of what 
was seen and try it, ourselves. 

Table 1st — Free-drawing of soldier picture. 



Table 2nd — Free choice. 
Games — Free choice. 

FOURTH WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Begin story of the knights. 
Rhythm — Marching and bugle call. Gay- 

nor's "We March Like Soldiers Straight 

Tall." 
Table 1st — Third and fourth gift, build 

castle. 
Table 2nd — Cut castle of four sides of rather 

stiff paper, fold and fasten with paper 

fasteners. 
Games — Dramatize "I'm Going to Write to 

Papa" and guess riddles. 

Tuesday — Circle — Telling story of how Ar- 
thur became king from Homer's stories 
as told by C. H. Hanson. 

Rhythm — As yesterday. 

Table 1st — Make castle of Hennessey blocks. 

Table 2nd — Finish castle of paper begun 
yesterday. 

Games — A tournament with staff and rings 
and galloping horses. 

Wednesday — Circle — Re-telling of story. 

Teach "When the Wind Blows," by Bat- 

chelor, from Kg. Rev. 
Rhythm — Same. 
Table 1st — Knight on horse poster from 

black cutting paper mounted on white. 
Table 2nd — Make castle with 5th gift. 

Thursday — Circle — All about knights. Read 

from Eugene Field, "Little Boy Blue," 

etc. 
Rhythm— As before. And "Tin Soldiers" 

from Neidlinger. 
Table 1st — Cut shields free hand until each 

child has a good pattern, then use it to 

cut another from black cardboard. Paste 

cross of white. 
Table 2nd— Make castle of 6th gift. 
Games — Dramatize Cinderella, play the 

tournament. 

Friday — Circle— Review the story of the 
knights. 

Rhythm — Review. 

Table 1st — Make soldier caps of newspa- 
pers. 

Table 2nd — Free choice. 

Games — Soldier drill and marching with 
flags and caps. 



We forget too often that language is both 
a seed-sowing and a revelation. — Amiel. 




ABRAHAM LINCOLN 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



139 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN 

GRACE DOW 

Suggestion for talk with small children. 

Over one hundred years ago in a log shanty 
on a lonely little farm in Kentucky was born a 
boy who was named by his parents Abraham, 
but soon he was known by all the plain country 
people around as "Honest Abe Lincoln", or, for 
short, "Honest Abe". Why do you think he 
received this title? Let us see if we can tell Irom 
the story of his life? 

When Abe was seven years of age, his father, 
Thomas Lincoln, moved with his family to Indi- 
ana; there our little hero and his mother worked 
in the woods and helped to build a new home. 
It was only a hut, very unlike our own comfort- 
able homes of to-day. It was made of rough 
logs and limbs of trees, and had no door and no 
windows. One side of it was entirely open, and 
if a friendly Indian, or bear, cared to stroll in, 
there was nothing to prevent him. During the 
winter months skins of animals were hung up to 
keep out the cold, but in summer it was really 
living out-of-doors. 

In about a year they moved into a new log 
cabin which had four sides to it; and they made 
a new set of furniture for the new house. Their 
chairs were three legged stools, and perhaps 
little ''Abe" helped his father drive in the legs. 
Abe's father split a large log in two, bored holes 
in the under side, and drove in four stout sticks 
for legs, and that made the table. 

In one corner near the roof of this cabin, our 
little boy had a big bag of dry leaves for his bed. 
After eating his supper, which was usually a 
piece of cornbread, he climbed a ladder made of 
wooden pins driven into the logs, to his bed in 
the dark. 

Abe's mother was not strong, and died soon 
after they moved into their new cabin. 

His new mother was a good, kind-hearted 
woman, and did all she could to make this poor, 
ragged, barefooted boy happy. 

He learned to read and write a little while at- 
tending school a short time in a log school house 
some distance from his home. His father was 
too poor to buy him books and pencils, and send 
him to school, so he studied alone at home. After 
the rest of the family had gone to bed, he would 
sit up and study by the light of the great blazing 
logs heaped in the open fireplace. 



He used to write and cipher on a wooden 
shovel, shaving the surface off when it was cov- 
ered. He had but few books, but those he 
read again and again. 

While a boy he did all kinds of hard work, 
rail-splitting, farm work, and whatever he could 
do to earn a little money. He clerked in a gro- 
cery store for a short time, and at the same time 
studied law. While in the grocery business a 
poor woman once paid him six cents too much. 
After the store closed he walked five or six miles 
into the country to return the money. It was 
acts like this that first won him the title "Honest 
Abe." Lincoln was also very kind-hearted and 
gentle. Once, when riding along dressed in his 
best clothes, he heard a pig squealing that was 
caught in a mud-hole. He rode on for some dis- 
tance, but went back and helped it out. 

Lincoln was several times elected to the Illi- 
nois Legislature, where he helped to make the 
laws for his own state. He was afterward sent 
to Washington to help in making the laws for 
the whole country. 

Finally he became President of the United 
States, because the people trusted him. 

Apr. 14, 1865, aninsaneman named Booth shot 
the good President while he was sitting in a 
theater at Washington. Even his enemies wept 
bitter tears feeling that their best friend was 
gone. 

PICTURE STUDY 

Feeding the Hens — Millet 

Jean Francois Millet was born in France in 
1 814 and died in 1875. 

His parents were French peasants and his 
life was one of toil, privation and hardship. 

When a boy he told his father he meant to 
paint pictures of men and most of his pictures 
related to the lives of the people around him. 
They were remarkable for their simplicity 
and faithfulness and are now known nearly 
all over the world. 

He lived in a humble home in the midst of 
a garden which abounded in trees, flowers 
and vegetables. The roof of the house was 
covered with vines. The doors nearly always 
stood open. In the morning he dug in the 
garden and after breakfast painted his pic- 
tures jin a low-roofed room which he called 
his studio. His sketches were made out- 
doors and afterwards were finished with 
great care in this studio. 



140 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



The surroundings of this picture indicate a 
country home. The view through the arbor sug- 
gests a garden with bee hives. A humble life, 
but not a life of destitution, is suggested. At- 
tention to duties is also indicated. 

The woman is clad in coarse, but whole gar- 
ments; she evidently left the little child, seen in 
the doorway, while she went to feed the hens, 
and the child has followed her by creeping on the 
floor. 



KINDERGARTEN GROWTH 

[NOTE:— Under this heading we shall give from time to 
time such items as come to our notice relative to the estab- 
lishment of new kindergartens as well as articles or state- 
ments in the public press or from noted educators favor- 
able to the kindergarten cause,] 

The increase in kindergarten attendance in New 
York City during the past ten years exceeds 800 per 
cent, and the number of kindergartens from 115 to 
nearly 900. The demand for new kindergartens 
greatly exceed the provisions of the board. 

At Portland, Oregon, the kindergarten attend- 




FEEDING THE HENS-millet 



Some of the fowls are already eating eagerly 
while others are coming at her call. 

Lead pupils by suggestion to tell what they 
see in the picture and what they know about 
hens, chickens, eggs, etc. 

Other famous pictures by Millet: 

The Angelus; First Steps; The Gleaners; The 
Sower: The Man with the Hoe; Feeding Her 
Birds. 

To make your children capable of honesty 
is the beginning of education. — John Ruskin. 



ance has greatly increased. New kindergartens 
have been opened. 

Several new kindergartens have been opened in 
Chicago the present year. 

Additional kindergartens will greatly increase the av- 
erage intelligence of the country and tend to reduce the 
criminal population,— A 7 . Y. Ma.il- Express. 

My whole life has fallen short of its possibilities be- 
cause there were no kindergartens in my city when I 
was a child. Even the hand work development which 
I should have received would have aided me greatly. 

The Kindergarten was the greatest, most important, 
most useful innovation of the nineteenth century, save 
none,— Fra. 



I4i 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



HELPFUL HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS 

For Kinclergartners, Rural ana Primary Teachers 



TO RECOGNIZE WORDS. 

MERRY-GO-ROUND. 

Teach the pupils to make a Merry-Go-Round by 
placing a Second Gift cylinder on end and placing 
a number of 5-inch colored sticks evenly around so 
as to form a circle one end of the sticks resting 
against the cylinder and at the opposite end of each 
stick, placing a square or round Seventh Gift tab- 
let to represent the seats. Select from the pupils' 
sentence building box the new words you wish to 
teach, placing one on each of the tablets. The teach- 
er then rides around once or twice with the child- 
ren — that is, teacher pronounces the words and 
they pronounce after her. Each child then under- 
takes to ride alone, falling off when they miss a 
word and starting over again. 



A PAIR OF STAIRS. 

Teach pupils to construct a double pair of stairs 
with Third Gift blocks. Put about five steps up one 
side and the same down the other. Then use for 
recognizing words in same way as the Merry-Go- 
Round. 



CALENDAR FIGURES FOR DRILL. 

One of the most popular and instructive forms 
of busy work for the first grade children with us, is 
that supplied by using old calendars. We cut the 
numbers apart on the separating lines and place 
each month's series of numbers in an envelope by 
itself. The children place them on their desks in or- 
der, guided by the large school calendar which hangs 
in a conspicuous place. To them it is a sort of puzzle 
and while working it out, they learn a great deal 
about the formation and arrangement of figures. — 
Primary Plans. 



TO RECOGNIZE WORDS. 

Tell the story of the little boy who was lost in 
the woods and came to a wide brook, but there 
was no bridge across it. He noticed some stones 
here and there and tried to walk across the brook 
on the stones. Illustrate the brook and the stones 
on the board, writing one of the new words on 
each stone. Who can get across the brook without 
falling off — missing a word. 



CURE FOR DISORDER. 

Did you ever try chalking disorderly desks after 
school? A large cross on the top of such desks when 
all understand what it means, does more toward the 
keeping of orderly desks than dozens of lectures. 



When thu owhers of the disorderly desks appear in 
school the next morning you will notice a cleaning 
up begin immediately. When this is done the child 
erases the cross, but not until then. — Primary Plans. 



A BUTTERFLY CORNER 

We have gained a great deal of pleasure as well 
as information by having, as we call it, Our Butter- 
fly Corner. The children draw, color and cut out 
butterflies of various sizes and colors and then we 
string the butterflies on threads suspended from a 
thread that is stretched across the corner of the 
school room and as the breeze blows through the 
room, they gently stir, looking very much like live 
butterflies. We also study about the butterfly and 
use what information we have obtained for language 
lessons. — Primary Plans. 



ANSWER CARDS AS INCENTIVE. 

Pupils like varied ways of working so I some- 
times let the multiplication class use answer cards. 
1 write the problems on small cards and place the 
answers which they must obtain to be correct on 
large sheets of cardboard ruled into oblong spaces. 
The problem cards are placed by the pupils in the 
blank spaces above the proper answers when the 
correct answer is found. The small problem cards 
are in envelopes. The children will work to get the 
exact answer and I find that valuable time is saved. 
— Selected. 



Teachers Should Remember That — 

1. Suggestions and anticipations prevent friction 
and almost do away with the need for harsh discipline. 

2. By trusting and confiding in pupils they will 
usually prove worthy of the trust. 

3. Good nature and a smiling countenance are more 
to be prized than rich scholarship and a strong arm. 

4. Sympathy and justice properly balanced cover 
the entire field of discipline. 

5. That no child should be cheated of his birthright. 



Don't Make It Too Easy. 

Difficulties should not be made too simple for child- 
ren. The teacher's aim should be to make the pupils 
get over the difficulties themselves, to present difficul- 
ties in their proper order, a natural series of steps, to 
graduate the steps to suit the advancement of the pu- 
pil, to avoid giving explanations as far as possible, and 
to explain when necessary in a clear, definite, brief 
manner. The golden rule of the teacher should be not 
to tell the pupil anything he should know or can learu 
by judicious teaching. — Hughes. 



142 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



ETHICAL CULTURE 

RUPERT'S MISFORTUNE. 

S. T. Luhs. 

OBEDIENCE. 

Teacher: I have a sad story to tell you about 
a little boy who disobeyed his mother. 

Rupert Ray was just five years old and had been 
to kindergarten one week. 

His parents lived on a quiet street in a large city 
and Rupert's mother went with him to kindergarten 
until he had learned the way, which led through 
quiet residence streets where few people passed. 

Two blocks away from Mrs. Ray's house in 
another direction there was a busy business street 
where automobiles and teams seemed to be always 
passing. 

Rupert had often visited this street with his 
parents and loved to look at the pretty things in 
the windows of the candy and toy stores. 

He enjoyed the noise and clatter of the street, 
and often wished to go there alone, but his mother 
told him how dangerous it would be — that he 
might be run over and killed. 

She told him he must never go there alone. 
One day while coming home from kindergarten 
he heard a band playing on the street and said to 
himself I will just go a little ways so I can see 
the big drum and then I will run right straight 
home. 

As he ran along something seemed to say to him 
almost like a whisper, "Mama don't want me to 
go" and he stopped to turn back. It was the voice 
of conscience speaking to him and if he had listened 
and obeyed, this story would not be a sad one, but 
just then he looked down toward the street and 
saw a large bear standing on his hind feet. It was 
not a wild bear that lived in the forest, but a tame 
one and a man held it with a chain which was 
fastened to a collar about the bear's neck. Rupert 
had seen the same bear once before and knew that 
it would not hurt him, and he wanted so much to 
see it dance while the man sang a tune. 

So he ran away so fast that he could not hear 
the little voice at all, and laughed very loudly to 
see the big bear dancing. 

After the man had collected all the pennies he 
could he led the bear away. 

Rupert was very much excited and started to 
follow the man with the bear, going off the side- 
walk into the street. 

Suddenly he remembered what his mother had 
told him about the dangers of the street, and 
started to turn back and go home. 

A team with a heavy wagon was following along 
behind the bear and as Rupert turned suddenly 
around he saw himself right in front of the horses 
and before the driver could stop the team he had 
been knocked down by the wagon tongue and one 
wheel had passed over his right ankle, crushing it 
badly. 



He was carried to his home and the doctor told 
his weeping mother that his foot must be taken 
off. 

Then came long weeks of pain and suffering. It 
was a sad household. Rupert knew if he had 
obeyed his mother it would not have happened. At 
last he was able to walk on crutches. He could 
not run and play with other children and was 
often left alone with no share in the sports and 
games of the school. 

He is a grown man now and often thinks how 
his disobedience has cast a deep shadow over his 
whole life and that he can never be a whole man. 

Children should always obey their parents in 
everything. How nice it is to have parents who 
can tell you what is right and wrong before you 
are old enough to find it out for yourselves. 

How fine to belong to a household, with father 
and mother to love and protect you and keep you 
from harm and then if you have sisters and broth- 
ers how beautiful it is to love them and always 
be kind to them. 



A BEAUTIFUL CHAIN. 

Children are like links in a beautiful chain. Every 
smile, every kind word or action adds more beauty 
to the link. 

Impatience, anger, disobedience, shirking of 
duties, quarreling, telling falsehoods, all tarnish and 
blacken the links. 

Let each one keep his link bright and beautiful 
and we shall have a splendid chain. 



A little girl once said to herself: "I shall always 
try very hard to obey my parents and teacher 
cheerfully and quickly in everything they ask. I 
know they are given to me by my Father in Heaven 
to teach me what is right. I shall always try to do 
what I know my parents and teacher would like 
me to do even if they do not tell me about it. I 
will try to be always kind and patient with my 
little sister and brother." 

That little girl was loved by all who knew her, 
and so if you want to be happy and kept from 
trouble and harm always remember to obey your 
parents quickly and cheerfully and to do nothing 
that you know will displease them. 



I would not enter in my list of friends, 

(Though grac'd with polish'd manners and fine 

sense, 

Yet wanting sensibility), the man 

Who needlessly sets foot upon a worm. 

— Cowper. 



But screw your courage to the sticking place 

And we'll not fail. 

— Shakespeare. 

In the lexicon of youth, which fate reserves 
For a bright manhood, there is no such word as fail. 

— Bulwer, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



'43 



CURRENT EVENTS 

New York City. — The New York Public School Kin- 
dergarten Association announced this fall a course of 
six lectures on "Democracy in the Kindergarten," by 
Miss Patty S. Hill of Teachers College. 

Miss Hill's subject at first sight seemed far away 
from the thought of the little child, but after an able 
re-statement of democratic principles in government 
at large, Miss Hill in her first lecture showed clearly 
the difference between governing "over the will" and 
governing "through the will," which latter is the demo- 
cratic and the kindergarten ideal. 

Miss Hill spoke of the three levels of human experi- 
ence applicable both to child and adult, viz.: 1. Rela- 
tion to our equals. 2. Relation to those weaker than 
ourselves. 3. Relation to those stronger and wiser. 
To the child, the third level is represented mainly in 
parent and teacher. 

In a country where every individual is expected "to 
c'loosa," we should begin to get ready in childhood. 

Government "through the will" does not ignore lead- 
ership. The three levels of experience indicate different 
capacities. Strength, wisdom, training give worth and 
develop leaders for society, state, home and school. 

Democracy differing from other forms of government 
endeavors to set up ideal relations of respect, sympa- 
thy and comradeship. 

Some are higher not to keep others down but to help 
others up. 

Those on the highest level are to respect and to nur- 
ture those still on lower levels. The higher cannot es- 
cape their duty to those on lower levels in a true de- 
mocracy. 

Miss Hill applied the democratic principal to leaders 
in education who are leaders to help. She holds also 
that in democratic leadership those who are being led 
have the right to criticize kindly their very leaders. 

The supervisor holds a lonely position unless willing 
to confer with tliose supervised, and unless those super- 
vised feel free to offer suggestions from their varied ex- 
periences. 

There must be both docility and initiative, both con. 
servation and progress. Conservation and progress 
have been called the "two legs" upon which civilization 
walks. 

Society can be enriched only in one way, namely, by 
variation of one individual from another. 

Society depends upon the individual to "see a vi- 
sion." 

The business of society is to scan closely to see if 
the new is better than the old. 

In the kindergarten world what is your attitude to- 
wards initiative? 

Every individual has two tendencies, namely, to con- 
form and to vary; both are social if the leader knows 
how to use variations for the benefit of the group. 

In the succeeding very practical lectures, Miss Hill 
has considered the kindergarten program from the 
point of view of the child's instincts and experiences. 

One cannot do justice in a short report but briefly 
stated Miss Hill has shown, for example: 1. That the 
childish instinct to nurture, to protect, to control is 
being fostered in the care of plants, of pets, and of young- 



er children in the kindergarten. 2. That the instinct 
to talk, to feel, to communicate is met in conversations, 
stories, songs, nursery rhymes, gestures leading to 
simple dramatizing. 3. That the instinct to make, to 
create is encouraged in building gifts and in all manual 
work. 4. That the instinct to investigate, to explore, 
is encouraged in walks, excursions, as well as in gift 
work, industry and art. 5 That the child's instinct 
to admire, to decorate, to arrange is fostered in string- 
ing, to make chains, in simple designing with tablets 
and sticks, in the study of pictures, in dramatic games, 
in the dance, in color work. 6. That the child's in- 
stinct to wonder and to worship are fostered in the kin- 
dergarten in song and story, in observing natural phe- 
nomena as the sky, the clouds, the sun, the storm, the 
rainbow, in looking up with respectful attitude to pa- 
rent and teacher and with leverence towards God. 

The last two lectures will be given on Jan. 4th and 
Jan. 11th in the Assembly Hall of the School of Peda- 
gogy, New York University, Washington Square South, 

Indianapolis, Ind. — At the annual session of the 
Indiana State Teacher's Association, the Kindergarten 
meetings were held at Teachers College. The program 
consisted of music by the students of the college, a 
story by Miss Prudence Kinner of Huntington, a game 
festival and story hour, and an address by Miss Emma 
Colbut of Indianapolis, Subject: "The Extension of Fro- 
belian Principles in the Grades." 

Des Moines, la. — At the annual meeting of the Iowa 
State Teacher's Association, which closed here Nov. 11, 
addresses were given by Miriam Hoover of Waverly, 
Louise Whitney of Dubuque, and Mrs. A. L. Haas of 
this city on the benefits of the I. K. U. Other speak- 
ers told how Des Moines captured the convention for 
1912. 

Hannibal, Mo. — The Fiftieth Annual Convention of 
the Missouri State Teacher's Association, held here, 
was very successful. Resolutions strongly recommend- 
ing arbitration and favoring an early ratification of the 
treaty now pending before the U. S. Senate, were passed. 

Topeka, Kan. — Dr. P. H. Claxton, U. S. Commis- 
sioner ofEducation, attended the Meeting of the State 
Superintendents here. He is described by the Mis- 
souri School Journal as the apostle of the concrete and 
immediate needs in educational procedure. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. — The program for the An- 
nual convention of the Utah Educational xlssociation 
contained the following: Paper by Miss Qualtrough 
entitled ' 'The Relation of the Kindergarten Teacher to 
the School," also "Practical Suggestions," by Mrs. 
Mary B. Fox. 

Spring-field, III. — I was a visitor at the 58th annual 
meeting of the Illinois State Teacher's Association and 
was surprised to find that no department had been pro- 
vided for the kindergarten. Evidently the friends of 
the cause in Illinois have been caught napping. 

Great Falls. Mont. — The annual meeting of the 
Montana State Teachers' Association was held in this 
city December 27-29. The Montana Schoolmaster's 
Club and the School Ma'ams of Montana also held 
their annual meetings and banquets at this time. 



i 4 4 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Toledo, Ohio. — The Law Froebel Kindergarten Train- 
ing School gave a Twilight Concert December 12th, un. 
der direction of Leon E. Edoine. ' A rich musical treat 
was provided for all who were fortunate enough to be 
present. 

Sacramento, Calif. — An open-air kindergarten by 
Miss Shieha, a graduate of Oakland Kindergarten Train- 
ing School, class of '07, has been opened here. 

Oakland, Calif. — Dr. Force, of the University of 
California, is giving a course in First Aid to students of 
Oakland Kindergarten Training Class. 

New York City. — Myron T.Scudder took possession 
of the New York Froebel Normal at 59 W. 96th street, 
some time since, having purchased it. Dr. Scudder is 
well known as a successful educator. 

Laramie, Wyoming-. — The annual meeting of the 
Wyoming State Teacher's Association closed here Dec. 
30th. It proved very successful. 

Fargo, N. D. — At the annual meeting of the North 
Dakota Educational Association which closed Nov. 3. 
considerable prominence was given to rural and indust- 
rial education. 



TO PRESERVE PICTURES. 

It is difficult to use pictures in the schoolroom 
without their becoming soiled. To avoid this, cut 
pasteboard a little larger than the pictures and fix 
to each corner a corner cut from an envelope. 
These envelope corners hold the picture firmly and 
yet permit of its being removed. — Western Teacher. 



DAILY PREPARATION. 

Preparation for a day's work or a single lesson 
is never ( omplete till the teacher has answered ques- 
tions like these, satisfactorily: Have I put just as 
much freshness and variety in this work as I can? 
Have x t ied my best 10 put myself in _e place of 
these children, and to look at things through their 
eyes? Have I provided for their natural restlessness, 
by pleasant surprises, and fresh ways of presenting 
.hings? Ask yourself these questions at least once 
•ach week. — School Education. 



Suggestions for Teachers. 

The mental states make the man. The teacher's 
troubles can be reduced by reducing the mental worries. 

Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm. 

One teaches much more by what he is than by what 
he says. 

He who has learned how to obey will know how to 
command. 

Punishment should never be greater than is needed 
to prevent the offense. 

That the successful teacher understands that he must 
educate the parents of the community as well as the 
children. — Selected. 



BOOK NOTES 



A Book of Prog-rams. By Jane L. Hoxie. Paper, 
100 pps., 5x7^ ins. Price 50c; cloth 75c. Published 
by E. Steiger & Co., New York. 

This book provides a general program, a nature pro- 
gram, an industrial program, a festival program and a 
Sunday School program covering an entire school year. 

The Moral and Religious Challenge of our Times. 
By Henry Churchill King. Cloth, 391 pps. Price 
$1.50. Published by the MacMillan Co., New York. 
Truly a valuable book on a great subject. The 
author holds that reverence for personality is the guid- 
ing principle in human development and succeeds ad- 
mirably in convincing the reader of the truth of his 
conclusions. 

The American Woman and Her Home. By Mrs. 

Newell Dwight Hillis. Cloth, 181 pps. Price $1.00 

net. Published by Fleming H Revell, New York, 

Chicago, Toronto. 

The American woman is indebted to Mrs. Hillis for 
this most stimulating and suggestive volume. The 
Outlook in announcing Mrs. Hillis' articles said "In 
line with The Outlook's purpose to supply more that 
concerns woman's special sphere, it announces a new 
series of articles on the American Woman by Mrs. 
Newell Dwight Hillis." These articles, which called 
forth wide-spread expressions of appreciation, possess 
such worth and practical value that there has been a 
demand for their preservation in permanent book form. 

The Secret Garden. By Frances Hodgson Burnett, 
author of "The Shuttle," "Little Lord Fauntleroy,', 
etc. Cloth, beautifully illuminated cover, 375 pps. 
Price $1.35 net. Published by Frederick A. Stokes 
Co., New York. 

The story itself is most beautiful and inspiring. 
There is mystery in it and the suspense is maintained 
to the very end. There is "magic" — the magic of love, 
the magic of growth, the magic of the joy of living. 
The secret garden, walled in and locked for years, is al- 
most a character in the story. Dickson, who can make 
anything grow and is loved by all living things; dear, 
wise mother Sowerby; Colin, the invalid; the wilful 
Mary; Ben Weatherstaff; and, by no means least, the 
joyous little robin, who also plays his part — all are fig- 
ures to delight the imagination and to live in memory 
indefinitely. "The Secret Garden" opens its kindly 
gates, not only to all children, but to all who have been 
children, no matter how long grown up. 



He who lends to the poor gets his interest from 
the Lord. — German. 



He most lives who lives most for others. 



Before reprimanding a child, if such a course 
seems actually necessary, be very certain: 

First — That the child knows exactly what you 
want him to do. 

Second — That he knows how to do or to under- 
take to do that which you request of him. 

Third — -That the child is not incapacitated by fear 
Af displeasing you from making a start in the right 

All children should be carefully tested for defec- 
tive vision and hearing. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



H 



A January Birthday Cake. 

(For five little girls, each givinga stanza ; or, it desired 
may be given as single recitatation.) 

Said Winter, "This little round hill I will take, 

And out of it such a fine cake I will make!" 

She frosted it thickly with very white snow, 

And patted and smoothed it and shaped it — just so. 

With sharp winds to help her. she put on the date — 

Nineteen Hundred and Twelve — in figures quite 

straight. 
She edged it with icicle tapers so bright, 
Along came the sun and set them alight 
"My cake is all ready," cries Winter. (All) "Hooray! 
Has anyone here a birthday to-day?" 

— Primary Education. 



THE AMERICAN FLAG. 

(For tl'.ree tiny girls — first one to be dressed in 
red, the next in white, and the third in blue, and each 
carrying a flag.) 

All — We wear today the colors 

To which our men were true ; 
Long may they wave above us, 
The red, the white, the blue. 

Red- 
Bright as the rays of the morning, 
When comes the dawn's first gleam, 
Within our much-loved banner 
The crimson bars are seen. 

White- 
Pure as the snowflakes falling 
Or early morning light, 
Among the bars of crimson 
Appear the bars of white. 

Blue- 
Bright as the sky at evening 
When gleam the stars of night, 
The blue within our banner 
Enfolds the stars of white. 



All- 



All red, white, and blue, 
Forever "shall wave 
O'er the land 1 of the free 
And the home of the brave." 



BONNY FLAG. 






Song. Air: — "Baby Mine." 
Oh, I love to see you waving, 

Bonny flag, bonny flag ; 
And I feel like danger braving, 

Bonny flag, bonny flag ; 
Oh, the beautiful, the true, 
All my heart goes out to you, 

Bonny flag, bonny flag; 
All my heart goes out to you, 

Bonny flag. 

In the thickest of the battle, 

Bonny flag, bonny flag ; 
There, amid the drum's loud rattle, 

Bonny flag, bonny flag ; 
You were carried to the fore, 
There in spite of cannon's roar, 
Did the soldiers love you more, 

Bonny flag, bonny flag ; 
Did the soldiers love you more, 

Bonny flag. 

WANTED— Back numbers of the Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine for October, 1911. Address. J. H. Shults, Manis- 
tee, Mich. 



NEW BLACKBOARD 
STENCILS 

We can supply any Blackboard Stencil made at lowest 
prices. The following are all 5c. each, 5 or more at 4c. 
each, unless the price of 10c. is given after the name of 
the stencil. In such case the price is 10c or any 3, 8c. 

ANIMALS. We can supply stencils 
for illustrating all domestic ani- 
mals, wild animals, and animals 
of the field. Send to us for what- 
ever is wanted in stencils. 

BIRDS. Stencils to illustrate all 
birds of every clime. Also fowls. 
State your wants and will supply 
it promptly. 

INSECTS. All ordinary in- 
sects, including silkworm 
and cocoon will be supplied. 
FISH. Sword fish. Shark, 
Jelly fish, Star Fish, etc. 
FRUITS. All kinds, also plants, trees, etc. 
FLOWERS. Many different kinds. 
MAPS. Hemispheres, Continents, countries 
and states. Each 10c. Any three 8c. each. 

WRITING CHARTS. Complete set. Vertical or 
Slant. State which is wanted. Per set, 40c. 

PHYSIOLOGY. 1. Skeleton; 2. Lungs; 3. Heart; 
4, Intestines; 5, Brain; 6, Nervous System; 7, 
Eye; 8, Ear. Price, 10c. Three or more, 8c. 

CALENDAR. An appropriate design for each 
month, illustrating principal holiday and birth- 
days which occur. 10c. ; three or more, 8c. each. 
AMERICAN HISTORY CHARTS. Illustrating 
all important historical events. Send for list. 
We can supply any stencil made at lowest prices. 
Christmas stencils. A complete list will be found else- 
where in this price list. Also Hallowe'en, Thanksgiving, New 
Years, Washington's Birthday, Easter, Arbor Day, Flag Day, 
Memorial Day, and birthdays of Longfellow, at. al. See index. 
Patriotic. TJ. S. Shield, Statue of Liberty, Coat of Arms, 
IT. S., Liberty Bell, Bunker Hill Monument, Mayflower, U. S. 
Flag, 21x36, Landing of Pilgrims, Goddess of Liberty. 

DECORATIVE. Roll of Honor, Welcome, Program, Good 
Morning, Good Night, Memorial Day, Queen of May. 
Christmas Stencils. Merry Christmas, Same, 24x63, 10c. ; 
Santa Claus Border. Holly Border, Christ- 
mas Tree, New Santa Claus, Santa Claus, 
Sled and Reindeer. Santa and Stocking, 
Happy New Year, Christmas Morning, 10c. 

Thanksgiving stencils. Landing of Pilgrims, Home 
for Thanksgiving, Mayflower, Pilgrims Going to Church, 
John Alden and Priscilla, Corn, Pumpkin, Horn of Plenty, 
Sheaf of Wheat, Motto, "O, give thanks unto the Lord, for He 
is good ; for His mercy endureth forever," 10c. 

Many other stencils are listed under Special Day goods. 
SPECIAL BRILLIANT CRAYON 

To be used with these stencils. Two sticks each red- 
yellow, orange, green, blue and violet, 12 in all. Thecol- 
ors are most beautiful. Per box, 20c. 

New Busy Work Stencils 

Designed to be used by children at 
their desks on paper or other material 
and most excellent for teaching draw- 
ing, coloring, literature, language, &c. 
Ten stenctls in an envelope, at 10c. per 
set. Sold in sets only, never singly. 
Set 1, Large Animals, Horse, 

Elephant, etc. 
Set 2. Small Animals, Cat, 

Dog, etc. 
Set 3. Flowers, Rose, Lily, 

Tulip, etc. 
Set 4. Birds, Robin, Eagle, 






Fishes from the Sea. 
Language Stencils. 
Maps of Continents, 

Washington Stencils. 
Set 13. 
Set 15. 
Set 16. 
Set 17. 
Set 18. 
Set 19, 
Set 20. 
Set 21. 



Set 23. Vegetables. 

Set 26. Borders. 

Set 59. Patriotic. 

Set 28, Snowflake. 

Set 22. Fruits, 
Lincoln Stencil . 
Thanksgiving Stencils. 
Cliristmas Stencils. 
Valentine Stencils. 
Hollowe'en Stencils. 
Hiawatha Stencils. 
Eskimo Stencils. 
Indian Stencils. 



Address The J. H. Shults Co., Manistee. Mich. 



Every home, every child 
ought to know these pictures. 

The Perry 
Pictures 




Teachers' Agencies 



-THE- 



Reproductions of the World's Great Paintings 



ONE CENT EACH 



for 25 or more. 
Size T»y z x 8. 

Send 25 cents for 25 art subjects, or 25 for children, or 25 Madonnas, or 25 
Kittens, etc., or $1.00 for the four sets, or $1.00 for art set of 100 pictures. 

Smaller, Half Cent Size, 3x1%. Larger, Five Cent Size, 10x12. 

Bird Pictures in Natural Colors. 7x9. Two cents each for 13 or more. 

Large Pictures for Framing. 22x28 inches, including margin. Price 75 cents 
each ; 8 for $5.50. 

Send three two-cent stamps for Catalogue of 1,000 miniature illustrations, 
two pictures and a colored Bird picture. 

The PERRY PICTURES COMPANY 
Awarded Four Gold Medals Box 1120, Maiden, Mass. 



DON'T READ AT RANDOM 

Read This Course 

(Thirty-fourth C. L. S. C. Year) 

The Spirit of American Government. By J. Allen Smith, 
University of Washington $1.25 

The Twentieth Century American. By H. Percy Robinson, 
British Journalist, Washington correspondent London 
Times 1.75 

Materials and Methods of Fiction, By Clayton Hamilton. 
Introduction by Brander Matthews, Columbia -University, 1.50 

Twenty Years at Hull-House. By Jane Addams. Etched 
Illustrations 2.00 

The Chautauquan Magazine (Monthly — Illustrated. Mem- 
bership included if desired). Containing: As We See Our- 
selves — In drama, novel, short story, essay, journalism, 
etc. (Benj. A. Heydrick, Commercial High School, New 
York) ; A Reading Journey Through South America 
(H. M. Van Dyke), American Engineering (Carl S. Dow 
of Boston). The monthly magazine also serves in many 
interesting ways as a teacher for the reading course ...... 2.00 

Total $8.50 

All four books (cloth bound) and the Mag-azine. . . .$5.00* 
*Remit30c extra for postage or prepaid express. "Collect" charges are more. 

"Easy for Anybody, Worth While for Everybody" 

If in doubt, send stamp for handbook of testimonals. 
Address CHAUTAUQUA INSTITUTION, Chautauqua, N. Y. 

GET THE CHAUTAUQUA IDEA 



Another Book of Delight Stories for Primary Grades 

By Mrs. Lyda B. McMurry 
MORE CLASSIC STORIES 

This is a companion book to Mrs. McMurry 's "Classic Stories for 
the Little Ones." These are two of the six books for use in the first 
three grades published under the general title of "Literature for 
Little People." The other books are "Rimes andStories"; "Stories 
of Indian Children"; "The Little Cliff-Dweller"; and "Robinson 
Crusoe for Boys and Girls." All areexcellent stories for school use. 

"More Classic Stories" will be easy reading for second and third 
grade. Som e of the stories are The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse; 
The Shoemaker's Helpers; The Wonderful Pot; Beauty and the Beast; etc. 
Short poems rythmic and full of bright imagery which supplements 
the stories appear throughout the book. List price, 35 cents. 
Special prices to schools. 
Order from the Public School Publishing Co., Bloomington, 111. 



NORTHWESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

310-311 Providence Building 
DULUTH. MINN. 

The TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teachers, Tutois and 
Schools. No. 120 Boylston street. 

THE PRATT TEACHER'S AGENCY 

Recometids college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, and other teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 

70 Fifth Avenue New York 

MIDLAND SPECIALISTS AGENCY 

Station A. Spokane, Wash. 
We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of Primary and Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 

Unemployed Teachers 

IF FOR ANY REASON YOU HAVE 
NOT ACCEPTED WORK FOR THE 
SESSION OF 1911-1912 WRITE ME. 
MANY UNEXPECTED VACANCIES 
OCCUR ALL DURING THE FALL 
AND WINTER. THERE ARE ALSO 
MANY SCHOOLS WHICH DO NOT 
OPEN UNTIL LATE IN THE FALL. 
OVERFLOW TEACHERS ARE CON- 
STANTLY NEEDED SOMEWHERE; 
WE CAN GENERALLY TELL YOU 
WHERE. IF OPEN, WRITE FOR 
INFORMATION ABOUT THE 
SOUTH'S NUMEROUS OPPOR- 
TUNITIES. 

W. H. JONES, Mgr. and Prop. 
COLUMBIA, S. C. 

CHILD LORE 

MAGAZINE 

"It Fills the Need." 

Every mother of a boy or girl feels 
the need of supplying reading of the 
right kind, — reading that interests, 
educates, helps. CHILD LORE solves 
the problem. It is simple enough 
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anybody, and strong in its appeal to 
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Subscription Price, $1.00 a year. 

Sample copy for a stamp. 
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per 100, 25c, postage 5c ■ 
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Class Recitation Records 

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Set Primary Reading Charts 

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.Complete $4.75 

Japanned Handle Scissors 

Per Dozen 45 cents 

Alphabet Cards. Per Box 12 cents 



CATALOG-fffEEOriREQUEST 

CATALOG DISCRlBtS &.5H0W5 WHOLESALE. 

PRICES ON ABSOLUTELY EVERYTHING 

FOR SCHOOLS 

233-Z35 r-IARHET STRE£7,CH!CAGO. 



LITTLE PEOPLE 
EVERYWHERE 

A new series of Geographical Readers 
based on Child Life. 

Kathleen in Ireland (Fourth year) 
Manuel in Mexico (Fifth year) 
lime San in Japan (Sixth year) 
Rafael in Italy (Seventh year) 

Picture cover; colored frontspieces. 

Illustrations from photographs 

Each Volume, 6oc. 

LITTLE BROWN & CO. 



BOSTON 

31 Beacon Street 



CHICAGO 

379 Wabash Ave. 



SOME GOOD BOOKS FOR TEACHERS 



Headings and Recitations 20 cts. 

Riffle Creek Papers and Little 

Sermons for Teachers 65 cts. 

Patrick's Pedagogics 65 cts. 

Patrick's Pedagogical Pebbles 25 cts. 
Grains of Wheat without the 

Chaff 20 cts. 

Mathematical Geography 10 cts. 

A Summer of Saturdays 65 cts. 

Problems without Figures 10 cts. 

On orders amounting to $1.50 to 

one address, a reduction of ten 
per cent. 

S. Y. GILLAN &, CO. 



MILWAUKEE. 



WISCONSIN 



Books for Kindergartners 

Kindergarten in the Home 

By V. M. Hillyer, Headmaster Calvert 
School, Baltimore, Md. Based on exper- 
ience; admirably concise. This will make an 
invaluable aid to Kindergartners and mo- 
thers. Fully illustrated with diagrams and 
line drawings. 8vo. $1.25 net. 

Tales Come True 

By Margaret Coulson Walker, author of 
Lady Hollyhock and her Friends, Bird Le- 
gend, etc. A book designed as an aid to 
mothers and kindergartners. A delight also 
to the child itself. Fully illustrated in col- 
or and black and white. Square, 8vo. $1.25 
net. 

Lady Hollyhock and Her 
Friends 

By Margaret Coulson Walker. An estab- 
lished favorite; on many library lists and 
in many school libraries. Lavishly illustra- 
color and black and white. Square; 8vo., 
$1.25 net. 

Portrait catalogue, containing 33 
portraits of authors, will be sent free 
on request. 

THE BAKER & TAYLOR CO. 



33 East 17th St, 



New York 




THE TEACHERS HELPERS 



The Teachers' Helpers are without question the finest 
PLAN BOOKS for teachers published. They are 
edited by some of the ablest and most practical teach- 
ers in the country. They give programs, methods, 
songs, drawing, and devices for each month in the 
year, and are beautifully and profusely illustrated. 
Four book* In the aeries; named Autumn, Winter, 
Spring, and Summer respectively. The Summer 
number covers work for the whole year and Is larger 
than the others. Cover designs done in beautiful 
three-color work. Money refunded to any purchaser 
who is not more than satisfied. • 
PRICES: Bach Number(except Summer) $ .35 
Summer No. [larger than others] .50 
' Send today for ce-py or ask for further informa- 
tion. Address 

Teachers' Helper, 

Department n, Minneapolis, Minn. 



Some Great Subscription Offers! 



In Combination with the 



Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 



"A Study of Child Nature," &g2»»$& 

And the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine one year, both fcr 
while our stock lasts. We have but a few copies on hand. 



$1.10 

"I life orirl I i/fifc " by Anna Bedlam and Car- fl»| p» /\ 
LUIS. d"U LyriCS>, rieBullard. $1.00, and THE Jrtl .Sll 

KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE one year for *K* tXy v 

$1.15 



The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
Needlecraft, regular price $1.25, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
McCall's Magazine, regular price $1.50, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Housekeeper, regular price $1.70, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Home Needlework, regular price $1.75, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Health Culture, regular price $2.00, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Primary Education and School Arts Book, regular price 
$3 . 75, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

kindergarten Review, regular price $2.00, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
Women's Home Companion, regular price $2.50, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
Pictorial Review, Modern Priscilla and ladies' World, re- 
gular price $3,25, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
American Primary Teacher and School Century, regular 
price $3. 25, our price 



1.35 
1.40 
1.50 
1.60 

2.65 
1.70 
190 

2.15 

2.60 



Many other combinations. Give us the names of the Magazines 
you want. Address J. II. SHUI/TS, Manistee, Mich. 



'%^<%**/*%>*'*%^+^%* 



►'W'^W 



KINDERGARTEN 

MATERIAL 

Of the Highest Grade at Lowest Prices 

Send for Price List 

American Kindergarten Supply House 

276-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich, 




Celebrating the Birthdays of Great Americans at Little Cost 

This~can be easily done without any interruption of the reg- 
ular work. To illustrate: On Longfellow's birthday place 
his portrait on the blackboard, using a stencil, let the morn- 
ing exercises include a talk concerning him or a reading from 
one of his great works, give the pupils memory gems from 
his writings to learn, give out Longfellow sewing cards, etc. 
Of course this can be enlarged upon as desired, even to an 
evening's entertainment with an admission fee to be used 
for the purchase of kindergarten material or other supplies. 

James Russell LowelMs Birthday 

February 22nd 

READINGS— Vision of Sir Launfal, 6c,; Rhoe 
cus and other poems, fie, : Under the Old Elm 
Tree and Other Poems, with notes and biograph 
ical sketch of author, 15c. All above for 8th year 

POST CARDS. Beautifully embossed with 
portrait of author and poetical selection. A 
superbly beautiful card. Wholesale prices, 
6 for 8c, 12 for 15c, postpaid. 

Portraits. Size, 3x3% ins., per dozen, 6c. 
postage, lc. ; size 5%x8 ins., per dozen, 12c. ; 
postage 2c. ; size 7x9 ins., Sepia tone, each. 
Sc. : postage, lc. ; size about 11x13, each 5c, 
postage lc- A large, beautiful portrait 22x 
28 ins.. 25c ; 5 for $1.00, postpaid. 

STENCILS, Blackboard stencils, portrait, 
5c. home, 5c. 

SEWING CARDS. Beautiful half tone por- 
trait with border design for perforating and 
sewing; per dozen. 10c. : uostage, 2c. 

Longfellow's Birthday, Feb. 27 

MEMORY GEMS.— Longfellow Memory Gems, 
including short poems, pamphlet form, 6c. 

READINGS (5c. each, post'g, lc)— Story of Long- 
fellow — 3rd year; Selections from Longfellow, 
Part 1— 4th year; Same, Part 2— 6th year; Evan- 
geline — 7th year, Also Hiawatha, with notes, 15c 

Portraits. Size, 3x3*3 ins., per dozen, 6c. ; postage, lc. ; size 
5%x8ins., per dozen, 12c. ; postage, 2c ; size 7x9 ins., Sepia tone, 
each, 2c. ; postage lc ; size about 11x13, each 5c, postage lc. A 
large, beautiful portrait 22x28 ins., 25c ; 5 for $1.00, postpaid. 

Stencils. Blackboard stencils, portrait, 5c, home, 5c. 

Sewing Cards. Beautiful half tone portrait with border de- 
sign for perforating and sewing; per dozen, 10c. ; postage 2c 

Our Little Sisters and Hiawatha. Includes the Little 
Brown Baby, the Snow Baby, Gemila, and Hiawatha. Illus- 
trated; 32 pages. Second grade. Price, 6c, ; postage, 2c. 

Hiawatha and its Author. A story of "the children's 
poet," and his beautiful Indian poem told in simple language. 
Illustrated. 32 pages. Second grade. Price, 6c ; postage, 2c. 

Longfellow and the Story oi Hiawatha A slory of the 
life of Longfellow, enriched by illustrations of liis portrait, 
birthplace, home, study, chair and clock. The story of Hia- 
watha is told in simple language and quotations from the 
poem, with three illustrations from life. 32 pages. Third 
grade. Price, 6c ; postage, 2c. 

Also the following with notes and hints on teaching. 2c 
each, 14c per doz., postpaid; "Paul Revere's Ride;" "Hiawa- 
tha's Childhood ;" "The Old Clock on The Stairs ;" " The Day 
Is Done;","TheTwo Angels." "The Emperor's Bird's-Nest ;" 
"The Village Blacksmith;" "The Children's Hour;" "Christ- 
mas Bells and While Shepherds Watched Their Flocks by 

Author's Birthdays. 

No. 1 contains 25 separate programs on Longfel- 
low, Bryant, Hawthorne.Holmes, Burns, Dickens 
and Shakespeare. Price, 25c No. 2 contains 25 separ- 
ate programs on Whittler, Emerson, Lowell, Irving, 
Milton, Tennyson and Scott Price. 2Ko. 






UP-TO-DATE VALENTINES 

Very artistic. Low prices, from lc. up. 

All are refined and suitable for messages 
from teachers to pupils. 

No. 1. Assorted designs, each, lc. Post- 
age, lc. Per dozen, lie. Postage, 4c. 

No. 2. Assorted designs, larger and more 
beautiful, each, 2c. ; postage, lc. ; per doz., 
20c. Postage, 6c, 

No. 3. Each, 3c. ; doz., 30c. ; pstg., lc— 6c. 

We have many others at real bargain prices, from 5cts. up. 
If you will send us the amount you wish to invest, stating 
how many valentines you wish to purchase, we will give you 
good values and you can get your money back or exchange 
the goods if not entirely satisfied. 

Washington's Birthday 

POST CARDS. Beautifully embossed in 
many attractive and artistic colors. As- 
sorted designs. Wholesale prices, 6 for 8c. ; 
12 for 15c, postpaid. Usually sell for 3c. ea. 
READINGS. The Story of Washington. 
A well written account of his life from hi9 
birth to his death, Illustrated, 4th grade, 
32 pages. Each, 6c ; 5 for 25c. Post'g 2c. ea. 
The Story of the Revolution. Contains a 
short storv of Washington, the Story of 
Brindle, and Paul Revere's Ride; al9o Sto- 
ries of '76. Third grade, Price of either, 
each, 6c. ; 5 tor 25c. Postage, 2c each. 
The Storv of the Revolution. Containing also a short 
storv of Washington, the Storv of Brindle, and Paul Reveres 
Ride. Illustrated; 32 pages. Fourth grade. Price, 6c ; post- 
age, 2c. 

Stories of '76. Stories of the stirring davs of the times of 
the Boston Tea Party, Paul Revere, Washington, and the 
first Fourth of July. Illustrated; 40 pages. Third grade. 
Price, 6 c. ; postage, 2c 

WASHINGTON STENCILS. George Washington, Washing- 
ton Monument, Washington 
and Hatchet, Washington re- 
ceiving instructions from his 
mother, Washington as Sur- 
vevor, Washington as Commander-in-Chief, Washington as 
President, Washington's Tomb, all above, 5t -j n ^ u "ender of 
Cornwallis, 10c. ; Hatchet and Cherry Border. 10c ; Family at 
Mt. Vernon, 10c, 

HATCHET AND CHERRIES. An unusually at- 
tractive Washington souvenir. Made ot me- 
tal, 2 ins. long, natural colors, with pin at- 
tached. Try a few. Each, 3c. ; 30c. dozen. 

WASHINGTON HATCHETS. Carved from wood; 
two inches long, appropriately decorated in 
color and silver, and tied with a bow of rib- 
bon. A unique and fitting souvenir. Post- 
paid, 3c. each; per dozen, 30c. 
CHERRY BOQUETS, A boque 
of cherries, branch and leave* 
full size, natural color, perfectly life-like an°- 
full of beauty. A very dainty and appropriate 
souvenir. Each, 4c. Per dozen, 45c. 

PORTRAITS. Size, about 3x3»s ins., 6c. 
per doz. ; postage, lc. Size, 5^x8, per 
dozen, 12c. ; postage, 2c Size, /x9, 
extra fine, each, 2cts. ; postage, lc. 
Size, about 11x13, Sepia tone, each Sets. ; postage, lc. 
Extra large size, 22x28 ins., very fine ; each, 25c ; 5 for $1.00. 

How To Celebrate Washington's Birthday. By Alice M 
Kellogg. The best special book of exercises for this occasion, 
it contains ten attractive exercises, three flag drills , fifty 
patroitic quotations, recitations, declamations and songs. 
The material is for all grades. 25 cents. 





LIINL«LJLINO Din P nUA T MUSLIN FLAGS MOUNTED ON STAFFS, Prices per doz., prepaid 



February 12 

Portraits. Size, 3x3^ ins., per dozen, 6c ; postage, lc. ; size 
5%x8ins., per dozen, 12c. ; postage, 2c. ; size 7x9 ins., Sepia tone, 
each, 2c. ; postage lc. ; size about 11x13, each 5c, postage lc. A 
large, beautiful portrait 22x28 ins., 25c ; 5 for $1.00, postpaid. 
Stencils. Blackboard stencils, portrait, 5c, home, 5c, 
Sewing Cards. Beautiful half tone portrait with border de- 
sign for perforating and sewing; per dozen, 10c ; postage 2c 

Speeches by Lincoln. Contains the "House-Divided' 
Speech, Lincoln's Farewell Address to the Citizens of Sprin g 
field (Illinois), First Inaugural Address, Emancipation 
Proclamation, The Gettysburg Address, Second Inaugural 
Address, and Last Public Address. 32 pages. 6c ; postage lc 

Washington and Lincoln. By Miss George and Mrs. 
AveryCoonley. Wholly original throughout. Mrs. Coonley, 
a writer of much ability, has written in rhyme descriptions 
of their early homes, their mothers, their school days, the 
particular work of each, their particularly good qualities, 
etc. These are excellent for readings and recitations. Then 
Miss George has given plans for observing the birthdays of 
each, in several pages of specially good matter. Songs and 
pictures complete the book. 25 cents. 



No.l. 2Ux3% in $0.04 

3. 4x6 in 07 

5. 6x10 in 20 

6. 8x13 in 32 



12x18 
15x23 
20x28 
23x36 



.48 



.$1.20 
.$1.40 



We do not sell less than one dozen of Nos. 1, 3 and 5, nor 
less than x /z dozen Nos. 6. 7, 7V 2 , and % dozen Nos. 8 and 9~ 

Gummed Stars and Seals , — 

**>■■ 

459 B 100 gilt stars, . .. . . . 

4590 100 silver stars 

459D 100 holly leaves, . .-...' 

459E 100 U. S. Flags, . ■ . 

(These flags are shown in the cut, 
100 Easter seals, . . • . . , . .., .. ' » 

100 Valentine seals, . ' , 

100-Santa Claus seals, . — . . . , „ , 

Best Bunting Flag, length 8 ft., price $2.40, 

Best Bunting Flag, length 10 ft., price 3.50, 

Best Bunting Flag, length 12 ft., price 4.50, 

Best Bunting Flag, length 14 ft., price 6.55, 




rrtce. Postage. 
*0. 10' $0.01 

i •"> ■ -o» 

1 .10 .01 
I .15 .03 

to. 10 $0.01 
.10 .01 
.10 .01 

postage 21c 
postage 30c 
postage 46c 
postage 60c 



Address The J. H. Shults Co., Manistee, Mich. 



IDEAL BLACKBOARD STENCILS 

FOR THE KINDERGARTEN. 

In one minute a kindergartner can place on blackboard, wall or paper a complete outline drawing of any one 

of a hundred seasonable, artistic designs. These outlines filled in with colored chalk, wax crayon or water colors 
make exceedingly attractive pictures, large enough to be clearly seen from any part of a school room. The de- 
signs are all new, full of action and touch both the daily life and the imagination of the child. 
Ten sets of ten stencils each, as follows: Price 50 cents a set, postpaid. 



Set 1. Nursery Rhyme resigns 
Set 2. Fairy Tale Friends 
Set 3. Child Games 



Set 4. Child Occupations 
Set 5. Child Activities 
Set 6. Life Interests 



Set 7. Child Holidays 
Set 8. Animals We Know 
Set 9. People Who Help Us 
Set 10. Flowers We Love 
Kindergarten Border Stencils 



fen Child Life Calendar Stencils (one foi each school month) and two 
postpaid for 50 cents. These are specially good. 
Full catalogue of school room stencils sent on request. Also 1912 Catalogue of Busy Work, Construction 
Material and School Specialties for Primary Grades. 



6 I 55 Wentworth Ave- 



IDEAL SCHOOL PUBLISHING CO. 



Chicago. 111. 



A Vital Book for Every Parent 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE TRUE RELA- 
TIONSHIP OF PARENT TO CHILD 

A father or mother yourself you wrestle with the hundred 
and one different problems which arise every day in your 
desire to bring your boy up to be a true man or your little 

girl a noble woman. 

Are you certain of each move you make in directing the 

conduct of your child? 

Our Children 

By Dr. PAUL DARUS 

offers a unique contribution to pedagogical literature. The little book deals 
with the rights of the child, the responsibilities of parenthood and with the first 
inculcation of fundamental ethics in the child mind and the true principles of 
correction and guidance. Each detail is forcefully illustrated by informal in- 
cidents from the author's experience with his own children, and his suggestions 
will prove of great value to young parents and kindergartners. 

If you cannot get this book at your bookstore, order it direct from us. Price 
$1.00. Send us the name of your bookdealer and we will see that he is supplied 
with our publications. 
We publish a very interesting catalogue of some very interesting books. Write today. 

THE OPEN COURT PUB. CO., Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 




Headquarters for Temperance Supplies 

Books 

Song Books 

Leaflets on Scientific Temperance Teaching 

Story Leaflets 

The Young Crusader— Temperance paper for boys and girls; profusely illustrated; and aside 
from stories it contains splendid ideas for entertainments and selections for rec.tation — help- 
ful alike to teacher and pupil. Published monthly, 25 cents per year. 

Toots— An illustrated book of stories by Anna A. Gordon. Price 60 cents postpaid. Send for 
latest bulletin. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION 



Literature Building 



Evanston, Illinois 



3RAf 




FEBRUARY, 1912 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 



Editorial Notes, 

Homely Plays in the Kitchen 

The Froebel Pilgrimage, 

The Kindergarten Movement in Des Moines, 

Abstract of Lecture on Third and Fourth 
Gifts, .... 

Growth of the Kindergarten in the South, 

Kindergarten Daily Program, 

Reed and Raffia Construction Work in Pri- 
mary Schools, ... 

Stories of the Month as a Basis for Gift and 
Occupation Plays, - 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 
James Russell Lowell, 
George Washington - - 

Heroism, - - 

To be like Washington, 

Stories, Memory Gems, etc., 

St. Valentine and the Fairy, 

Helpful Hints and Suggestions, 

Ethical Culture, - 

Kindergarten Growth, 

Book Notes, - 

Current Events, - 



- 145 

Jenny B. Merrill, 146 

Lucy Wheelock, 147 

Minnie Waite Rozelle, 150 



Helen Laskey, 
Myra Winchester, 
Nora Keogh, 



Grace Don- 



Grace Dow 



152 
153 
155 

159 

162 
162 
163 
164 
164 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
170 
171 
172 



Volume XXIV, No. 6. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 



Books for Kindergartners 

Kindergarten in the Home 

By V. M. Hillyer, Headmaster Calvert 
School, Baltimore, Md. Based on exper 
ience; admirably concise. This will make an 
invaluable aid to Kindergartners and mo 
thers. Fully illustrated with diagrams and 
line drawings. 8vo. $1.25 net. 

Tales Come True 

By Margaret Coulson Walker, author of 
Lady Hollyhock and her Friends, Bird Le- 
gend, etc. A book designed as an aid to 
mothers and kindergartners . A delight also 
to the child itself. Fully illustrated in col- 
or and black and white. Square, 8vo. $1.25 
net. 

Lady Hollyhock and Her 
Friends 

By Margaret Coulson Walker. An estab- 
lished favorite; on many library lists and 
in many school libraries. Lavishly illustra- 
color and black and white. Square; Svo., 
$1.25 net. 

Portrait catalogue, containing 33 
portraits of authors, will be sent free 
on request. 

THE BAKER & 1AYL0R CO. 



33 East 17th St. 



New York 




THE TEACHERS HELPERS 



The Teachers* Helpers are without question the finest 
PLAN BOOKS for teachers published. They are 
edited by some of the ablest and most practical teach- 
ers in the country. They give jrograms, methods, 
songs, drawing, and devices for each month In the 
year, and are beautifully and profusely illustrated. 
Four books In the series; named Autumn, Winter, 
Spring, and Summer respectively. The Summer 
number covers work for the whole year and Is larger 
than the others. Cover designs done in beautiful 
three-color work. Money refunded to any purchaser 
who Is not more than satisfied. • 
PRICES: Bach Nutnber(except Summer) $ .35 
Summer No. [larger than others] .50 
Send today for c«py or ask for further Informa- 
tion. Address _ 

Teachers' Helper, 

Department n. Minneapolis, Minn. 

Vi 



Some Great Subscription Offers! 

In Combination with the 

Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 



"A Study of Child Nature," S3ESSS 

And the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine one year, both fcr 
while our stock lasts. We have but a few copies on hand. 



$1.10 

"I Its and I vnc«? " by Alice c - D - Rile y and <QM ci\ 

LUIS rfllU l^yrit&, Jessie L.Gaynor$1.00, and Jhl-Sli 
The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine one year for *K" •*■' *•' 

$1.15 



ary Magazine one year 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Needlecraft, regular price $1.25, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

McCall's Magazine, regular price $1.50, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Housekeeper, regular price $1.70, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
Home Needlework, regular price J1.75, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Health Culture, regular price $2.00, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Primary Education and School Arts Book, regular price 
$3-75, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

kindergarten Review, regular price $2.00, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Women's Home Companion, regular price $2.50, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Pictorial Review, Modern Priscilla and Ladies' World, re- 
gular price $3,25, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

American Primary Teacher and School Century, regular 
price $3. 25, our price 

Many other combinations. Give us the names of the Magazine* 
you want. Address J. H. SHUI/TS, Manistee, Mich. 



1.35 
1.70 
1.5ft 
IM 

2.65 
1.70 
190 

2.15 

2.60 



KINDERGARTEN 

MATERIAL 

Of the Highest Grade at Lowest Prices 

Send for Price List 

American Kindergarten Supply House 

276-278-280 River Street. Manistee, Mich, 



KINDERGARTEN SUPPLIES 

Bradley's School Paints, Raphia, Reed, and all Construction 

Material 

WE ARE HEADQUARERS FOR ALL THE ABOVE. Send for atalogue. 

THOS. CHARLES CO. 125 Wabash Avenne., Chicago, 111. 




THE 



SOBMSB 



PIANO 



THE 

WORLD 

RENOWNED 




The many points 
of superiority 
were never better 
emphasized than 
in the SOHMER 
PIANO of today. 



It is built to sat- 
isfy the most cul- 
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The advantage 
of such a piano 
appeals at once 
to the discrimi- 
n a t i n g intelli- 
gence of the 
leading artists. 



SO HMER £y CO. 



NB WAREROOM 



315 Fifth AVE, Corner 32nd St, NEW YORK CITY 



JZuyScmool5upplies 
At Wholesale Prices 

AH D SAVE rUDDLLflLfiS PROFIT. 



Report Cards.— 1, 4 or 10 months, 

per 100, 25c, postage 5c 

U. S, Wool Bunting Flags 

6x3 Ft $175 Postage 14c 

8x4 Ft 2.45 Postage 20c 

Class Recitation Records 

Each 15 cents. Postage 3 cents 

Set Primary Reading Charts 

Complete $4.75 

Set Primary Arithmetic Charts 

Complete $4.75 

Japanned Handle Scissors 

Per Dozen 45 cents 

Alphabet Cards. Per Box 12 cents 



CtXJAm-FftEE-ON-REQUEST 

CATALOG DISGRI BLS 8c SHOWS WHOLES ALF. 

PftlCES ON ABSOLUTELY EVE.RYTMIMC 

FOR SCHOOLS 

233 - 235 MARKET STfrEET,CHIGAGO^ 



LITTLE PEOPLE 
EVERYWHERE 

A new series of Geographical Readers 
based on Child Life. 

Kathleen in Ireland (Fourth year) 
Manuel in Mexico (Fifth year) 
Ume San in Japan (Sixth year) 
Rafael in Italy (Seventh year) 

Picture cover; colored frontspieces. 

Illustrations from photographs 

Each Volume, 6oc; 

LITTLE BROWN & CO. 



BOSTON 

34 Beacon Street 



CHICAdO 

379 Wabash Ave. 



SOME GOOD BOOKS FOR TEACHERS 



Readings and Recitations 20 cts. 

Riffle Creek Papers and Little 

Sermons for Teachers 65 cts. 

Patrick's Pedagogics 65 cts. 

Patrick's Pedagogical Pebbles 25 cts. 
Grains of Wheat without the 

Chaff 20 cts. 

Mathematical Geography 10 cts. 

A Summer of Saturdays 65 cts. 

Problems without Figures 10 cts. 

On orders amounting to §1.50 to 

one address, a reduction of ten 
per cent. 

S. Y. GILLAN &, CO. 



MILWAUKEE. - 



WISCONSIN 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



PTTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY 

KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 



ALICE N. PARKER, Superintendent. 

Regular course, two years. Special ad- 
vantages for Post-Graduate work. Twen- 
tieth year begins September 27, 1911. For 
catalogue address. 

MRS. WILLIAM McORAOKEN, Secretary, 
3439 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

82 St. Stephen Street, Boston. 
Normal Course, two years. 

For circulars address 

Miss Lucy Harris Symonds 




Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

HORTBNSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

the Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 326 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia, 

Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

Two Years' Course. Terms, $100 per year. 

Apply to 

HATTIE TW1CHELL, 

SPRINGFIELD— LONfiMEADOW, MASS. 
Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 

For information address 

MISS CAROLINE T. HAVEN, Principal, 

Central Park West and 63d St. 

NEW YORK. 

Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 

Two Years' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
639 Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, GA. 



BOWLDEN BELLS 

FOR SCHOOLS 

From $8.00 to $25.00 

FOR CHURCHES 

From $25.00 to $125.00 

Write for free 

catalogue. 

AMERICAN BELL & 

FOUNDRY CO. 

Morthville, Mich. 




CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

1200 Michigan Boulevard, 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



Fall Term opened September 12th, 1911 

One year Primary Course, 
Two year regular Kindergarten Course, 

Mrs. J. N. Crouse, Elizabeth Harrison, 

Principals 



Summer School 

New York University, University Heights 

New York City. 

July! to Aug. 9,1912. 

Dr. James E. Lough, Director. 

KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENT 

Courses given for kindergarten train- 
ing school and university credit. 
For information, address, 

Miss H. n. Mills, Principal of Department, 

New York University, Washington Square, 

New York City. 



Stick Laying in 

Primary and 

Rural Schools. 

Price 25c. 



The Tenth Gift 

With this book and a box of sticks any 
teacher can interest the little children. 

The work is fully illustrated. 
Also Ring Laying in Primary Schools, 
15c. Peas and Cork Work in Primary 
Schools, 15c. 
All limp cloth binding. Address, 

J. H. Shults, Manistee, Mich. 



CARNEGIE COLLEGE 

Home Study-Free Tuition 

Carnegie College gives Free Tuition 
by mail to one representative in each 
county and city. Normal, Teacher's 
Professional. Grammar School, High 
School, College Preparatory, Civil Ser- 
vice, Bookkeeping, Shorthand, Type- 
writing, Greek, Latin, German. Spanish, 
Italian, Drawing and Agricultural 
Courses are taught by correspondence. 
Applicants for Free Tuition should 
apply at once to Dept. C. 

CARNEGIE COLLEGE 

ROGERS. OHIO 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

OF 

The Buffalo Kindergarten Association 

Two Years' Coarse. 
Vor particulars address 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER, 
Kfi Delaware Avenue. - Buffalo. N. Y 



GRAND RAPIDS KINDER GAR= 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Winter Term opens September 27th. 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 
MAY L. OGILBY. Registrar 

Jhepard Building, - 23 Fountain St. 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



CLEVELAND KINDERGARTEN 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with the 

CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

2050 East 96th Street 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Founded in 1894) 
Course of study under direction of Eliza- 
beth Harrison, covers two years in Cleve- 
land, leading to senior and normal courses 
in the Chicago Kindergarten College. 

MISS NETTA FARIS, Principal. 
MRS. W. R. WARNER, Manager. 



CHILD LORE 

MAGAZINE 

"It Fills the Need." 

Every mother of a boy or girl feels 
the need of supplying reading of the 
right kind, — reading that interests, 
educates, helps. CHILD LORE solves 
the problem. It is simple enough 
for the child, interesting enough for 
anybody, and strong in its appeal to 
everybody. 

Subscription Price, $1.00 a year. 
Sample copy for a stamp. 



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RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergarten 

Institute 



Class Rooms and 
Students' Residence 



GERTRUDE BOUSE, 

54 Scott St., Chicago. 



Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Course (two years), 

and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificates for 

Home-making Course, non-professional (one year). 

Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 

Chicago. 

Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 

Directors: Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 

Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 

For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, 54 Scott St. 



THE. 



Teachers' College 

OF INDIANAPOLIS 

Accredited by State Board of Educa- 
tion. Professional Training for all grades 
of teaching. Two, Three and Four Year 
Courses. 
This College specializes in Kinder- 
garten, Primary and Intermediate 
Grade Teaching. 
Special classes in Public School Draw- 
ing and Music, Domestic Science and 
Art. and Manual Work. 

Send for catalogue. 

MRS. ELIZA A. BLAKER, President 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 
Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 
INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



Miss Hart's 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

For Kindergartners 
3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 

Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Five practice Kin- 
dergartens. 

For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 
The Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 

OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 

FROEBEL, KINDERGARTEN TRAIN- 
ING SCHOOL. 

Medical supervision. Personal attention. 
Thirty-five practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MART E. LAW, M. D., Principal. 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Years' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
16 Washington St., East Orange. N. J 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

509 S. Wabash Ave., Opposite Auditorium 

Mrs Bertha Holer Hegner, Superintendent 
Mrs. Amelia Hofer Jerome, Principal. • 
FIFTEENTH YEAR. 
Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A course 
in Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar with the Social Settle- 
ment movement at Chicago Commons. Fine 
equipment. For circulars and iniormation 
write to 
MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 

West Chicago, 111. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number of 
students. 
Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 
H. N. Higinbotham, Pies. 
Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 
SARAH E. HANSON, Principal. 
Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago Universities. 
For particulars address Eva B. Whit- 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 
ave.. Chicago. 



The Adams School 

Kindergarten Training Course 

(Two Years) 

Nine months' practice teaching dur- 
ing course. Address, 

The Misses Adams 

26 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, Va. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training in Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. Post- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN. Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1616 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years, 

Hummer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co., Maryland. 



THE HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 

For information address 

MISS HARRIETTE M. MILLS, Principal 

New York University Building 

Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Courses given for credit at 

New York University Summer School 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

2119 Allston Way, Berkeley, Calif. 

Grace Everett Barnard, 

principal. 



Pour Good Things 

■ . The Pennsylvania School Journal. 

Sixtieth Volume. Monthly, $1.50, 600 
double column pages. 

2. Songs of the million. "Flag of the 
Free" Song Books, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. Favor- 
ite Songs in Each Book. 25 cents per 
copy; Send for Contents. 

3. "Lincoln Art Series," ThirtyChoice 
Pictures, size 22x28 and 24x30. 50 cents ; 
Four for $1.00. Send for Illustrated 
Circular. 

4. "Good rtemory Work." 20 cents. 
The influence of Good Songs and 
Hymns, Good Pictures and Good Mem- 
ory Work in the School Room and in the 
Home is felt, in blessing, through all 
our lives as men and women. 

Address J. P. McCASKEY, 

LANCASTER. PA. 




KINDERGARTEN 

SUPPLIES 

And all kinds of Construction 

Material for Kindergartners and 

Primary Teachers. Catalogue 

Free. Address, 

Garden City Educational Co. 

no So. Wabash Ave., CHICAGO 



EDUCATIONAL SPECIALTIES. *£*£ 

Game, 15c ; History Game, 15c j 2750 Les- 
son Plans, 50c ; Educational Puzzle, 10c ; 
Year's Subscription to N. J. School 
News, 40c. W. C. MOORE, PUB., New 
Egypt, N.J. 



15l)e 3iin6er3arten fivimavy Mtaga^irKt 



VOL. XXIV— FEBRUARY, 1911— NO. 6. 



The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 



Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

E. Uyell Earle, Ph. D., Editor, 

Business Office, 27G-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 

J. H. SHUI/TS, Business Manager. 

MANISTEE, MICHIGAN. 

AH communications pertaining to subscriptions and adver- 
tising or other business relating to the Magazine should be 
addressed to the Michigan office, J. H. Shults, Business Man- 
ager, Manistee, Michigan. All other communications to E. 
Lyell Earle, Managing Editor. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is published on the 
first of each month, except July and August, from 278 River 
Street, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable in advance. 
Single copies, 15c. 

Postage is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in 
the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, 
Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, 
Cuba and Mexico. For Canada add 20c and for all other 
countries in the Postal Union add 30c for postage. 

Notice of Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a con- 
tinuance of the subscription is desired until notice of dis- 
continuance is received. When sending notice of change of 
address, both the old and new addresses must be given. 

Make all remittances to Manistee, Michigan. 



EDITORIAL NOTES 

Department of Superintendence, N. E. A., 
St. Louis, February 27-29, 1912. 



The nature study that really measures up has 
to do with the things of nature much more than 
with books about nature. 



To place an irreverant, frivilous woman in 
charge of a room full of little children at their 
most impressionable age is crime. 



The nurture instinct and the ability to really 
"live with the children" are important factors in 
the make up of every good kindergartner. 

Kindergarten culture is the best possible 
foundation lor vocational training. Its value lies 
quite as much in the ideals instilled as in the 
hand work developed. The worker without an 
ideal is hardly worthy the name. 



Not by precept chiefly but by example must 
the kindergartner lead the children to c/ioose 
the right. What the kindergartner really is has 
more to do with the moral culture of the child- 
ren than anything she can say or command. 



of the great prairie land, with its central locality, 
excellent transportation facilities and ample 
hotel accommodations, affords an ideal place for 
the annual meeting of the International Kinder- 
garten Union. 



The small cities, villages and rural districts 
present a great opportunity for kindergarten 
growth. They contain over 65 per cent, of the 
children of America and the field is as yet but 
little cultivated. Of course kindergartens are 
not practical in all country districts throughout 
the year, but there is enough that can be done 
to warrant a vigorous undertaking with better 
prospects for growth than in any other direction. 



The following educational societies will meet 
at St. Louis, February 27-29, 1912, during the 
annual session of the Department of Superintend- 
ence: National Council of Education, N. E. A. 
Department of Normal Schools, N. E. A. Na- 
tional Society for the Study of Education. So- 
ciety of College Teachers of Education. Nation- 
al Committee on Agricultural Education. Edu- 
cational Press Association of America. 



The Educational Press Association, of 
which the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is a 
member, will hold its annual meeting at St. Louis 
at the time of the annual session of the Depart- 
ment of Superintendence, N. E. A., February, 
27-29, 1912. The exercises will include a din- 
ner, round table discussion of subjects relating 
to the interests of the Association, business meet- 
ing (for members only), reports, miscellaneous 
business, election of officers, etc. 



The beautiful city of Des Moines, in the heart 



Secretary Irwin Shepard, of the N. E. A., 
has been considerably embarrassed relative to 
special rates for the annual session of the Depart- 
ment of Superintendence at St. Louis, February, 
27-29, 1912, in consequence of the withdrawal by 
certain transportation lines of special rates after 
his advertising had gone out. It is not under- 
stood that the withdrawal applies to other than 
the Central Passenger Association but intending 
visitors should consult their local ticket agents 
in advance asking them to obtain necessary infor- 
mation in ample time, or write Mr. Shepard, 



146 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



HOMELY PLAYS IN THE KITCHEN. 

(For Mothers or Mothers' Meetings.) 

By Jenny B. Meeeill, Pd. D. 

One rainy day last summer when the house 
was not quite big enough for a strong, active, 
joyous little boy of twenty-two months, I 
planned to amuse him, after other plays had 
lost their charm, with a modification of the 
kindergarten clock games. 

Froebel presents "Tick-tock" in his Mother 
Plays as an exercise to develop the arms by 
swinging them in imitation of a pendulum. 
The child may also swing one leg and then the 
other, even one finger, or mother may catch 
him up and swing his whole body to and fro 
much to baby's delight. 

Froebel thought that such playful rhythmic 
exercises would gradually develop the time 
sense, and possibly aid in orderly living as well 
as prove good exercise. The young child loves 
at first to feel these motions in his own body. 
Later the motion is repeated with swaying 
balls. 

Upon this particular rainy day when we 
were playing in the kitchen, I was housemaid 
as well as baby-tender. As no ball was at 
hand, I thought of an apple, for the kitchen 
can usually furnish an apple and a string from 
its many packages. I suspended the apple 
from the gas fixture just in reach of baby's up- 
lifted arm. He had to stretch well to touch 
the apple even with his finger tips but that 
meant a wholesome movement and more fun. 

Baby laughed and jumped, sometimes miss- 
ing, sometimes hitting the apple as it swung 
to and fro. It went higher and higher as he 
used more force. We sang: 

Tick tock, 
Goes the clock; 
Tick, tick, tock. 

Baby had listened many times to the kitchen 
clock but we listened again to refresh mem- 
ory, and then returned to the swinging apple to 
sing over our "Tick, tock, goes the clock." 

Mother wit must again work for the rain 
continues. A rainy day is long and trying to a 
child who should be running in the open air. 
Why not swing two apples and so give a fresh 
impetus to the fun ? A shorter cord is tied upon 
the second apple and the merry chase begins. 

The movements doubled made a contrast to 
the former more regular beat of "tick, tock." 
Another jolly time followed as one apple tried 
to catch the other apple. Suddenly down 



came one apple. Baby's surprise at the new 
experience proved a good resting point while 
auntie found another apple with a stem. 

The cheerful tones of conversation help to 
keep up baby's spirit. It is as it were a "play" 
with words, and at the same time a lesson in 
language. Each day enlarges the child's vo- 
cabulary. Our baby caught 'tick tock" and 
played with the words on his lips evidently 
enjoying them as well as the swinging apple. 
He is not forward in speech but is picking up 
a few striking words. "Ice" is one such word 
learned in his kitchen plays. Every day he is 
allowed to touch the block of ice before it is 
placed in the refrigerator and to play with a 
few small pieces. It has proved one of his 
happiest experiences, and "ice" has come to be 
a favorite word. He applies it very intelligent- 
ly to any cold spot which he happens' to touch 
with hand or foot. 

Froebel in "Education of Man" writes on 
baby language advising many simple rhymes 
to accompany baby plays. So we improvise, 
"Ice, ice, ice. How very, very nice." 

Our baby loves Mother Goose rhymes, too, 
and they are classics. They can hardly be in- 
troduced too early — and have they not some 
affinity with the kitchen? There are "the dish 
and the spoon," "the baker's man," "the pie." 

"Necessity is the mother of invention." The 
busy housewife must not desert her kitchen 
tasks, and yet children must be amused. In 
reality a kitchen makes quite an ideal play- 
room. A child of two or three years will 
amuse himself for hours with paper bags or the 
clothes-pins or a few pieces of kindling wood. 

It is interesting to note what a slight novelty 
will hold a little child's attention at this age. 
All the world is new. So many fail to realize 
this and seek unnecessary toys and exciting 
experiences that do harm. Give a child a few 
apples one day, a few potatoes or onions an- 
other day to put into the paper bags and he 
is content. Some mother may object to the 
use of good food in this way. Then baby's 
blocks or the clothes-pins may be put in and 
out. However, a city child is deprived of 
handling natural objects, hence I use natural 
forms for playthings whenever possible. A 
few fruits may be sacrificed for mental food 
without extravagance. 

Our little boy is at the age when he is con- 
tinually practising "in and out." "In and out" 
of paper boxes of different sizes, in and out of 
a wooden box, in and out of a tin box, in and 
out of a basket, of a stone jar, of a milk bottle, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



[ 47 



every variety of receptacle that a kitchen af- 
fords, comes into play but one only at a time. 

Baby is learning as well as playing. Every 
change of material gives him a new sensation 
of touch or possibly a new sensation of sound. 
Paper, wood, tin, stone, glass are to baby what 
some newly discovered element in a chemist's 
laboratory might be to you and to me. He 
loves to hear the rattle, to feel the smooth sur- 
faces, to grasp and let go, to see the smallei 
objects he puts in a receptacle disappear and 
reappear. 

While he is playing as we call it, we are priv- 
ileged to study his little mind. It fascinates 
us. Some things will hold his attention longer 
than we expect, some not so long. Follow 
cautiously his lead is the best rule. What 
pleases him one day may be discarded next 
day, for baby is learning the "A, B, C" of 
materials and when his mind has taken in one 
lesson, he asks for a harder one. A day in his 
development advances him possibly more than 
a week or a month later on. This is why he 
may be no longer charmed with something 
that pleased him so much yesterday. Some- 
times he will renew his interest in an object 
after an interval of a few days. 

Children differ in their capacity to find pos- 
sibilities of play in common things. Some 
must be helped more than others. 

The necessary activity of the kitchen makes 
it the best play-room in the house. Happy is 
the baby who plays while mother works in 
the kitchen. He is in the right atmosphere, 
the busy atmosphere of work. Gradually he 
may learn to help in baby ways. 

Note. — Mothers and kindergartners are referred to 
two excellent books which indicate the use of kitchen 
materials for older children, viz. : Home Occupations 
by Bertha Johnston, and The Little Folks' Handy 
Book," Beard. 

It is suggested that kindergartners read and discuss 
this paper at a Mothers' meeting, or possibly lend the 
magazine to a few mothers if no meeting is held. 
(To be continued.) 

Loyalty is the quality that prompts a person 
to be true to the thing he undertakes. It 
means definite direction, fixity of purpose and 
steadfastness. Loyalty supplies power, poise, 
purpose, ballast, and works for health and suc- 
cess. Nature helps the loyal man. If you are 
careless, slipshod, or indifferent, nature as- 
sumes you wish to be a "nobody" and grants 
your desire. Success hinges on loyalty. Be 
true to your art, your business, your employer. 
Loyalty is for one who is loyal. It is a quality 
woven through the very fabric of one's being, 
and never a thing apart. — Mahin's, 



THE FROEBEL PILGRIMAGE. 

By LucyWheelock, Boston. 

"I like the name of your party," said a 
Scotchman in Edinburgh to one of the Pil- 
grims, "but it sounds very un-American." 

"And why?" asked the Pilgrim. 

"Because a pilgrimage suggests an ideal, 
and we do not associate ideals with America; 
we think of you as a commercial people," was 
the answer. 

"Possibly the seventy Pilgrims are a saving 
remnant who will help to redeem the reputa- 
tion of America through their pursuit of an 
ideal," said the Pilgrim. 

To promote an educational ideal, to honor 
the name of the man who gave this ideal to 
the world, and to strengthen the ties which 
bind together those pursuing the same purpose 
was the goal of the Froebel Pilgrimage of 
1911. Forty Pilgrims sailed from Boston June 
17 on the Devonian as the advance guard of 
the Pilgrimage, visiting Edinburgh and the 
cathedral towns of northern England, en route 
to London, where they were joined by the later 
detachment sailing July 1, augmenting the 
number to seventy. This number was further 
increased during the tour in Thuringia to 
ninety. Never were there more ideal condi- 
tions for any trip than those which prevailed 
during the entire Pilgrimage. Providence 
favored with fair weather during the entire 
summer, such as has never been known before 
in Europe. The conduct of the Bureau of the 
University of Travel furnished all that could 
be desired for comfort and for the promotion 
of the aims of the Pilgrimage. Dr. H. F. Wil- 
lard proved to be an ideal leader, not only as 
an interpreter of art and guide in our visits to 
museums and galleries and for general sight- 
seeing, but also for his sympathetic interest in 
kindergarten matters. The first relations with 
school interests were established in the pic- 
turesque city of Edinburgh, where the Pilgrims 
were most hospitably welcomed at an evening 
reception given by two members of the school 
board, Mrs. Gulland and Mrs. Leslie McKen- 
zie. With members of the school board and 
other Scotch people interested in philanthropy 
and education, a delightful evening was spent 
listening to Scotch ballads and other music. 

The next center of educational interest was 
the great city of London, where a mass meet- 
ing was held in Birkbeck College, under the 
auspices of the London County Council. One 
thousand English elementary teachers crowded 
the room to the top gallery, and such enthus- 



i 4 8 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



iasm at an educational meeting has never been 
known in this country. James L. Hughes of 
Toronto, Miss Mary C. McCulloch of St. Louis 
Miss Lucy Wheelock of Boston, Miss Clara E. 
Grant and Miss A. K. Williams of London 
were the speakers on the general topic, "Kin- 
dergarten Ideals." A spirited discussion fol- 
lowed, and at the end resolutions of apprecia- 
tion for those who had contributed to the even- 
ing were offered by a lady-in-waiting to the 
queen. Most excellent and elaborate arrange- 
ments had been made by the London County 
Council for visits to infant schools, which were 
visited in groups of eight members. The 
schools selected gave a wide range of observa- 
tion of the conditions of the people and of the 
children in Various sections of London, and 
also of the methods employed in the school- 
rooms. In every instance a most hospitable 
welcome was given to the Pilgrims, and in 
many places refreshments were offered during 
the morning with true English hospitality. An- 
other delightful occasion here was the recep- 
tion given at the Froebel Institute in Kensing- 
ton by the London Froebel Society. Dr. Keat- 
ly-Moore, well-known as a former mayor of 
Croyden, and known to kindergartners as one 
of the translaters of Froebel's autobiography, 
was chairman of the evening. Five-minute 
speeches were made by several of the Ameri- 
can kindergartners, and the program was fin- 
ished by a delightful story told by our beloved 
fairy godmother, Miss Mary L. Shedlock. A 
social hour, with refreshments, followed, dur- 
ing which all had an opportunity to meet some 
of the heads of the elementary schools in Lon- 
don and members of the Froebel Society. After 
a week in London, the Pilgrims took ship 
across the channel, and then made their way 
to the capital of France, where a warm wel- 
come awaited them, given by Madame Charles 
Bertinot, the president of the Union Familiale. 
On a lovely July day the Pilgrims coached 
through the green shades of the Bois de Bou- 
logne to the villa of Monsieur and Madame 
Bertinot at St. Cloud, where a delightful lunch- 
eon, with all the glory of French cookery, and 
the grace of a charming French home, was 
served to seventy joyous Pilgrims. The grand- 
children of Madame Bertinot, with flags and 
drums, were grouped upon the steps as the 
visitors arrived, and a little boy greeted them 
with a welcome spoken in excellent English. 
The villa was set in a lovely garden, rich in 
lilies, the favorite flower of Froebel, and, as 
we finished the luncheon with coffee in the 
arbor, we felt anew the significance of Froe- 



bel's choice of the name, garden, which sug- 
gests growth and beauty and the true joy of 
life. Many of the people interested in educa- 
tion assembled on a memorable Sunday after- 
noon spent at the Union Familiale, built in a 
quarter of Paris inhabited by the working peo- 
ple, and near the famous cemetery of Pere la 
Chaise. Here was offered the rare privilege of 
seeing the wonderful work of Mile. Gahery, 
the remarkable French woman who devotes 
her life and her fortune to the work of the 
social uplift of the people. Mile. Gahery lives 
in the settlement and has organized many in- 
teresting lines of educational work, including 
a kindergarten for the children, classes in do- 
mestic science, classes for child study, and a 
committee for the Trousseau Classes and the 
Mothers' Union. It was a bit of good fortune 
that Mile. Gahery decided to join the Pilgrim- 
age during the German tour, so giving oppor- 
tunity to know more intimately of her work 
and of her ideals. 

From Paris the Pilgrims passed swiftly 
through Switzerland to the city of Munich, 
where many plans had been made for the en- 
tertainment of the party under the direction of 
Fraulein Boeck, the supervisor of the Munich 
kindergartens. These plans included a delight- 
ful evening concert and exhibition of kinder- 
garten work. 

The next stage of this modern Pilgrim's 
Progress was in Thuringia, the scene of Froe- 
bel's life and labors. A more interesting and 
picturesque country cannot be found anywhere, 
and never was a more unique and ideal experi- 
ence offered to travelers. Eisenach, the city 
filled with traditions of Martin Luther and of 
Saint Elizabeth, was our point of entry. The 
great day of the feast, however, was Sunday, 
August 6, when all took an early train to 
Schweina-Siebenstein to visit the little town 
and cemetery in which Froebel sleeps his last 
sleep. Never were skies more blue and an hour 
more fair than that when we stood, delegates 
from all parts of America, from Scotland, Eng- 
land, Denmark, Russia, France, and many sec- 
tions of Germany, around the grave of Froebel. 
Laurel wreaths from different organizations 
all over the world were laid upon the grave 
with appropriate words of appreciation. Sev- 
enteen old people of Schweina, who remem- 
bered the games they played with the great 
Froebel in their childhood, brought a beautiful 
wreath of flowers and laid it upon his grave 
as a tribute to the friend of their childhood. 
School children of Schweina sang a hymn, and 
the little kindergarten children marched around 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



149 



the grave with reverent steps, and left each a 
bunch of flowers upon the grave. Froebel has 
somewhere said that if in a hundred years his 
cause should prosper, he would rejoice in 
heaven. Perhaps his spirit rejoiced on that day 
when this recognition of his great educational 
ideal was given by those who had come from 
many lands and climes to pay their tribute to 
the great leader. The last evening in Eisenach 
was spent at the Wartburg, where the illumin- 
ation of this famous castle made one feel like 
a visitor in fairyland. 

And can any Pilgrim ever forget the cordial 
reception given us at the school in Keilhau by 
its present head, Herr Dr. Wacher, and his 
friendly wife on a sunny August morning after 
a delightful drive through picturesque scenery? 
Shall we ever forget the taste of the potato 
salad, made famous in Keilhau by many 
generations of boys and training stu- 
dents who have sampled its excellence, 
or the charming setting of the little 
group of school buildings circled by the 
friendly and smiling hills, giving of their 
strength and health to the boys so favored by 
fortune as to gain their education amid such 
pleasant surroundings, and under the guidance 
of so many enlightened teachers, and in such a 
true home? Let us not forget either the all- 
day drive through the superb Schwarzwald, ac- 
companied by the singing Schwarza river to 
Oberweissbach, the birthplace of Froebel. At 
the end of the long and narrow street of this 
little town we find the house and room in 
which the child was cradled who was from 
these narrow surroundings to send forth a 
message to be heard around the world. One 
could only ask "Can any great thing come out 
of Nazareth?" as one saw the narrow, cramped 
conditions of the people of this little village. 

Dresden was full of interest for the kinder- 
gartners, with a visit to the Institute founded 
by the Baroness Marenholz von Biilow, and 
still carried on in her name. Another day was 
spent visiting one of the typical institutions of 
Dresden, the Volksheim. Here, in a great for- 
est of many acres, we saw hundreds of little 
children of Dresden who are carried out every 
day to play in the green wood and to gain 
health and strength and joy. A membership 
of 5,000 parents who pay a small sum every 
year makes this work possible and permanent, 
as the forest is a gift to the city by a public- 
spirited citizen of Dresden. 

The days in Berlin were red-letter days, be- 
ginning with a charming reception at the 
Lyceum Club, where we were privileged to 



meet some of the leading club women of this 
German city, and to enjoy the delights of tea 
in a German garden. One of the most notable 
institutions in Berlin is the Pestalozzi-Froebel 
House, which provides for children, from the 
babies in the nursery, cared for under modern 
hygienic conditions, to the young women train- 
ing in domestic science and in kindergarten 
work. During the day hundreds of little chil- 
dren come to the several kindergartens, and 
after school hours older children come to the 
kinder-horte, where manual training is given, 
and also an opportunity for study of school les- 
sons in quiet rooms under direction of teachers. 
After the supper an hour for play in the garden 
is allowed, and then the older ones take the 
little ones home, thus keeping together the 
members of the family. The doors of this hos- 
pitable institution were wide open for the Pil- 
grims, and two very profitable days were spent 
there inspecting the complete and interesting 
exhibit of the hand work of children and train- 
ing students and in visiting the various kinder- 
gartens and other departments. The social 
afternoon spent with Frau Dr. Clara Richter, 
her colleagues, and members of the committee 
over the tea cups and in the garden listening 
to the strains of the orchestra, strengthened 
the bond of friendship and made the Pilgrims 
feel at one with these German women who 
are working towards the same end. 

Frankfurt also opened her hospitable doors 
to the Pilgrims, including the historic Kaiser- 
Saal in Romerberg, one of the most pictur- 
esque of the mediaeval squares in Europe. The 
Pilgrims' feet here trod upon velvet carpets 
spread for the occasion and walked between 
rows of palms and potted plants, arranged in 
their honor, and were greeted in the splendid 
hall by the second Burgomeister with words 
of warm welcome from the city of Frankfurt. 
The city's treasures of silver and gold were 
spread upon tables to gladden our eyes, and 
an English-speaking teacher gave us a run- 
ning sketch of the history of Germany as illus- 
trated by the pictures of Emperors upon the 
walls. The ladies of the Frankfurt committee, 
under the leadership of Frau Marta Back, the 
president of the Deutscher Froebel Verband, 
entertained the Pilgrims royally at a banquet 
given on the evening of their arrival. Two 
hundred people sat together and enjoyed the 
viands and the toasts given by both German 
and American speakers. Scenes from the 
Mother-Play and from the life of Froebel were 
shown upon the stage. These little plays were 
especially written and arranged for the enter- 



So 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



tainment of the American guests. The city of 
Frankfurt has an especial interest for the kin- 
dergarten world because it was the place where 
Froebel first discovered his life work when he 
became a teacher in the model school, and felt 
himself, as he expressed it, "Like a fish in the 
water, or a bird in the air." 

From Frankfurt to Heidelberg was a short 
trip made in the evening. Nowhere were more 
delightful arrangements made than in Heidel- 
berg by the ladies serving on the reception 
committee. Every Pilgrim will treasure her 
leaf of ivy given as a souvenir of the day with 
this inscription in letters of gold : 

"Alt Heidelberg du feine 
Du Stadt an Ehren reich 
Am Neckar und am Rheine 
Kein andre kommt dir gleich." 

The evening spent in the Schloss garden 
illuminated with hundreds of golden lanterns 
was a fitting climax to a glorious day. There 
we were honored with the company of the 
Burgomeister and Frau Burgomeister and 
other notable women of Heidelberg. At the 
end we were ushered into wonderland through 
the illumination of the castle. The old "Ges- 
prentge Thurm," covered with the growth of 
ivy of centuries, revealed the mystery and 
beauty of its cavernous recesses under the 
glow of the rosy light. It was well that the 
last day of the pilgrimage in Froebel land 
should end in a high and glorious light, sug- 
gesting the illumination and uplift of the ex- 
periences in the old country, to which we had 
come as strangers, and which we left with 
warm feelings of friendship. 

Of the results of this pilgrimage it would be 
premature to speak. Of one thing we are cer- 
tain, that in the future there will be closer 
affiliation with our foreign sisters, broader 
sympathy and better understanding of the 
dream of universal peace which is cherished by 
all who desire to bring nearer the era of good 
will and peace to men. 

The teachers of little children should be the 
leaders in this movement, as they are the lead- 
ers to the gate of the future, and the Froebel 
Pilgrimage of 1911 has been and will be a 
means of strengthening the links of fellowship 
which bind together by golden chains the 
whole round world. 

— American Primary Teacher. 



The Kindergarten Movement in Des Moines. 



MINNIE WAITE EOZELLE. 



It is better to be ready and not be called for, 
than to be called for- and found wanting. — Kate 
Douglas Wiggin. 



All through the Autumn days, out of the frost 
and glow of Winter, through the mellow sun- 
shine of the Spring, they came marching into 
our forty one kindergartens, fifteen hundred 
strong, fifteen hundred pairs of sturdy feet, danc- 
ing and skipping their way into the path of 
knowledge; fifteen hundred children awaiting 
the touch which should make of them good men 
and women, and loyal citizens of these United 
States. 

These were but the van guard. 

Des Moines is the City of Certainties, and her 
progress is marked, not alone by the smoke of 
her busy factories, nor by her boundaries of rich 
farm lands, nor by her teeming population, but 
by her comfortable up-to-date school buildings, 
which dot the city, by her seventeen thousand 
happy faced children found in the fifty nine 
buildings, and by the hearty co-operation between 
patrons and schools. Twe;ity per cent of the 
city's population is to be found in the school 
rooms of Des Moines. As the city grows the 
schools will grow. "In a lew years the fifteen 
hundred children in our kindergartens last year 
will make but a small showing. 

The kindergartens of today date their start 
from a very humble beginning. There came to 
Des Moines, many years ago, a lovely cultured 
woman recommended by Miss Blow as a good 
kindergartner. Her name was Mrs. Lucy B. 
Collins, and her coming was in response to a call 
from some ladies, who wished her to open a pri- 
vate kindergarten for their children. Her work 
was eminently successful. We have with us to- 
day, kindergartners, who, as little girls, attend- 
ed that memorable school of Miss Collins. Her 
works do follow her, for we have none in the 
corps better trained, or with higher ideals of 
living. 

Mrs. L- M. Wilson, Principal of Irving School, 
(later connected with Stevan School,- Chicago) 
kept close watch of the little kindergarten, and 
when a vacancy occurred in her building, in the 
primary grade, prevailed upon Mrs. Collins to 
accept the position, using her kindergarten 
method in so far as they seemed compatible with 
the primary work. So favorable an impression 
did the work of Mrs. Collins make that in 1884 
she was installed in the first public kindergarten 
in connection with Irving School. The Foard 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRiMAfcY MAGAZINE 



J5i 



of Education of that day are to be commended 
for their prophetic vision. The kindergarten in 
the United States was then in its infancy, Des 
Moines being the second city to adopt the sys- 
tem. 

The story of the years is soon told. After 
three years of steadfast effort, Mrs. Collins laid 
down forever the work of her hands. Her death 
came as a severe blow, but so well had she 
wrought, that kindergartens were firmly estab- 
lished in Des Moines. Her labors had been ar- 
duous for she continued in the practical work of 
the kindergarten, as well as in the training of 
young teachers for future work. 

Mrs. Collins was succeeded by Miss Rose 
Morrison. It was left for Miss Morrison to work 
out many details, and to continue Mrs. Collins' 
work of strengthening the tie between the kin- 
dergarten and primary grades. Right bravely 
did she meet the issue. Weakness or uncertain- 
ty, at this crisis, would forever have settled the 
destiny of the kindergarten in Des Moines. 

Miss Morrison received a flattering call to 
Cleveland, Ohio, and was succeeded by Miss 
Emma Fletcher, who, after a year's faithful ser- 
vice, resigned in order to have further study in 
Europe. 

Miss H. Adelia Phillips followed Miss Fletcher 
as supervisor. The qualifications of Miss Phil- 
lips, for her work, were of the best. Coupled 
with her excellent training, she had executive 
ability which amounted to genius, and it is to 
her untiring efforts and consummate skill that 
the kindergartens of Des Moines have won place 
in the front ranks of the country. She held 
office between the years 1894 and 1910. 

The year 1907 marks a memorable epoch in the 
history of the Des Moines schools. Up to that 
time the city had been divided into seventeen 
independent school districts. In 1907, by popu- 
lar vote, the districts were merged, and the Her- 
culean task of the consolidation of districts de- 
volved upon Supt. W. O. Riddell. It was a 
time almost of peril for the schools, but Mr. 
Riddell has handled the situation so courteously, 
and carefully, that in an unbelievably short time 
the schools are one. District prejudices have 
fallen, and intense loyalty prevails along all lines. 

Very few of the annexed districts had kinder- 
gartens, and the work of equipping the rooms, 
and starting the new workers fell upon Miss 
Phillips. One can readily see the difficulties 
which lay before her. Primary teachers, who, for 



years, had taught beginning children, were like 
Rachel weeping for her children; parents had to be 
taught that the kindergarten was not a new fan- 
gled play room; public sentiment had to be edu- 
cated. In all this work of guiding and shaping 
the new policy, Miss Phillips was a leading 
spirit, and it was with sincerest regret that her 
constituency learned of her resignation on ac- 
count of ill health. 

To-day the kindergarten and the primary 
teacher are good comrades. The present super- 
visor, Miss Bessie Park, means that they shall be. 
Miss Park is a graduate of Drake University, 
and has had the advantage of Columbia Univer- 
sity. She is a womanly woman, who brings to 
her work enthusiasm and perseverance. 

She feels that her best aid, aside from the loyalty 
of her teachers, comes from the mothers' clubs. 
There is an atmosphere of home, very delightful, 
when one sees the mothers of a district, bringing 
their work and spending an occasional afternoon 
with the little ones. The help and understanding 
received from the joint meetings of mothers and 
teachers is mutual. 

A wheel within a wheel is that of the Froebel 
Association. The membership includes, kinder- 
gartners, grade teachers, principals and many 
mothers. Their meetings occur monthly, and 
the programs are devoted to those subjects tend- 
ing to the welfare of all childhood. The Associa- 
tion is responsible for the opening of the first 
Vacation Schools, and has been an active force 
in assisting Roadside Settlement House in social 
work. 

One long ago meeting of the Association is 
specially remembered. Miss Annie Howe, now 
widely known to all kindergartners, as the direct- 
or of a model kindergarten in Japan, gave an 
address upon her work, showing the copper 
bowls and individual towels used by her little 
people in Japan. That was nearly fifteen years 
ago, so the hue and cry against the common bowl 
and towel is not entirely modern. On Miss 
Howe's departure she left upon the library 
shelves, two volumes of Mother-Play printed in 
Japanese, which recall anew the pleasure she 
gave the Association. 

During many years our kindergartners were 
chosen from our own training class for young 
teachers. This class was limited in membership, 
the work covering two years, and being conduct- 
ed by the supervisor. As the city grew, the 
supervisor found her entire time taken by actual 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



class room supervision, so the city work was 
turned over to Drake University, which was just 
at that time starting a training department for 
kindergartners. 

The cadets take a two years course, doing their 
practice work in the city kindergartens, under 
the supervision of the kindergarten directors. 

For some years it has seemed expedient to 
handle the kindergartens in crowded districts in 
two sessions, half of the children (usually the 
younger) coming from nine until eleven fifteen 
in the morning, and the other half from one 
fifteen, until three fifteen in the afternoon. 

Just now there is in Des Moines a feeling of 
pleasurable anticipation, not only among the 
kindergartners, but among teachers, principals, 
supervisors and officials all along the line. We 
await the coming of the I. K. U. 

Across the hills and rivers, over mountains and 
plains we send our greetings and warm words of 
welcome. 



Abstract of Lecture on Third and Fourth Gifts. 

Helen Las key 

Senior Class, Law Froebel Kindergarten Primary 
School, Toledo, Ohio. 

The third gift consists of a wooden cube two 
inches in each dimension divided twice vertically 
and once horizontally into eight small cubes. 
"The most important characteristics of the gift 
are contrasts of size resulting in the abstraction 
of form from size; increase of material as a whole, 
decrease of size in parts; increase of facilities in 
illustrating form and number. ' ' 

The fourth gift consists of a two-inch wooden 
cube, divided once vertically, and three times 
horizontally, into eight equal parts. Each part, 
two inches long, one inch wide, and one-half an 
inch thick, is known as a parallelopipedon. 
Hence we derive at once the salient characteristic 
of the gift, dimension. 

Though the third and fourth gifts resemble 
each other in their entirety, they are quite differ- 
ent when resolved into their parts. Each cube is 
composed of the same number of equal parts, 
but in the oblong or parallelopipedon of the fourth 
gift we have three different dimensions, while 
each part of the third gift cube is a perfect one 
inch cube. 

The salient characteristic of the third gift may 
well be brought out by comparing this cube with 
the second gift cube. Like the latter cube, the 
third gift cube is based on the idea of unity; it. is 



a unit in itself, but now divisibility enters as a 
new factor. 

Essentially a building gift, it appeals to the 
child because it corresponds to his blocks. The 
child to whom this gift is given is at the age 
when he wants to investigate everything, and 
take everything apart. It is the destructive age. 
He loves this cube because he can take it all 
apart and build things with the blocks. 

As we have seen, the salient characteristic of 
the fourth gift is dimension. The advantage of 
the different dimensions in this gift is immediate- 
ly seen in building with it, for now a greater 
height and greater extension is possible, result- 
ing in a greater possible inclosure of space. 
There is greater scope for the child's creative 
ability, since he is able to build with his "bricks" 
placed in three different positions, enabling him 
to construct high, long, and square forms. 

The natural law of the third gift is transforma- 
tion, and here we must constantly bear in mind 
"always transform, never destroy." With this 
idea in mind we first give the child the unit, the 
whole cube, then by a series of simple changes 
connected throughout with a little story, we lead 
him by means of these transformations back to 
the original form, the cube, showing by this pro- 
cess what can be done by changing the relation 
of parts of the cube, and at the same time the 
importance of the unity of the gift. Satisfying 
his desire to investigate and pull to pieces, we 
must show him that the power to combine is just 
as great. 

The fourth gift brings out two important phys- 
ical laws, those of balance andcontinuousmotion. 
For example, take walking. So unconsciously 
do we do this that we hardly realize that it is 
only by a perfect balance of the body that this 
exercise is possible. An instance of the second 
law, is the action of the waves, never-ending and 
restless. This can be well demonstrated with 
the fourth gift blocks by placing them in a line, 
on end, with the broad faces toward each other. 
Strike the first block gently, and the remaining 
seven will fall in rapid succession. By this 
means, a great principle can be put in attractive 
form for children, who are always entertained 
with this performance. 

Three rules are important in giving the build- 
ing gifts. 

I. Always build on the squares of the table. 
By insisting on this rule, the children have a 
basis on which to work, and hence are more 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINF 



153 



accurate and careful than they could be if allow- 
ed to build at random. 

II. Always transform, never destroy. This 
puts before us the necessity of presenting the 
idea in its unity with other ideas as necessarily 
secondary. Again we have a simple expression 
of a fundamental principle in nature for nothing 
in nature is ever destroyed, but only transformed. 

III. Use all the material, for unused material 
is wasted material. This fact is significant with- 
out explanation. It is the same with any talent 
we may possess. It does no one any good if 
allowed to lie dormant. 

Using these two gifts separately, the child 
learns something of symmetrical design in the 
beauty forms; learns the general forms of objects 
in the life forms; and obtains the first four prin- 
ciples in arithmetic in the knowledge forms. He 
should gain a clear knowledge of these things 
before working with the two gifts combined. 
For with the gifts in conjunction there is a 
greater complexity in arranging the material and 
in using all his material. With this difficulty 
comes also an advantage; greater accuracy, beauty 
and intricacy of design; greater scope for his 
creative ability in building; and a clearer way of 
presenting number work, also greater possibility 
for advanced work in this line. 

Something of square measure can be taught by 
showing by means of the squares in the table 
that one small cube fits exactly over one square 
inch. With the fourth gift, linear measure can 
be shown by arranging the blocks in a long line. 

Since Froebel's gift system follows a logical 
sequence, the fourth gift is naturally more ad- 
vanced than the third, for the idea of three differ- 
ent dimensions instead of three like dimensions 
is more complicated and difficult for the child . 
It is interesting to notice that the third gift cube 
symbolizes the first perfect cube, 8, thus giving 
a correct beginning for this part of arithmetic 

After becoming fairly well acquainted with 
each gift, it is a good exercise for the child to 
use the two together. This gives variety and 
strength to the building, whether forms of life, 
beauty or knowledge are constructed. 

By giving this combined work, the child gains 
in dexterity, and in ability to handle more mat- 
erial, which is the preparation he needs for his 
work with the fifth gift, with its many parts. 

Questions on Third and Fourth gifts. 
1. Describe third and fourth gifts fully. 
Give comparisons. 



2. Give the salient characteristic of each. 
Illustrate. 

3. Give the natural law of each. Illustrate. 

4. How are the building gifts given? 

5. What is gained from life, beauty and know- 
ledge forms of each gift, when used separately, 
and when used together? 

6. From which gift is square measure learned? 
From which linear measure? 

7. Which is the more advanced gift and why? 

8. What is the advantage of using the two 
gifts together? Illustrate. 

9. How should this exercise be given? 

10. How does it prepare the child for the fifth 
gift? 

THE GROWTH OF THE KINDERGARTEN IN 

THE SOUTH. 

By Myra Winchester, Ft. Worth, Texas. 

When we were little children we loved to stand 
with our backs to the door-post once a year and 
have our height measured, and the number of feet 
and inches recorded and compared with the previ- 
ous year's record. We liked also to speculate on 
what the next year's measure would probably be. 

It was a good experience. It is an experience 
which we do not tire of repeating; for that reason, 
we never get over liking to measure our growth. 
Hence arises our interest, as teachers, in verbal 
and printed reports concerning the increase in the 
total number of kindergartens in our section of 
the country, the number of training schools, the 
number of students in these schools, the number 
of cities having public school kindergartens, and 
so on. 

As we acquire years and wisdom, we learn that 
some phases of growth are neither measurable nor 
recordable. We begin to understand that there is 
a distinction between growth and development, and 
that the series of marks on the door-post, however 
agreeable and gratifying, do not serve to tell us of 
the invisible progress made of the gradual unfold- 
ing of powers and of insight. 

In considering, then, the growth of the kinder- 
garten in the South, we shall do well to bear in 
mind this distinction and to note not only the 
quantitative extensive increase, the figures and facts 
that can be counted and tabulated, but also the 
qualitative intensive development, less obvious than 
size and numbers, but none the less real and vital. 

It is not my purpose in this paper to deal with 
statistics, interesting though they be. The reports 
of our officers give us numerical details in concise 
form, and we can study them at our convenience, 
and be encouraged by them. 

Rather do I wish to discuss: 

1. Two of the factors which are potent in fer- 
tilizing and shaping the kindergarten in the South 
(indeed in America). 

2. The probable direction of our future expan- 
sion and our responsibilities therewith connected. 

1. Of the factors which make for growth we 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



should recognize first what may be called "Exten- 
sion of Motherhood." Gradually we are coming to 
understand that motherhood is something far more 
than a relationship between parent and child. Moth- 
erhood is a quality, an attitude of mind, a spiritual 
property possessed by men as well as by women. 
Our entire country is being touched and penetrated 
by the spirit of motherly nurture and earnestness. 
It is this which is responsible for the establishment 
everywhere of agencies for the better care and un- 
derstanding of children. The Child Welfare Move- 
ment, the National Congress of Mothers, the Visit- 
ing Nurses' Association, the Playgrounds Associa- 
tion, and so on, with their various branches are 
directly motivated by the sense of nurture stirring 
in the hearts of motherly men and women. 

The kindergarten owes its visible existence to 
this fertilizing, fostering impulse; for the needs of 
helpless little children have never failed to bring 
a tangible response from society. And so there 
has sprung into being various instrumentalities 
through which the motherly instinct has raised itself 
into consciousness, and reached out to bless. 

Church societies, social settlements, kindergarten 
associations, and other forms of private benevo- 
lence have brooded and nursed into healthy life our 
kindergartens, and the kindergartens have brought 
with them a train of other good things for children. 

Paternal government we fight shy of; but the 
maternal attitude in society we rejoice in and plead 
for its continuance. 

If the first factor in our growth is the mother- 
element of humanity, the second factor may be 
termed the mother-in-law. The first gives us our 
being, and the second helps to shape and direct us. 
Criticism is its other name. 

Sometimes the criticism is harsh, undeserved and 
ignorantly applied, sometimes it is kind, just and 
intelligent; always it is productive of good results 
in the long run. To be sure, our spirits sink under 
the sense of disapproval. We fear setbacks and 
failures. Consciousness of obstructions and dread 
of defeat make us heavy-hearted. But since we 
have lived through so many threatened disasters 
we have begun to recognize the existence and 
meaning of the two forces at work in the universe, 
the centripetal or closing-in and the centrifugal or 
raying-out. And we learn that the drawing in proc- 
ess is necessary, and is really preparatory to a 
fresh outflow of strength and vitality. So we com- 
fort ourselves and re-read our Browning with keen- 
er appreciation than ever before of his words: 

"Then welcome each rebuff 
That turns earth's smoothness rough, 
Each sting that bids nor sit nor stand, but go! 
Be our joys three parts pain!" 

Criticism— the mother-in-law of society — therefore 
has taught us to be grateful for the exposure of 
our weaknesses and errors, since censure tends to 
make us less bumptious, more wise, and more zeal- 
ous to reform the abuses that constantly creep in 
among us. Criticism is making us look well to the 



hygiene of our kindergartens, to the improvement 
of conditions which affect the physical child. It is 
stirring us up to be better psychologists, to be sen- 
sibly scientific in our ideas and methods. It is 
rousing us to understand wherein lies our respon- 
sibility for bringing about a closer relation between 
the kindergarten and the graded school. 

2. This suggests the secret point, the direction 
and character of our future development. 

Looking back over two decades of kindergarten 
in the South, we see how its numerical strength 
has increased, and also how there has been a steady 
advancement in public sentiment and intelligence. 
This advancement has taken the shape of a definite 
sequence like the following: First, there were pri- 
vate kindergartens regarded as more or less of a 
luxury for the children of well-to-do people. Sec- 
ond, the motherliness of good men and women 
began to provide "charity" kindergartens for the 
poor and neglected children, and churches and set- 
tlements and kindergarten associations gave and 
continue to give glad and generous support to such 
kindergartens. Third, as a direct outgrowth of the 
work of kindergarten associations there have 
evolved training schools for young women, estab- 
lished primarily to fill an immediate need, and con- 
tinued since because they have become their own 
excuse for being. Fourth, the state legislature has 
been induced to pass a bill making it legal to insti- 
tute public school kindergartens. Fifth, local 
boards of education have partially, then entirely, 
taken over the care and education of little children. 
And sixth, the state and city normal schools have 
incorporated the kindergarten training schools, 
making them into a regularly integrated department. 

Thus we see that the path of progress has been 
from a private and narrower philanthropy towards 
a broader sense of social relationships which real- 
izes that the state should be the true nurturing 
agency; that a country like America, in which the 
ideals of democracy obtain, should of all countries 
be the one to provide for every stage of education 
from babyhood up. 

We are glad to have it so, and yet a question 
forms itself naturally, and we ask, "What will the 
kindergarten grow into as it becomes more deeply 
and firmly integrated with the public school sys- 
tem?" which of course is its logical aim. Our feel- 
ing in letting go is like that of a mother who cuts 
off her baby's curls and puts him into trousers, and 
suffers pangs of reluctance all the time she does so. 

Some other questions which we must face are: 
(1) How can we help to keep the mother-element 
strong and vital in the midst of the necessary 
machinery of the public school? (2) How can we 
induce an increasingly better quality of young 
womanhood to take up the vocation of kindergarten 
teaching? 

In our next period of growth everything will 
depend upon the character of the young women 
who go into new localities and there represent the 
kindergarten. They must be fine and strong and 
full of the spirit of sacrifice and service. At the 
same time they must possess excellency of scholar- 
ship and a clear idea of their institutional obliga- 
tions. They must be equal to the situation. They 
must feel themselves as part of a great vibrating 
force which is steadily impregnating our social life. 

Finally, they and we must all learn to be con- 
tented and patient with the apparently halting prog- 
ress of our work, and frequently remind ourselves 
that "Growth is slow when roots are deep." 



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KINDERGARTEN DAILY PROGRAM 

NOEA KEOUGH 

[NOTE— Owing to the delay necessary to reach our sub- 
scribers in foreign countries we adopted the plan of print- 
ing this program one month ahead. Some of our Amer- 
ican subscribers, however, prefer the program in the issue 
for the current month. We have theiefore decided to re- 
publish theiprogram for February and subsequent months, 
followed by the program for the succeeding month, be- 
lieving this the best plan for the accommodation of all.] 

FEBRUARY. 

FIRST WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Mother Goose week. Let 
children repeat the Mother Goose rhymes 
that they know. 

Rhythm — All week teach action to the 
Mother Goose melodies from "The House 
That Jack Built," by Riley & Gaynor. 

Table 1st — Lay sticks to make skeleton 
action figures. Round tablet for head. 
Tell the story of the "crooked man" this 
way. 

Table 2nd — Tell this same story with char- 
coal and paper free-hand drawing. 

Games — Crooked Man dramatized. Bean 
bags. 
Tuesday — Circle — More rhymes. 

Table 1st — Humpty Dumpty Sitting on the 
Wall. Mount on gray paper 3 wall of 
white paper marked with black ; egg of 
white paper, free cutting. 

Table 2nd — "Humpty Dumpty" had a great 
fall. Same with egg at bottom of wall. 

Games — Crooked Man and Humpty Dumpty 
dramatized. "Three Little Pigs" dram- 
atized. 
Wednesday — Circle — Story of Hey Diddle, 
Diddle" from "Mother Goose in Prose," 
by Baum. 

Table 1st — Free drawing with black cray- 
ons of Jack and Jill. 

Table 2nd — 'Weaving. 

Games — Humpty Dumpty, Crooked Man, 
and Jack and Jill dramatized. Sense 
games. 



Thursday — Circle — Re-telling of story. 
Table 1st — Jack and Jill with colored cray- 
on. 
Table 2nd — Cutting and folding envelopes. 
Games — Same. 
Friday — Circle — Week's review. 

Rhythm — Week's review without direction. 
Table 1st — Make valentines from red paper, 

fold and cut. Mount on white. 
Table 2nd — Free choice. 
Games — Use this time to direct and mail 
valentines. Mail-boxes have been put up 
in kindergarten previously. 

SECOND WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Valentine's Day. Children's 
thought. A day of love. Song. A recipe 
for a valentine from Gaynor I. 

Rhythm period used for playing mailman. 
The valentines are gathered that were 
mailed in kindergarten mail-boxes. These 
are distributed to children on circle. 

Table 1st — Period and as much more time 
as needed is used for the valentine party. 
Children have brought their lunches. 
The lunches are divided and arranged 
tastily on tables spread in middle of kin- 
dergarten. Decorations in red and red 
candles add to the appearance. 
Tuesday — Circle — Talk of the mailman. What 
the children know about him. Story of 
"Jerry, the Postman," from Kg. Rev. 
Feb., 1907. 

Rhythm — March, one child as mailman. 

Table 1st — Make mailman of sticks and 
rings. 

Table 2nd — Make mailman of blue par- 
quetry and strips. 

Games — Little Dave, you are Welcome," 
from Jenks & Walker. 
Wednesday — Circle — Eugene Field's "Sugar 
Plum Tree," read and told. 



i5 6 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Rhythm — Marching. 

Table 1st — Clay modelling of candy cones 

that hung on tree. 
Table 2nd — Wrap colored strips of paper 

around canes. 
Games — Dramatize the story. 

Thursday — Circle — Re-telling of yesterday's 

story. 
Rhythm — Animals, dogs and cats. Blowing 

trees. 
Table 1st — Free drawing of sugar-plum 

tree, and things it grew. 
Table 2nd — Weaving. 
Games — Dramatize this story and "Puss in 

Boots." 
Friday — Circle — Review week's stories and 

songs. 
Rhythm — Review. 
Table 1st — Continue weaving. 
Table 2nd — Free choice. 
Games — Free choice. 

THIRD WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Geo. Washington. Who he 
was. Good child. Brave man. 

Rhythm— "Soldier Boy" from Mari Hofer's 
Singing Games. 

Table 1st — Draw free hand flags with col- 
ored crayons on white paper. Cut them 
out. 

Table 2nd — Cut hatchets. First traced, then 
free. 

Games — Competition game with flags; 
"Marching Through Georgia." 
Tuesday — Holiday. 

Wednesday — Circle— Geo. Washington, a sol- 
dier. 

Rhythm — As above with soldier drill. 

Table 1st — Fold soldier tent. 

Table 2nd — Use tents and flags and make 
soldier's camp in sand table. 

Games — As above. 
Thursday — Circle — Soldiers. Their lives. Their 
obedience. 

Rhythm — Soldier drill ; tramping horses ; 
bugle. A very good rhythm is the com- 
bination of Clara Anderson's High-Step- 
ping Horses, bugle, then Gaynor March 
and run, bugle, and back to the horses 
quietly until no sound is heard. 

Table 1st — Making red, white, and blue 
badges. 

Table 2nd — Make fort with Hennessey 
blocks, and break down with 2nd gift 
cubes. 
Friday — Circle— A visit to an upper grade 



room with some definite object in view 
as to watch a drill or to see a dramatiza- 
tion of some story. 

Rhythm — This period used to tell of what 
was seen and try it, ourselves. 

Table 1st — Free-drawing of soldier picture. 

Table 2nd — Free choice. 

Games — Free choice. 

FOURTH WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Begin story of the knights. 
Rhythm — Marching and bugle call. Gay- 

nor's "We March Like Soldiers Straight 

Tall." 
Table 1st — Third and fourth gift, build 

castle. 
Table 2nd — Cut castle of four sides of rather 

stiff paper, fold and fasten with paper 

fasteners. 
Games — Dramatize "I'm Going to Write to 

Papa" and guess riddles. 
Tuesday — Circle — Telling story of how Ar- 
thur became king from Homer's stories 

as told by C. H. Hanson. 
Rhythm — As yesterday. 
Table 1st — Make castle of Hennessey blocks. 
Table 2nd — Finish castle of paper begun 

yesterday. 
Games — A tournament with staff and rings 

and galloping horses. 
Wednesday — Circle — Re-telling of story. 

Teach "When the Wind Blows," by Bat- 

chelor, from Kg. Rev. 
Rhythm — Same. 
Table 1st — Knight on horse poster from 

black cutting paper mounted on white. 
Table 2nd— Make castle with 5th gift. 
Thursday — Circle — All about knights. Read 

from Eugene Field, "Little Boy Blue," 

etc. 
Rhythm — As before. And "Tin Soldiers" 

from Neidlinger. 
Table 1st — Cut shields free hand until each 

child has a good pattern, then use it to 

cut another from black cardboard. Paste 

cross of white. 
Table 2nd— Make castle of 6th gift. 
Games — Dramatize Cinderella, play the 

tournament. 
Friday — Circle — Review the story of the 

knights. 
Rhythm — Review. 

Table 1st — Make soldier caps of newspa- 
pers. 
Table 2nd — Free choice. 
Games — Soldier drill and marching with 

flags and caps. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



57 



MARCH. 

Monday — 'Circle — The trees of the forest. The 
winter here, now. Trees are bare. How 
used instead of coal. 

Rhythm — Dramatization of Circle talk. 
Chopping falling trees. 

Table 1st — Panel pictures of bare trees done 
on white with brown crayons mounted 
on brown. 

Table 2nd — 'Sixth gift play. Trees of pil- 
lars. Houses of bricks. 

Games — Snow-man. Marching through 
Georgia." 
Tuesday — Circle — The hauling of trees to 
river, and how they float down the stream 
to the mill. 

Rhythm — Begin teaching See Saw from 
Gaynor I. 

Table 1st — Tree-cutting of group of trees 
from folded paper. Mount. 

Table 2nd — Red, white, and blue weaving. 
The two-strip weaving to bring out the 
idea of over and under. 

Games — Dramatization of "Billy Goat 
Gruff." 
Wednesday — Circle — What happens at the 
mill. Recalling of story of Pine Tree. 

Rhythm — As above. 

Table lst^Make mill with 5th gift. 

Table 2nd — Making screens — folding, cut- 
ting, and border of parquetry. 

Games — As above. 
Thursday — Circle— Putting week's subject to- 
gether in form of a story. 

Rhythm — As before with actual see-saw on 
circle. 

Table 1st — Make sequence story of lumber 
work with 6th gift. 

Table 2nd — Two-strip weaving. 

Games — Same. 
Friday — Circle — Review. 

Rhythm — Review. 

Table 1st — Weaving. 

Table 2nd — Free choice. 

SECOND WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Trees of the forest; the 
maple trees. 

Rhythm — See saw continued. 

Table 1st — Weaving. 

Table 2nd — Sugar camp with 5th gift. 

Games — "Little Mice Are Creeping," from 
Jenks & Walker. 
Tuesday — Circle — Story of the sugar-camp. 

Rhythm — Same. 

Table 1st — Weaving. 



Table 2nd — Clay-modelling of pail to catch 

the maple sap. 
Games— Same. And competition bean bag 

game. 
Wednesday — Circle — All we know of making 

syrup and sugar of the maple sap. 
Rhythm — See-saw. 
Table 1st — Sand-table sugar camp. Twigs 

for trees. Clay pails, tent, and fireplace. 
Table 2nd — Free drawing of sugar camp. 
Thursday — Circle — All about our camp in the 

woods re-told. The story of "The Man's 

Boot in the Woods," by Gertrude Sellon. 
Rhythm — Same. 

Table 1st — Free cutting of sugar camp. 
Table 2nd — Sew circle. 
Games — Dramatization of week's circle 

talks. 
Friday — Circle — Review. 
Rhythm — Review. 
Table 1st — Weaving. 
Table 2nd — Free choice. 
Games — Free choice. 

THIRD WEEK. 

Monday— Circle — The coming of spring. Free 

discussion. Teach "Good Morning Merry 

Sunshine." Plant seeds in sponge. 
Rhythm — The waking of the flowers. 
Table 1st — Fold kites and mount. 
Table 2nd — Make gate of slats for gift 

work. 
Games — Bean bags and Loobly Loo. 
Tuesday — Circle — More about the Coming of 

Spring. Begin teaching "Finger Folk" 

from March, 1907, Kg. Rev. 
Rhythm — Flying kites. 
Table 1st — Drawing pussy willows with 

black crayons, mounted on gray mats. 

Real pussy heads pasted on. 
Table 2nd — -Make fence, group work, all 

around edge of table with long sticks and 

Hailmann cubes. 
Games — The Little Mice are Creeping and 

Loobly Loo. 

Wednesday — Circle — Story of Mother Earth's 
House Cleaning, from Kg. Rev. March, 
'07. 

Rhythm — Same. 

Table 1st — Fold and mount cup and saucer. 

Table 2nd — Make designs with parquetry. 
Draw it with colored pencils. 

Games — Loobly Loo and Billy Goat Gruff. 

Thursday — Circle — Re-telling of story. 
Rhythm — Same. 



158 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Table 1st — The border idea of yesterday re- 
peated. 

Table 2nd — Poster of fence with pussy sit- 
ting on the rails. Draw tail and ears 
with black. 

Games — The Tournament and Loobly Loo. 
Friday — Circle — Review and talk of Easter. 

Rhythm — Review. 

Table 1st — Weaving. 

Table 2nd — Finish border work. 

Games — Free choice. 



FOURTH WEEK. 



Free 



Monday — Circle — Easter experiences, 
discussion with children. 

Rhythm — High stepping horses and butter- 
flies. 

Table 1st — Free drawing of Easter thoughts. 

Table 2nd — Free cutting of rabbit from 
black paper, mounted in poster effect. 

Games — Telling and dramatizing the story 
of the "Hare and the Tortoise." 
Tuesday — Circle — Re-telling of story and 
teach "Little Yellow-Head" from Neid- 
linger. 

Rhythm — Ten little Indians, rabbits. 

Table 1st — 'Cut chickens free hand from 
yellow paper. Mother hen from black. 

Table 2nd — Make barn with clothes-pins. 

Games — Dramatize story. 
Wednesday — Circle — Begin telling Soap-Bub- 
ble Story. 

Rhythm — Marching by twos. 

Table 1st — Cut egg free hand until you get 
a good pattern both as to size and shape. 
Then use it to trace around. 

Table 2nd — Paint egg and cut. 

Games — Dramatize today's story. 
Thursday — Circle — Tell Soap-Bubble story all 
over again. 

Rhythm — As yesterday. 

Table 1st — From given pattern, cut an egg 
broken in middle with chicken's head 
sticking out. This is cut from egg-shell 
paper and the two parts are fastened to- 
gether with paper fastener. Head of 
chicken colored yellow. 

Table 2nd — Build barn with Hennessey 
blocks. 

Games — Drop the handkerchief. 
Friday — Circle — Tell Soap-Bubble story. Chil- 
dren re-telling it. Then dramatize story 
and at the appropriate time bring in 
bowls of soap water and new clay pipes. 
The rest of time is spent in soap bubble 
party. 



THE GUEST. 

Perhaps you have heard of Jack Frost, 
Who's traveling down from the north 

To give you a call, 

Big folks and small, 
No matter what it may cost. 

He sails on an iceberg, I know; 

And the wind is his captain and crew; 

And he reaches our shore 

A short time before 
The beautiful lady of snow. 

He's a reckless young fellow, is Jack; 
He has the most wonderful knack 
Of pinching your ears 
And bringing the tears, 
And giving your pitcher a crack. 

He cries to the brooks, "Silence, all!" 
While he holds every bubble in thrall; 
And the finest of skating 
Is surely awaiting 
The boy who fears not a fall. 

— Selected. 



THE GRAND RAPIDS KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL. 

The members of the faculty of the Kindergarten 
Training School who remained in the city during 
the holidays, Miss Wheeler, Miss Clark and Miss 
May Ogilby, received informally Friday afternoon, 
Dec. 29th, at the school for the graduates who are 
spending the holidays in the city. About fifty en- 
joyed an exceedingly pleasant reunion. Represent- 
atives from almost every graduating class were 
present. Among those from out of the city who 
attended were: Mrs. Ethelyn Haines Woodruff, of 
Detroit; Mrs. Birdie Bennett Chesley, of South 
Bend, Ind.; Mrs. Mary Bennett Cranston, of Ada; 
Miss Nellie Burgess, of Grandville; Mrs. Blanche 
Fox Steenman, of Texas; Miss Margaret Hopson, 
of this city, now teaching at Holland; Miss Marie 
Loomis, who is spending the year in the Univer- 
sity at Ann Arbor. A pleasant feature of the after- 
noon was the reading of Christmas messages from 
over one hundred graduates from various states, 
including California, Texas, Mississippi, Wisconsin, 
Iowa, Ohio, Indiana, Arkansas and others. The 
Training School re-opened Wednesday, Jan. 3rd. 
Mrs. Estelle W. Gorrie, an instructor in the school, 
returned January 2nd, from Chicago, where she spent 
the holiday vacation, and another instructor, Miss 
Grace E. Mix, is expected to return from Teachers' 
College, where she is completing her B. S. degree, 
about Jan. 30th. Seventy-four students are regis- 
tered in the school this year. 



There is no great genius free from some tincture 
of madness. — Seneca. 



Education gives power; hence it is a blessing or 
a curse, according to how we use it. — Selected. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



*59 



REED AND RAFFIA CONSTRUCTION 

WORK IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

I 

NOTE.— With slight modification the instructions given 
will be found suitable for the younger children of the 
kindergarten. 

Raffia is the inner bark of a kind of palm 
found chiefly in Madagascar. It possesses the 
advantages of great strength, extreme soft- 
ness and pliability and cheapness in price. 

Raffia is usually received from kindergarten 
and school supply houses in the form of braided 
skeins and should be loosened and shaken out, 
then dipped in water and hung up to partially 
dry. This will not only remove the kinks, but 
raffia will work more easily if slightly damp. 

In all work of this kind the development of the 
pupils, rather than the rapid construction of 
articles, is the end to be attained, but a definite 
purpose for the articles should always be in view. 

The construction work can be adapted to 
the capacity and taste of children of every 
age, but we shall now consider methods suit- 
able for first and second grade pupils. The 
easiest and simplest process consists in wind- 
ing the blades of raffia around a twine or cord, 
and the covering of a piece of twine for a 
picture cord will be the first work suggested. 

As these exercises will include braiding, it 
is best to provide at the outset a number of 
screw-hooks to be fastened to the top mold- 
ing, which surmounts the wainscoting in most 
school rooms, so arranged that the pupils can 
stand or sit in line while doing the braiding, 
winding, etc. 

For the picture cord above mentioned take a 
piece of twine about half the size of an ordi- 
nary lead pencil, (a few strands of raffia may 
be used instead of twine), and, say, 30 inches 
in length. Select a blade of raffia, natural 
color, and folding back one end of the twine, 
tie it with the raffia so as to form a loop as 
shown by Fig. 1. Place the loop over a 
screw-hook and for first grade pupils let one 
child hold the other end of the twine perfectly 
taut while another pupil does the winding. 
Let the pupils alternate the work of winding 
and holding the twine from lesson to lesson, 
thus encouraging the idea of unity of purpose 
and mutual helpfulness. The raffia should be 
wound just so as to cover the cord entirely, 
and when nearly completed the opposite end 
of the twine can be formed into a loop if de- 
sired and securely tied. The loops can be 
wound also if desired. 

A neater job will be had if raffia strands of 
nearly a uniform width are selected. 



Next select two blades of colored raffia 
which will harmonize with each other and the 
natural raffia, as red and green. Take one 
strand of the colored raffia and begin winding 
from the same end as before but wind around 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



NOTE.— Fig. 2 shows the winding with colored raffia. If 
it proves too difficult at first it can be taken up later. 

in the opposite direction and in such manner 
as to leave about one-half inch of the natural 
raffia exposed between the windings. After 
this is completed and securely fastened by 
tying or otherwise, take the other blade of 
colored raffia and wind as with the last ex- 
cept in the opposite direction. The result if 
neatly done will be a beautiful tri-colored 
cord. In the same way jumping ropes, In- 
dian bows, hoops, canes, etc., can be covered. 
We will next construct a picture frame. 
Take a piece of cardboard the size desired for 
the frame. Cut it in the form of a circle or of 
an oval. If the oval form is selected notch 
the outer edge with a pair of shears, then let 
the children wind with raffia either colored or 




Fig. 3. Showing cardboard wound with colored raffia for 
a picture frame. 

plain or assorted colors, as preferred. The 
circular frame can also be notched, if desired, 
and it will simplify the work of winding. 

Paste the picture on the back so as to show 
through the opening to best advantage, and 
for a neater back finish cut out a piece of col- 
ored paper in shape like the frame but about 



i6o 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



an inch smaller all around ; paste this down 
evenly. Suspend with a strand of colored 
raffia or a ribbon, as preferred. 




Fig. 4. Showing back of picture frame with loop for 
suspending the picture. 

For another style of picture frame, take a 
piece of box or pasteboard the desired size, 
and cut in form of a circle, oval, heart, dia- 
mond, shield, etc. Cover the outer surface 
of the cardboard with gray or other suitable 
colored paper which will serve as a mat for 
the picture, then paste on a Brown or a Perry 
picture or something selected from a maga- 
zine or elsewhere, pressing flat until thor- 
oughly dry. Cover twine in the same man- 
ner as described for the picture cord, suffici- 
ent to extend around the outer edge of the 
cardboard. Sew the cord so prepared on the 
edge of the cardboard to form a border, tak- 
ing care not to let the edge of the board pro- 
ject beyond the cord. The ends of the latter 









& 






Fig. 5. Showing twine wound with raffia and sewed 
around the border to form picture frame, 

may be covered with a tuft of the raffia or 
the cord left long enough to tie in a double 
bow knot, the ends being neatly wound with 
raffia or finished with small tassels of same. 
After sewing or pasting on the back a loop 
made of two or three blades of raffia, the pic- 
ture will be completed ready to hang on the 
wall. 



Another method of fastening the suspension 
loop to the back is as follows: From heavy 
paper cut a back to fit the frame. Half-way 
between the center and the top cut a slit, slip 
the loop of raffia through the slit, and paste 
down smooth on opposite side. Then paste 
the paper down evenly on the back of the 
frame and the picture is ready to hang up. 

To make a neat and pretty box, use a strip 
of cardboard about ten or twelve inches long 




Fig. 6. Showing manner of fastening cardboard ends 
together for sides of a round box. 

and two inches wide. Lap the ends and sew 
flatly. Wrap it closely around with raffia. 
This forms the sides of the box. For the cover 
and the bottom cut a piece of cardboard to 
fit and make as for picture frames, only mak- 
ing the opening smaller, which may be after- 
wards darned or woven. 'Stripes of colored 
raffia may be used in sides and cover. The 
bottom is to be sewed in and the cover fas- 
tened by a few stitches. 




Fig, 7. Showing completed box above described. 

After the pupils have mastered the plain 
winding they will be ready to undertake 
winding in connection with the buttonhole 
stitch. This can be practiced best on a ring 
two inches or more in diameter. One of the 
Eleventh Gift will answer, or preferably one 
made by first soaking a hardwood slat of the 
Ninth Gift, or a piece of flat reed in water 
until flexible, and forming in the shape of a 
hoop, lapping the ends and tying securely. 
Fasten the end of a single blade of raffia to 
the ring or hoop and holding it where tied, 
between the thumb and fingers of the left 
hand, with the right, put the loose end of the 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



161 



raffia through the ring to the left and after 
drawing the blade nearly through, bring the 
end back over the ring and down through the 




Fig. S. Showing the manner of making the button hole 
stitch. 

loop thus formed, drawing clost. Continue 
around the ring in the same manner till cov- 
ered (see illustration). 

This is a simple process, probably familiar 
to every teacher, and is easily learned by the 
pupil, but requires considerable practice be- 
fore the child will be able to draw the knots 
equally tight each time, which is necessary in 
order that the work may present a neat ap- 
pearance. Two of the smaller rings may be 
sewed together neatly through the twisted 
stitches, forming a napkin ring or fastened 
together in forms as in ring laying. 

A pretty little box may be made of three 
buttonholed hoops by buttonholing the plain 
edge, also, of one, and sewing the others on 
either side, putting the plain edge out and 
sewing together through the twisted stitches. 




Fig. 9. Showing box made of hardwood slats or flat reeds 
•wound with raffia. 

The center hoop may be colored and a bottom 
and cover made as previously described. 

After having learned to make the button- 
hole stitch correctly in this way give the pu- 
pils a needle and let them put a buttonhole 
finish on such of the round picture frames as 



were made without notched edges, or on other 
similar work. 

Beginning this work run the needle through 




Fig. 10. Showing manner of making blanket button hole 
finish. 

a little back from the edge so as to hide the 
knot and bring it out at the extreme edge of 
the mat ; put the needle through from the 
underside about one-fourth inch back from 
the edge. Proceed as directed with the hoop, 
but taking- the stitches about one-fourth inch 
apart. For this purpose use raffia of a con- 
trasting color. 

Cross Stitch. — What is known as a double 
overcast or cross stitch makes a very satis- 
factory finish for an edge, and is easily 
learned by the children. Insert the needle 
about three-eighths of an inch from the edge, 
and sew over and over, taking the stitches 
about one-half inch apart and keeping them 




Fig. 11. Showing manner of making double over cast or 
cross stitch. 

of an even slant. After sewing once around, 
use another blade of harmonizing color and 
sew around in the opposite direction, insert- 
ing the needle in the same holes. 

(To be continued) 



The hearts of the Froebel Pilgrims have been sadden- 
ed by the death of Mr. Henry Snowden Ward, who gave 
them such a cordial reception at Stratford. Mr. Ward 
died in New York where he came to lecture on English 
writers. Also by the death of Fraulein Eleonore 
Heerwar f of Eisenach, Germany, well known as one 
who had a Close personal acquaintance with Froebel and 
who has done so much for the Kindergarten in Ger- 
many, Her death occurred Dec. 19. 



162 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



STORIES OF THE MONTH AS A BASIS 
FOR GIFT AND OCCUPATION PLAYS. 

NOTE, — These brief biographical sketches can be used as 
convenient data from which the teacher can construct a 
story suited to the capacity of the pupils, who may repre- 
sent some of the objects referred to in the story with the 
building blocks, tablets, sticks, splints, rings, lentils, etc. 
Paper folding and cutting, peas and stick work, clay and 
cardboard modeling, drawing, coloring, etc., can also be 
employed. 

HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW. 
Born February 27, 1807. 

Suggestive story for young children. 

This is a picture of Henry W. Longfellow, 
one of the great poets of our beloved country. 

He was born in a city named Portland, in 
Maine, in a home that stood by the sea where 
ships could be seen sailing in and going out. 



Henry went to school when he was only 
three years old, riding on horseback with a 
servant of the family. When he was six years 
old his teacher wrote of him: "Master Henry 
Longfellow is one of the best boys we have in 
school." 

Henry was very fond of playing ball, flying 
kites, swimming, fishing and coasting. 

He went hunting one day with his older 
brother who shot a robin. When he saw the 
poor little dead robin it made him feel so sad 
that he never went hunting again. 

Henry's grandfather lived on a farm and in 
the summer time he went there with his 
brothers and sisters where they enjoyed them- 
selves very much hoeing corn, raking hay, 




LONGFELLOW SEWING CARD 

NOTE.— Above design can be used as a pattern for sewing cards by placinglseveral blank cards about 5x5 inches in size 

under this leaf with a perforating cushion under them. Then perforate on the outlines through the cards thus forming 

patterns for sewing, using thread or zephyr of suitable color. Paste on a Perry picture as shown above. 



His father was a lawyer and a very just and 
honorable man, and his mother was very kind 
and loved flowers, music and all that was 
good. 

She taught her children to love these things 
also and often read beautiful poems to them in 
the evening. 

Henry had three brothers and four sisters. 
They were all younger than Henry except his 
brother Stephen who was the oldest. 

They were a very happy family a\d played 
together bappily and contented many merry 
games. 



playing in the hay mow, riding the horses and 
watching their grandfather milk the cows and 
feed the calves. They enjoyed hunting for 
eggs, watching their grandmother make butter 
and tried to help her churn it. 

Henry was a handsome boy, always neat in 
his dress and habits and his sister once wrote 
of him that he was "true, high minded and 
noble." 

He was unselfish and kind to every one. He 
wrote poems that made people gentle and 
better. 

He was a teacher in Harvard College at 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



163 



Cambridge and lived there many years. People 
came from all parts of the world to see and 
talk with the great poet. 

He wrote the story of Hiawatha, which we 
all know so well, and many other beautiful 
poems. 



Our public schools are rapidly becoming 
practical training-schools for practical people, 
instead of literary academies for supposed fu- 
ture ladies and gentlemen of the leisure class. 
The situation is most encouraging. — The Path- 
finder. 




HIAWATHA SEWING CARDS 

For suggestions as to use, see preceding page. 



JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL. 



Born Feb. 22, 1819— Suggestion for Talk With 
Young Children. 

James Russell Lowell was born at Elmwood, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., and died in the same house in 1891. 
His father was a minister. He graduated from 
Harvard College and published at different times 
several magazines and papers, and was the editor 
of several well-known magazines. He wrote much, 
both in verse and prose. Perhaps the "Vision of 
Sir Launfal" and the "Bigelow Papers" are the best 
known. 



A funny old fellow is Winter, I know, 

A merry old fellow is he; 

He paints all the noses a beautiful hue, 

He counts all our fingers, and pinches them, too; 

Our toes he gets hold of through stocking and shoe, 

For a funny old fellow is he. 

If a man empties his purse into his head, no man 
can take it away from him. An investment in 
knowledge always pays the best interest. — Franklin. 



A thing is worth precisely what it can do for 
you, and not what you choose to pay for it. — Ruskin. 



164 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




GEORGE WASHINGTON 

Grace Dow. 

George Washington was born Feb. 22, 1732, on a plan- 
tation in Virginia. 

Washington's father died when George was only 
eleven years old, leaving him, with his brothers and 
sisters, to the care of a most excellent mother. It was 
the influence of his good mother, more than anything 
else, which made him the great man which he became. 

George went to a little country school where he 
learned to read and write. In one of his writing-books 
he copied many good sayings. 

He was a tall, strong boy, and very fond of all out- 
door sports and games. He was the leader in all games 
of daring. It is said he could run faster, jump further, 
and throw higher than any boy in school. 

The boys enjoyed playing soldier, and "Captain 
George" was always chosen commander. Years later 
when the war broke out, many of his school friends 
marched under him as their real leader. 

He was always good to his mother. At one time he 
wished to become a sailor, and the boat came for him, 
but when he went to say "Good-by" to his mother he 
found her crying, so he said, ''Mother, I will not go. I 
will stay with you until I am a man." 

Lord Fairfax, an English nobleman, owned a large 
estate along the Potomac river. George's brother had 
married the daughter of Lord Fairfax, and when George 
was fourteen he visited his brother at Mount Vernon, 
and became acquainted with the Fairfaxes. Lord Fair- 
fax although a gray-haired man of sixty enjoyed the 
companionship of this boy of fourteen, and they spent 
much time together on horseback in fields and woods 
hunting deer and foxes. 

By the time George was sixteen he had learned 
surveying, and Lord Fairfax hired him to survey his 
lands. He and another young man would work all day, 
then wrap themselves up in their blankets, and lie down 
on the ground to sleep. 

He did his work so well the governor of Virginia 
made him one of the public surveyors. 

The French were building forts along the Ohio river, 
on lands claimed by the English. The governor of 
Virginia wished to send a message to the commander 
of these forts. 

Washington's life in the woods had well fitted him for 



this perilous journey. Dressed as an Indian and with 
an Indian guide he took this trip, the entire distance 
being about a thousand miles. 

When Major Washington returned to Virginia the 
Governor made him a colonel. During this war with 
the French Washington had two horses shot from under 
him and four bullets went through his coat, but his life 
was spared for a greater war later. 

Colonel Washington was made commander-in-chief 
of the American army in the Revolutionary War. This 
war lasted seven years, and at its close America was free 
from England. 

Now Washington wished to live a quiet life at Mount 
Vernon, but the country still needed him, and a few 
years later he was chosen the first President of the 
United States. 

New York City was then the capital, and from the 
time he left his home at Mount Vernon till he reached 
the capital crowds of gaily-dressed people bearing 
baskets of flowers hailed his appearance with songs 
and shouts of joy. 

He had left off his blue soldier coat, and was now 
dressed in a handsome suit of black velvet, with white 
silk stockings, and a satin waistcoat. He was tall, 
straight, and very distinguished in his appearance. 

After serving as president for eight years, he retired 
to his home at Mount Vernon, where he spent the 
remaining days of his life, and where he now lies buried. 
"Tolling and knelling, 
With a sad sweet sound, 
O'er the waves the tones are 

swelling, 
By Mount Vernon's sacred ground." 



HEROISM. 

Too much cannot be done to instill into the hearts 
of children an honest love and respect for heroic 
deeds. They should be led to see that being a heroic 
boy or girl leads to being heroic men and women. 

Have a large picture of Washington draped with 
the national colors placed in the most prominent place 
in the room. Drape the walls with red, white, and 
blue bunting, flags and pictures descriptive of the life 
of Washington. Red, white, and blue chains made by 
the little ones may be used for festooning. Decorate 
the blackboards tastefully with patriotic drawings or 
stencils and appropriate quotations written with red, 
white, and blue crayons, and the date 1732-1799 — 
Selected. 



LIKE WASHINGTON. 

We cannot all be Washingtons, 
And have our birthdays celebrated; 

But we can love the things he loved, 
And we can hate the things he hated. 

Perhaps the reason little folks 

Are sometimes great when they grow taller, 
Is just because, like Washington, 

They do their best when they are smaller. 

— The Sunbeam. 



Good that comes too late is good for nothing. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



165 




STORIES, GAMES, PLAYS 

RECITATIONS, MEMORY GEMS, ETC. 



CHILDREN'S GAMES. 

Games take a leading part in the life of the child. 
They add wonderfully to his joy. Many of them 
help in his physical development. And there are 
very few games that do not aid in his mental de- 
velopment. 

From this it may easily be seen what an important 
thing the game is to the child. The mother who 
has an intelligent regard for her child's welfare 
must take games into account. 

It is, of course, foolish for her to try to make 
each game in which the child indulges an obvious 
step in his education. Such a procedure would de- 
feat the very end aimed at. To speak of only one 
feature, it would make work out of what should 
be, in its very nature, play. The indirect influence 
of games is the powerful influence. 

All life, in a very real sense, is a game to the 
child. That is, he enters into first one activity and 
then another with infinite interest and zest. It is 
for the mother to help, in a reasonable way, to 
increase the enjoyment, and at the same time to 
aid in his development by the medium of each 
activity. 

Children are naturally imitative, and they are nat- 
urally imaginative. Both these facts are to be 
taken into account in planning for the little one's 
games. The child learns very quickly by imitating. 
His powers of observation thus are trained, and 
by modeling his actions on certain examples, he 
comes to have a knowledge of the way to do 
things. 

The point is to have the examples, so far as pos- 
sible, those from which he may gain something by 
imitating. Direction is needed here, and direction 
also is needed in the matter of imagination. 

However, in imagination let the child have the 
freest possible play consistent with his actual well- 
being. A child's bent is his very own; it is a pos- 
session to be treated with respect. Children are 
sensitive, especially to ridicule. The little games 
that they make up themselves are the outgivings of 
their own nature. Such games indicate originality, 
initiative, enterprise. 

Simple games that children play together are the 
very best for little folks. Encourage such games. 
When instructions are needed, have the instructions 
comprehensible. From the very first, insist on ab- 
solute fairness. This is a most important point. It 
is not difficult to make children realize the impor- 
tance of this feature. Children are naturally fair; 
they resent injustice; they soon come to see that 



all have a better time when each is fair with the 
others. 

If any tendency toward unfairness is in evidence, 
appeal to the child's reason. Make him understand 
that the person who is distrusted is disliked. Make 
him realize that the only victory worth counting 
is the victory fairly won. A victory obtained by 
unfair means is infinitely worse than defeat. Show 
him that in games one cannot always win; that first 
one and then the other must be the victor, and that 
the loser should accept his fortune with good grace. 

In indoor games, as in outdoor games, some 
directions often are needed. But, when once start- 
ed, do not have the children under the impression 
that they are supervised in their play. Let them, 
so far as you can, work out their own salvation. 
This is better for them, and in the end will save 
the mother much time and effort. 

Children, even in large families, will have occa- 
sionally to play alone. This is something to be 
considered by the wise mother. Do not give the 
child, when he is to play by himself, something in 
which he cannot reasonably be expected to take in- 
terest. Perhaps his interest will have to be stimu- 
lated; he may have to be shown how to get what 
he should out of the game. In this case, start him 
off; a few minutes spent with him will yield rich 
return. 

Plan out, so far as you can, his lonely hour or 
day; only, do not let him be too much aware of 
the planning. The child who can play well by him- 
self is laying the foundation for resourcefulness, for 
having stores within himself on which he can draw 
when necessary. 

Above all, be your child's confidant in games, as 
in other things. Make him see that you are inter- 
ested in what interests him. Encourage him to talk 
to you about his games; applaud his success and 
try to have him understand his failures. Nothing 
of importance to the child in his own little life 
should be without importance to you. 



FEBRUARY CALENDAR. 

By Edith E. Adams, Michigan. 
How can a little child be merry 
In snowy, blowy February? 
By each day doing what is best, 
By thinking, working for the rest; 
So can a little child be merry 
In snowy, blowy February. 

— Progressive School Journal. 



He that does good to another, does good to him- 
self. — Seneca. 



1 66 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



ST. VALENTINE'S DAY— FEBRUARY 14. 

Tell the children of this good saint whose birth- 
day we celebrate, and how this kind old man 
showed love for his fellowmen, and how others 
caught this meaning and helped to carry it out by 
sending loving letters and verses to their friends. 

The valentine thought should be a continuation 
of Christmas — that of unselfishness and charity. 

Kind messages may be sent to the old and sick 
when other help would be undesirable. 



ST. VALENTINE AND THE FAIRIES. 
A Dialogue. 

Suitable for ten small children. 

Grace Dow. 

Suggestions— The Fairies may be dressed in white dresses 
made of cheese-cloth or white crepe, white shoes and stock- 
ings, gauze wings and red caps, hair flowing. The other 
pupils dressed in any plain color or white covered with 
hearts. 

Tune— Comin' Thro' the Rye. 

All. 
We are happy little fairies, 

Dancing as we go, 
For Saint Valentine is bringing 

Gifts for us, we know. 
Do the children wish to please him? 

This shall be the sign: 
Those who really love each other 

Send a valentine. 

First Fairy. 
St. Valentine so good and true 
Brings what message now to you? 

All. 

We are not only to remember a friend, 
But a message true to a lonely one send. 

First Fairy. 
Who will you remember? 

First Pupil. 
This heart so blue and true, 
Sick Johnnie, I send to you. 

Second Pupil. 

Lame little Mary, so gentle and kind, 

A token of love from me you will find. 

• i 

Third Pupil. 

Poor Newsboy Willie, who is out in the cold, 
With this tinseled heart I also send gold. 

Fourth Pupil. 

To motherless Carrie, so lonely and sad, 
I send these red roses to make you feel glad. 

Fifth Pupil. 

To sick little Jim, who never can play, 
Beautiful love hearts we're sending this day. 



Second Fairy. 
The children's hearts are lighter by your kindly 

words of cheer, 
But you should also remember the old, who are 

near and dear. 

All. 
Papa and mamma the first we will find. 
And give to each loved one our best valentine. 

Sixth Pupil. 
Then each will find an aged friend, 
And him a good-will message send. 
Seventh pupil. 
The good which is to others shown. 
Returns again to be our own. 

All — Tune: Tramp! Tramp! Tramp! 
Hearts, hearts, hearts we still are sending 
To our friends both great and small; 
They will cheer them on their way, 
And will help us all this day 
To think more kindly of our good Saint Valentine. 



BEDTIME. 

E. H. T. 
Do you know 
Why the snow 
Is hurrying thru the garden so? 
Just to spread 
A nice soft bed 
For the sleepy little flowers' head. 
To cuddle up the baby ferns and smooth the lily's 

sheet, 
And tuck a warm white blanket down around the 
roses' feet. 

— Progressive School Journal. 



THE TINY SNOWFLAKES. 

Tiny little snowflakes 

In the air so high, 
Are you little angels 

Floating in the sky? 

Whirling on the sidewalk, 

Dancing in the street, 
Kissing all the faces 

Of the children sweet. 

Loading all the housetops, 
Powdering all the trees — 

Cunning little snowflakes, 
Little busy bees. 

— Lucy Larcom. 



ASSOCIATION. 

Fools go in crowds. 

The goose goes with the geese. 

He makes a good journey who gets rid of bad 
company. 

In vicious company you are among your ene- 
mies. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



167 



HELPFUL HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS 

For Kindergartners, Rural and Primary Teachers 



TRAIN YOUR VOICE. 

A soft musical voice that pleases the ear and 
soothes the nerves is a valuable acquisition to any 
kindergartner or teacher. It can be acquired with 
practice and is well worth the effort. 



SENDING WORK HOME TO PARENTS. 

There is no one little thing that a Kindergartner 
or teacher can do that will be more effective than 
the practice of sending the work of the pupils 
home to the parents. The children will be inspired 
to do their best, and even the most indifferent par- 
ent will soon become interested. 



FOR DISPLAYING WORK. 

The following plan has served my purpose ad- 
mirably: I tack up cloth between the windows, 
fastening it securely to the edge of the casing, 
which does no injury to the casing or wall. Then 
I attach sewing cards, drawings, paper cuttings, 
etc., to the cloth with a little bit of iron glue, which 
is easily done and as easily removed when new 
work is to be put up. 



NUMBER GAME. 

I place primary number cards on desk or table, 
printed side down. A child picks up the card and 
if he can name it the card is his. If he cannot, he 
places it on the table again and when his turn 
comes again he picks up another card. When all 
the cards have been picked up, each pupil counts 
those he has won and the child who has the great- 
est number is declared the winner. 

EDITH M. 



GAMES FOR RECREATION. 

The best games for recreation in first grade are 
those which take but a few minutes to play in which 
all the children can participate. The following are 
selected with these points in view: 

Place a yard stick across two kindergarten chairs 
in the front of the room. 

The children stand, one row at a time. Each 
child in the row runs from his seat, jumps over the 
stick and runs around the room to his place. 

The stick must be placed low enough so that the 
smallest child can clear it easily. 

Denver. CAROLINE SMITH. 



A LITTLE THING WORTH KNOWING. 

A cedar pencil with a hard, sharp rubber in the 
end, the kind that can be bought of your stationer 
for a penny, is a good substitute for a rubber pen. 
It will be found a great convenience when a chart 



is to be made or when word or number cards are 
to be written or printed. Dip the rubber in ink 
and use as you would a pen. 

When a ruler is to be used, as in drawing long 
lines, draw first with pencil, remove the ruler and 
trace with the rubber pen. 

— Selected. 



DO IT BETTER. 

Do it better! 

Letting well enough alone never raised a salary 
or secured a better position. 

And what was well enough yesterday is poor 
enough today — do it better. 

Rescue that daily task from the maw of dull 
routine — do it better. 

Seek out that automatic act of habit — do it 
better. 

Put another hour on the task well done — and do 
it better. 

Strive not to equal yesterday's work — strive to 
surpass it. 

Do it better! — Timely Topics. 



DECORATION. 

Julia Lehmann. 

1. I give the children colored paper strips and 
they make rings from these and the rings are joined, 
forming chains. These chains are hung in a corner 
to form a curtain. In this corner I keep all the 
articles which they have made, such as wagons, 
baskets, and paper furniture. 

2. I cut out all the little pictures, as horse- 
heads, and scenes that I can find in magazines. I 
give these to the pupils to paste on a mounting 
card about 5 by 3 inches. Then they take a 
crayola and draw a circle around the pictures for 
frames. A margin of the same color is put around 
the mounting card. These make pretty pictures 
with which to decorate the room. — School Educa- 
tion. 



BUSY WORK DEVICE. 

Draw circles about four inches in diameter upon 
drawing paper. By the use of colored crayons 
have the children make strings of beads. This 
may be varied in many ways, and thus be made 
useful in teaching number and color. Have the 
children draw two black beads, followed by two 
red beads, one red and two green, or alternate the 
colors till the string is completed. 

Heroism is simple, and yet it is rare. Everyone 
who does the best he can is a hero. — Josh Billings. 



i6i 



THE KINDEfcGASTEN-PRIMAfcY MAGAZINE 



ETHICAL CULTURE 

THE OLD MAN'S MISHAP. 
Kindness. 

An old man was passing along the streets on a 
windy winter morning. 

The sidewalks were covered with snow and ice. 

Suddenly a gust of wind blew off his hat and sent 
it whirling along on the snow. 

The old man tried to hurry along after his hat, 
but was so feeble that he could only creep along 
over the snowy walks. 

Two large boys who were on their way to school 
saw the poor old man's mishap and began laughing 
aloud. 

A little boy six years old was passing and ran 
at once to get the hat which had lodged against a 
post. He brought it to the old man, who thanked 
him many times and offered him a dime for his 
kindness. 

But the little fellow said, "No, I do not want to 
take anything for that," and tripped along to 
school. 

The old man cried aloud, "May the Lord bless 
the manly little fellow." 

The big boys had stopped to see the fun, as they 
called it, but when they saw the kindness of the 
little boy they felt ashamed and one of them said: 
"I wish we had tried to help the old man instead 
of laughing at him. I am ashamed of myself and 
will never do such a mean thing again." 

Which of the three boys do you like the best? 

Why? 

Which of the two older boys do you like the 
best? 

Why? 

Because he was sorry for what he had done and 
resolved to do so no more. 



TEACHING VIRTUE. 

Sometime since a committee appointed by N. E. 
A. to consider the matter of teaching virtue in the 
public schools made an interesting report. A few 
of the points given are as follows: 

Elemental virtue can and should be inculcated in 
childhood and youth. To say that children dislike 
moral preaching is to utter an irrelevant common- 
place. There is preaching and preaching, teaching 
and teaching. Educators must devise and adopt 
the right methods, but that there are right and suc- 
cessful methods is beyond question. 

As the committee suggests, tidiness, obedience, 
self-subordination may be taught in kindergartens. 
Honesty, manliness, justice, civic courage can be 
inculcated in the grammar grades, while the high 
school — and why not also the college? — should deal 
with the obligations of family life, citizenship, in- 
dustrial and social relations and the like. 

Mere dry sermonizing will do little good. But 
illustrations from history and contemporary life, 



object lessons, readings from classical authors .tales 
calculated to stir admiration and present ideals of 
conduct are not "preaching" or "sermonizing." 
Youth is impressionable and responsive to noble 
deeds and eloquent words that come from the heart. 
"Perfunctory" moral lessons might, indeed, be 
worse than nothing, but sincere, inspired moral 
teaching, with concrete applications, cannot fail in 
the majority of cases. 



HOW JOHNNY LEARNED TO HATE A LIE. 

Johnny's found an onion; 

Least, he thinks it is; 
Calls mamma to see it — 

Wishes it were his. 

"Darling, that's a treasure 

Brought me from afar; 
Now we'll lay it gently 

In the ginger jar." 

Johnny grew quite naughty — 

Stole the thing away, 
Dug a hole and buried it, 

When he tired of play. 

"There!" he said, "It's hidden- 
Hidden quite away; 

No one ever can know 
I stole it today!" 

O, poor, naughty Johnny. 

Stolen treasure knew it; 
Sent a scarlet tulip up — 

Everyone could view it. 

Johnny doesn't steal now; 

Johnny doesn't lie; 
Says it isn't any good 

To make his mamma cry. 

" 'Sides," he says, "It makes me 

Feel all bad inside. 
Lies are worse than measles; 
Know it, 'cause I've tried." 

— Alice Spicer. 
2012 N. Weber St., Colorado Springs, Colo. 

FOUR BE'S. 

Be fair in all your work and play, 
Be truthful in the words you say, 
Be kind to both your friend and foe, 
Be patient when things "criss-cross" go. 

— Selected. 



The purest treasure mortal times afford 

Is spotless reputation; that away 

Men are but gilded loam or painted clay. 

— Shakespeare. 

The intellect is perfected not by knowledge but 
by activity. — Aristotle. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



169 



AN APPEAL 

Mabel A. MacKinney, president of the In- 
ternational Kindergarten Union, has issued 
an able address to the members of the organ- 
ization in which she states the need of funds 
for the inspirational and propagatory work 
of the union which is sadly handicapped for 
that reason, and concludes with the follow- 
ing appeal: 

The Executive Board desires to make 
an earnest appeal to every Branch, 
and each individual member to make 
every possible effort to bring associ- 
ate members into the Union. If two 
thousand members could be secured 
it -would make possible vastly more 
effective operations than can be car- 
ried on at present. If each Branch 
■will make it a part of its winter plan 
to secure from its numbers twenty 
associate members we should have 
that number. The contribution of 
$1.00 per year is a small amount for 
each one to give, and in return she 
has, besides, the satisfaction of know- 
ing that she is aiding the work of the 
Union, a copy of its annual proceed- 
ings. These reports are in reality a 
history of the progress and develop- 
ment of the kindergarten in this coun- 
try, and will, in time, prove invalu- 
able records to possess. 
Let us all determine we shall not 
cease our efforts until these two thou- 
sand associate members of the union 
are secured! 
Mabel A. MacKinney, President. 
Now why not have a prompt and hearty 
response from Kindergartners everywhere to 
this appeal, so reasonable and easy of accom- 
plishment. There is scarcely a Kindergart- 
ner anywhere who could not secure at least 
five associate members if she will but set 
herself about it, and -why not do it at once, 
within 24 hours after reading this appeal. 
It will help yourself, it will help the cause, and 
it will gladden the hearts of the faithful ones 
who are carrying the responsibilities of this 
work through the I. K. U. Two or three 
hours work or a half dozen letters to your 
friends may accomplish the slight task. Then 
^why not'do it now?^ [Editor. 



NEWS NOTES 

Washing-ton, D. C. — Susan Plessner Pollok, of the 
Kindergarten Normal Institutions, is sojourning with 
relatives at Gotha, Germany. 

Brookline, Mass.— The Brookline Kindergarten As- 
sociation is doing excellent work locally in the way of 
advancing the kindergarten cause. 

Boston, Mass. — Miss Annie Laws, the well known 
kindergartner of Cincinnati, has been a welcome guest 
among kindergartners of this city. 

New York City. — Miss Jenny Hunter gave an ad- 
dress on the occasion of the Christmas meeting at the 
kindergarten training school bearing her name, on the 
subject: "The Gift of Love and the Christmas Spirit of 
Giving." 

New York. — The Committee of Nineteen met in New 
York City during the holidays, holding a three-day ses- 
sion. 

Fourteen members were present and full reports were 
presented from sub-committees. A report will be 
made at Des Moines, where the next meeting of the I. 
K. U. is to be held late in April. 

Miss Mabel A. MacKinney is president of the I. K. U. 
She called at the hotel where the Committee was in 
session and conferred with the members at one of the 
evening sessions. 



BOOK NOTES 

Music for The Child World. Complied by Mari 
Rouf Hofer. Musical editor, Fannie L. Gwinner Cole. 
Volume 3 of this excellent music for the kindergarten 
contains 132 pages of music, divided into eleven sections 
representing every phase of child interest, seasons 
holidays, etc., with marches, plays, songs and dances 
for the kindergarten. Published by Clayton F. Summy 
Co,, 220 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. Price, $1.50. 

Child Songs, by Mary GrantO'Sheridan and Beatrice 
MacGowan. 15 songs of the season, and other phases 
of child life, with music. Paper, 32 pages. Price, 50c. 
Published by Clayton F. Summy Co., 220 S. Wabash 
Ave., Chicago. 

Children's Songs, by Anna Goedheart. A selec- 
tion of eleven songs with music for the kindergarten 
and primary grades. Price, 50c. Published by Clay- 
ton F. Summy Co., 220 Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Everyday Songs and Rhythms. By Mary Leora 
Hall and Sarah Elizabeth Palmer. 25 Songs with music 
for the children relating to the seasons and things of 
child interest; published by Clayton F. Summy Co., 
220 S, Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. Price, 50c. 

All animal life is sensitive to environment, 
but of all living things the child is the most 
sensitive. A child absorbs environment. It is 
the most susceptible thing in the world to in- 
fluence, and if that force be applied rightly and 
constantly when the child is in its most recep- 
tive condition, the effect will be pronounced, 
immediate and permanent. — Luther Burbank. 



170 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



KINDERGARTEN GROWTH 

[NOTE:— Under this heading we shall give from time to 
time such items as come to our notice relative to the estab- 
lishment of new kindergartens as well as articles or state- 
ments in the public press or from noted educators favor- 
able to the kindergarten cause,] 



THE HISTORY OF A GREAT MOVEMENT. 

Samuel Levi was only four years old, he had red 
hair and a stubborn expression, and when his 
mother brought him to kindergarten she remarked, 
"My Sammie is as tough as he can be. I lick him 
something awful and I can't make him mind." 
Sammie looked furtively at Miss Atwater and was 
surprised to receive a pleasant smile of welcome, 
instead of the look of reproval he expected. Three 
months later his mother called again and asked, 
"What have you done to Sammie? I never saw 
such a change in a child, and he tells me you never 
lick him." Miss Atwater explained that he was not 
by nature a naughty child, only stubborn, and that 
stubborn children should be led and reasoned with, 
instead of being driven. Mrs. Levi looked happy, 
and remarked, "I have another little boy, Ikie; I'll 
bring him around and you can make him over, too." 



Little black-eyed Rosie was only three and a half 
years old when she came to the Hoagland kinder- 
garten in Brooklyn. She looked very old-fashioned 
and quaint, for her gown, passed down from an 
older sister, nearly touched the ground, and in her 
ears were large loops of gold, but, alas, little Rosie 
had a grave fault; she stole everything within 
reach, and secreted the articles in her shoes, which 
were always too large, whether intentionally or not 
the kindergartner was never able to discover. In 
vation of frankness, truthfulness, and honesty, and 
this case special attention was given to the culti- 
at the end of a year little Rosie had quite outgrown 
the habit, which would very likely have led her to 
a life of crime but for the work of the kinder- 
gartner. — Exchange. 



KINDERGARTEN FOR THE INSANE. 

What is to all intents and purposes a kinder- 
garten for the insane at Bayview has lately been es- 
tablished by the Supervisors of City Charities, with 
a view to keeping the minds of the unfortunates 
off their condition and helping to bring about cures 
in cases that are not hopeless. So far as is known 
it is the first movement of the kind to be started in 
this country for the relief of the insane. It will 
be adopted at Springfield and Spring Grove in the 
fall, the superintendents of these hospitals having 
found it to be one of the best systems of the kind 
yet thought out. 

Under the direction of an expert teacher the in- 
sane at Bayview who are physically unable to work 
are taught how to play, how to do fancy work, 
basket making, etc. Technically it is called a re- 
educational school, for many of the unfortunates 
have to be handled as children in the nursery or the 



kindergarten. At the present time instruction is 
given twice a week, and the work outlined by the 
teacher is sufficient to keep the classes employed 
all the time. Nurses in the department are being 
trained in the art of teaching, and they will be re- 
quired to keep the work up all the time. 

The experiment is meeting with great success, 
giving light employment, as well as enjoyment, to 
those who would otherwise be compelled to spend 
their time sitting about the wards nursing their 
misfortunes and thinking, as well as they are able 
to think, of their ultimate end. — Baltimore Ameri- 
can. 



MODELING IN CEMENT. 



How Boys and Girls May Turn Their Skill to Good 
Account. 

From Farnham Bishop's "The Story of Panama," 
in February St. Nicholas: 

The country boy or girl is familiar with mud- 
pies, which every child has made by the roadside. 
The city boy or girl has in a great many cases done 
considerable sand modeling, clay modeling and pot- 
tery work. Now, why not use sand with some 
cement and make the objects permanent? It re- 
quires no more skill to do good work with cement 
than to use carpenter's tools. 

A bag of cement, commonly known as one-quar- 
ter of a barrel, costs only about forty cents. Such 
a bagful, when mixed with sand, would form a 
large number of interesting objects and afford much 
scope for the exercise of skill. There is a satis- 
faction in seeing a plastic bit of mud grow into a 
form under skilful hands, and the use of a trowel, 
perhaps, and the pleasure is enhanced by the 
thought that the object may be made as permanent 
as a rock, and may endure for ages. With this 
material our young people could easily make flower 
pots, aquariums, vases for plants in the yard and 
small pools for frogs and turtles. 



So far as we are informed Michigan is the banner 
state in the number of teachers attending the State 
Association. The meeting was held Nov. 2 and 3 
and the actual paid enrollment was 8,222. There 
were something over 3,600 paid memberships in 
Kansas and about 2,500 in Missouri. — Missouri 
School Journal. 



FLOWERS' BED TIME. 
The little flowers have gone to sleep 

Their playtime now is o'er; 
Nor from their earthly beds will peep 
Till spring comes back once more. 

— Selected. 



A good word is an easy obligation, but not to 
speak ill, requires only our silence which costs us 
nothing. — Tillotson. 

Cheerfulness is health; melancholy is disease. — 
Haliburton. 



WILL CARLETON'S 

MAGAZ1NF 

EVERY WHERE 

Contains each month the latest Poems, Sketches, 
Editorials, and Literary Talks of Will Carleton, author 
of "Farm Ballads", "Farm Legions", "City Festivals", 
"Over the Hill to the Poorhouse", etc. Each one brim 
full of the same qualities that have made him world- 
famous. 

Contains each month poems by the greatest woman- 
poet Margaret E. Sangster. Also some of the best work 
of other distinguished poets. 

Contains best of additional literature by popular 
authors. 

Contains ten complete Departments, each ably and 
interestingly edited. Handsomely Illustrated, and fine- 
ly printed in clear type on super-calandered paper. 

Price, $1.00 per Year. 10 cents a copy. 
SPECIAL— To any one mentioning in his or her 
letter this advertisement, we will send Will 
Carleton's Magazine for Six Monfhs, on receipt 
of Twenty-Five Cents. Address, 

EVERY WHERE PUBLISHING CO- 

BR OOKLYN, N. Y. 

Cheap and Excellent Books 

SONG KNAPSACK, 142 songs for schools, 10c; $1 
dozen. 

"PAT'S P T -v, 124 pp. All the music to the KNAP- 
SACK songs. Sweetest, sanest, jolliest song 
book made. Cloth, 50c. 

PRIMER OF PEDAGOGY, by Prof. D. Putnam. 
Just what the times demand. Cloth 122 pp. 25c. 

MANUAL OF ORTHOGRAPHY AND ELEMEN- 
TARY SOUNDS, by Henry R. Pattengill. Up-to- 
date. 104 pp., 25c. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF U. S., by W. C. Hewitt. 

118 pp., complete, new, cloth, 25c; $2.40 per doz. 
MEMORY GEMS, 1000 GRADED SELECTIONS, by 

H. R. Pattengill. 143 pp., linen morocco finish, 

25c. 

MORNING EXERCISES AND SCHOOL RECREA- 
TIONS, by C. W. Mickens. New, 267 pp., 50c. 

PRIMARY SPEAKER FOR FIRST AND SECOND 
GRADES, by Mary L. Davenport. Fresh, 
elegant. 132 pp., 25c. 

OLD GLORY SPEAKER, containing 80 of the 
choicest patriotic pieces written. 126 pp., 25c. 

HINTS FROM SQUINTS, 144 pp. Hints comical, 
hints quizzical, hints pedagogical, hints ethical, 
hints miscellaneous. Cloth, 50c. 

SPECIAL DAY EXERCISES, 165 pp., 25c. 

Best medicine ever to cure that "tired fteling" 
in school. 

HENRY R. PATTENGILL, Lansing, Mich. 



The most charming scenery in the world is to be found 

Beautiful New England 

Every foot is historic ground, rich in literary associa 
tions, and hallowed by the struggle for American In 
dependence. As a teacher you need the 

New England Magazine 

with its weallh of local pictures illustrating these very 
scenes. Children become interested and gaina clearer idea 
of this historic section of our land and the events which 
have made it world-famous. Each number contains 
six full page engravings that are alone worth the price 
of the periodical. 

Our SPECIAL OFFER to 
TEACHERS 

To all readers of The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 
we will send the New England Magazine for one year at 
331-3 per cent, reduction from the regular price of $1.75. 
Send us $1.30 between now and the first of January and 

we will credit you with one full year's subscription. 

The New England Magazine 

Old South Building, Boston 

REMARKABLE CLUB OFFERS 



FOR 



Standard Magazines 



No* 1 { Educator-Journal 

( Primary Education 


$1.00 
1.25 




$2.25 Both for $1.65 


_ T ( Educator-Journal, 
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J Primary Education 
No A \ Popular Educator 


$1.25 
1.25 




$2.50 Both for J2.00 


Address 




THE EDUCATOR-JOURNAL CO. 



28 S. eridan St. 



Indianapolis, Ind. 



American Primary Teacher 

Edited by A. E. W1NSHIP 

| Published Monthly Except July and August 



An up-to-date, wide awake paper for the grades. Illustrated 
articles on Industrial Geography, New Work in the Grades, 
Drawing, Fables In Silhouette and other school room work. 

Send for specimen copy. 

Subscription, $1.00 a Year 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLILHING CO. 

299 BEACON STEET, BOSTON 



Teacher's Agencies 



-THE 



NORTHWESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

310-311 Providence Building 
DULUTH. MINN. 



The TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teaches, Tutors and 
Schools. No. 120 Boylston street. 



THE PRATT TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Recomends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, and other teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 
70 Fifth Avenue New York 



MIDLAND SPECIALISTS AGENCY 

Station A. Spokane, Wash. 
We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of Primary and Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 



REGISTER WITH US. 

We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt., 
Principals, Teachers of Science, Math- 
ematics and Language. 

OHIO VALLEY TEACHERS' AGENCY 



A. J. JOELY, Mgr. 



MENTOR., KY. 



WESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY SfcSE: 

We wantKindergarten, Primary, Rural 
and otherteachers for regularor special 
work. Highest salaries. Send for lit- 
erature and enroll for the coming year. 

P. Wendell Murray, Manager. 



Unemployed Teachers 

IF FOR ANY REASON YOU HAVE 
NOT ACCEPTED WORK FOR THE 
SESSION OF 1911-1912 WRITE ME. 
MANY UNEXPECTED VACANCIES 
OCCUR ALL DURING THE FALL 
AND WINTER. THERE ARE ALSO 
MANY SCHOOLS WHICH DO NOT 
OPEN UNTIL LATE IN THE FALL. 
OVERFLOW TEACHERS ARE CON- 
STANTLY NEEDED SOMEWHERE; 
WE CAN GENERALLY TELL YOU 
WHERE. IF OPEN, WRITE FOR 
INFORMATION ABOUT THE 
SOUTH'S NUMEROUS OPPOR- 
TUNITIES. 

W. H. JONES, Mgr. and Prop. 
COLUMBIA, S. C. 



POSITIONS 

Our Facilities Unsurpassed. 

The Bowen 

Teachers' 

Agency 

333-4-5 Hood Building, 
BIRMINGHAM, - ALABAMA. 



CURRENT EVENTS 

Louisville, Ky. — It has been decid- 
ed to hold the Kentucky Educational 
Association meeting here June 25, 
26, 27. 

Houston, Texas.— A petition ask- 
ing for cleaner amusement from 
managers of such places has been 
signed by 3000 school children of this 
city. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. — Miss Edith 
Campbell who was recently elected a 
member of the Board of Education 
is the first woman to hold any pub- 
lic office in this city. 

St. Louis, Mo. — It has just been 
announced that arrangements have 
been made by Supt. Ben. Blewett of 
St. Louis to hold all meetings of all 
departments of the Department of 
Superintendence in the convention 
halls, banquet halls and club-rooms 
of the Planters Hotel and the South- 
ern Hotel, situated but three blocks 
apart, much more convenient than 
holding sessions at the Odeon Thea- 
tre, about twenty blocks away, as 
formerly announced. 

Nashville, Tenn. — The trustees of 
the Peabody Education Fund have 
made an appeal to the friends of 
Education in America for $1,000,000 
to make the George Peabody College 
for Teachers at Nashville, Tenn., a 
great memorial to Peabody's bene- 
ficence to the South. Already the 
trustees have given a million dollars, 
and the State of Tennessee and the 
city of Nashville half as much more. 
The trustees offer, in the final dis- 
solution of the fund, to endow the 
college with an additional half mil. 
lion, provided the college within two 
years from November 1, 1911, raises 
$L ,000,000. 

After reduced railroad rates had 
been secured and advertised for the 
meeting of the Department of Super- 
intendence, N. E. A., the Central 
Passenger Association canceled its 
agreement, so that at the time of go- 
ing to press nothing definite can be 
announced. Everyone who is inter- 
ested should write the secretary, 
Irwin Shepard, Winona, Minnesota, 
for full information about latest agree- 
ment with railroad officials and for 
complete program of the meetings of 
the various departments. 

Dr. Claxton, the new Commission- 
er of Education, is a most aggressive 
worker and his administration prom- 
ises much for education in this 
country. 

We hope to be able to give the pro- 
gram of the I. K.N. meeting in our 
next issue. 



OWN A FARM 



Save while you earn. Invest your sav- 
ings in 

NUECES VALLEY 
GARDEN 

Lands in Sunny South Texas 

10 acres will make you independent. Pay 
by the month or in easy installments. 
Land will be sold to white persons only, 
A postal card will bring you particulars 
by addressing: 

W. R. EUBANK REALTY Co. 

202-3 Merrick Lodge Bldg., 
Lexington, Ky. 



for KINDERGARTEN and 
PRIMARY TEACHERS 

Spool Knitting. By Mary A. Mc- 
Cormack. Directions are clear and ex- 
plicit, accompanied by photographs. 
Price, 75 cents to teachers. 

Practical and Artistic Basketry. 

By Laura A. Pinsley. Illustrated. 
Price $1.00 to teachers. Stitches are 
taken up in the order of their difficul- 
ty. Cord work is given a place. Care- 
fully graded. 

Outlines for Kindergarten and 
Primary Classes, in the study of 
Nature and Related subjects. By E. 
Maud Cannell and Margaret E Wise. 
Price 75 cents to teachers. 

Memory Gems. For school and 
home. By W. H. Williams. Price 
50 cents to teachers. Contains more 
than 300 carefully chosen selections. 
Send for Catalogue 

The A. S. BARNES CO. 

381 Fourth Ave., New York 



McCall's Magazine 
and McCall Patterns 

For Women 

Have More Friends than any other 
magazine or patterns. McCall's 
is the reliable Fashion Guide 
monthly in one million one hundred 
thousand homes. Besides show- 
ing all the latest designs of McCall 
Patterns, each issue is brimful of 
sparkling short stories and helpful 
information for women. 

Save Money and Keep in Style by sub- 
scribing for McCall's Magazine atonce. Costs 
only 50 cents a year, including any one of 
the celebrated McCall Patterns free. 

McCall Patterns Lead all others in style, 
fit, simplicity, economy and number sold. 
More dealers sell McCall Patterns than any 
other two makes combined. None higher than 
15 cents. Buy from your dealer, or by mail from 

McCALL'S MAGAZINE 

236-246 W. 37th St., New York City 

Note — Sample Copj, Premium Catalogue, and Pattern Catalogue 
free, on request. 



Celebrating the Birthdays of Great Americans at Little Cost 

This can be easily done without any interruption of the reg- 
ular work. To illustrate: On Longfellow's birthday place 
his portrait on the blackboard, using a stencil, let the morn- 
ing exercises include a talk concerning him or a reading from 
one of his great works, give the pupils memory gems from 
his writings to learn, give out Longfellow sewing cards, etc. 
Of course this can be enlarged upon as desired, even to an 
evening's entertainment with an admission fee to be used 
for the purchase of kindergarten material or other supplies. 

James Russell Lowell's Birthday 

February 22nd 

READINGS— Vision of Sir Launfal, 6c,; Rhoe 

cus and other poems, 6c, : Under the Old Elm 

Tree and Other Poems, with notes and biograph 

leal sketch of author, 15c. All above for 8th year 



/TrtEEv. HATCH E 

wTT t— k%S f*ftrffr7 tractive 










POST CARDS. Beautifully embossed with 
portrait of author and poetical selection. A 
superbly beautiful card. Wholesale prices, 
6 for 8c, 12 for 15c, postpaid. 

Portraits. Size, 3x3V 2 ins., per dozen. 6c. 
postage, lc. ; size 5*2x8 ins., per dozen, 12c; 
postage 2c. ; size 7x9 ins.. Sepia tone, each, 
vc. : postage, lc. ; size about 11x13, each 5c, 
postage lc- A large, beautiful portrait 22x 
28 ins.. 25c ; 5 for $1.00, postpaid. 

Stencils, Blackboard stencils, portrait, 
5c. home, 5c. 

SEWING CARDS. Beautiful half tone por- 
trait with border design for perforating and 
sewing; per dozen. 10c. : nostage, 2c. 

Longfellow's Birthday, Feb. 27 

MEMORY GEMS.— Longfellow Memory Gems, 
including short poems, pamphlet form, 6c 

READINGS (5c each, post'g,lc)-Story of Long- 
fellow— 3rd year; Selections from Longfellow, 
Part 1— 4th year; Same, Part 2— 6th year; Evan- 
geline— 7th year. Also Hiawatha, with notes, 15c 

Portraits. Size, 3x3% ins., per dozen, 6c. j postage, lc. • size 
5%x8ins., per dozen, 12c ; postage, 2c. ; size 7x9 ins., Sepia tone, 
each, 2c ; postage lc. ; size about 11x13, each 5c, postage lc. A 
large, beautiful portrait 22x28 ins., 25c ; 5 for $1.00, postpaid. 

Stencils. Blackboard stencils, portrait, 5c, home, 5c. 

Sewing Cards. Beautiful half tone portrait with border de- 
sign for perforating and sewing; per dozen, 10c. ; postage 2c 

Our Little Sisters and Hian atha. Includes the Little 
Brown Baby, the Snow Baby, Gemila, and Hiawatha. Illus- 
trated ; 32 pages. Second grade. Price, t>c, ; postage, lc. 

IJiaivattia and its Auilior. A story of "the children's 
poet," and his beautiful Indian poem told in simple language. 
Illustrated. 32 pages, tecontl fciade. Price, 6c. ; postage, lc. 

LnmrfelJow and the Story of Hiawatha A story of the 
life of Longtellow, enriched by illustrations of his portrait, 
birthplace, home, study, chair arid clock. The story of Hia- 
watha is told in simple language and quotations from the 
poem, with three illustrations liom life. 32 pages. Third 
grade. Price, 6c. ; postage, '£c. 

Also the following with notes and hints on teaching. 2c 
each, 14c per doz., postpaid; "Paul Revere's Ride;" "Hiawa- 
tha's Childhood ;" "The Old Clock on The Stairs;" " The Din- 
Is Done ;", "The Two Angels." "The Emperor's Bird's-Nest ;" 
"The Village Blacksmith;" "The Children's Hour;" "Christ- 
mas Bells and While Shepherds Watched Their Flocks by 
Night." 

Washington's Birthday 

POST CARDS. Beautifully embossed in 
many attractive and artistic colors. As- 
sorted designs. Wholesale prices, 6 for 8c. ; 
12 for 15c, postpaid. Usually sell for 3c ea. 
READINGS. The Story of Washington. 
A well written account of his life from his 
birth to his death, Illustrated, 4th grade, 
32 pages. Each, dc ; 5 for 25c. Post'g 2c. ea. 
The Story of the Revolution. Contains a 
short story of Washington, the Story of 
Brindle, and Paul Revere's Ride; also Sto- 
ries of 76'. Third grade, Price of either, 
each, 6c. ; 5 tor 25c. Postaue, 2c each. 
The Story of the Revolution. Containing also a short 
story of Washington, the Storv of Brindle, and PhuI Revere's 
Ride. Illustrated; 32 pages. Fourth grade. Price, 6c ; post- 
age, 2c 

Stories of '76. Stories of the stirring days of the times of 
the Boston Tea Party, Paul Revere, Washington, and the 
first Fourth of July. Illustrated; 40 pages. Third grade, 
Price, 6c ; postage. 2c 

How To Celebrate Washington's Birthday. By Alice M 
Kellogg. The best special book of exercises for this occasion, 
it contains ten attractive exercises, three flag drills , fifty 
patroitic quotations, recitations, declamations and songs. 
The material is for all grades. 25 cents. 




HATCHET AND CHERRIES. An unusually at- 
, r e Washington souvenir. Made of me- 
long, natural colors, with pin at- 
tached. Try a few. Each, 3c; 30c. dozen. 

WASHINGTON HATCHETS. Carved from wood ; 
two inches long, appropriately decorated in 
color and silver, and tied with a bow of rib- 
bon. A unique and fitting souvenir. Post- 
paid, 3c. each ; per dozen, 30c. 
CHERRY BOGUETS, Aboque 
— of cherries, branch and leave? 

full size, natural color, perfectly life-like an" 
full of beauty. A very dainty and appropriate 
souvenir. Each, 4c. Per dozen, 45c. 

PORTRAITS. Size, about 3x3H ins., 6c. 
per doz.; postage, lc. Size, E^xB, per 
dozen, 12c. ; postage, 2c. Size, 7x9, 
extra fine, each, 2cts. ; postage, lc. 
Size, about 11x13, Sepia tone, each Sets. ; postage, lc. 
Extra large size, 22x28 ins., very fine ; each, 25c ; 5 for $1.00. 

WASHINGTON STENCILS. George Washington, Washing- 
ton Monument, Washington 
and Hatchet, Washington re- 
ceivinginstructionsfrom his 
mother, Washington as Sur- 
veyor, Washington as Commander-in-Chief, Washington a9 
President. Washington's Tomb, all above, 5c; Surrender of 
Cornwallis, 10c. ; Hatchet and Cherry Border. 10c ; Family at 
Mt. Vernon, 10c. 

Books for School 
Exhibitions 

Paper binding', each, 15c. Boards, 25c. 

TINY TOTS SPEAKER. By Mlssee Rook * Qoodfellow. 
Contains more than one hundred and fifty pieces of only a few 
lines each, expressed In the simplest language. For the wee one*. 

LITTLE PRIMARY PIECES. By C. S. Griffin. It Is a big 
day for the small person when he "speaks his piece." Here 
are over one hundred short, easy selections, mostly new, aiid 
all the rery best. For children of Sre years. 

CHILD'S OWN SPEAKER. By E. C. & L. J. Rook. A col- 
lection of Recitations, Motion Songs, Concert Pieces, Dialogues 
and Tableaux. Contains over one hundred pieces, many of 
which were specially written for this book. For children of 
six years. 

PRIMARY RECITATIONS. By Amoa M. Kellogg. A verit- 
able storehouse of short rhymes and brief paragraphs adapted 
to the aere when he aspiring speaker first selects his own pleee. . 
For children of seven years. 

LITTLE PEOPLE'S SPEAKER. By Mrs. 3. W. Shoemaker. 
A superior collection of recitations for little people, mostly In 
verse and ranging In length from four to twenty line*. For 
children of nine years. 

PRIMARY 8PEAKER. By Amos M. Kellogg. This YOlume 
contains 200 carefully selected pieces for Just that age when 
the child's natural diffidence makes the right piece very necesv- 
sarv. For children of ten years. 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S SPEAKER. By K. C, 4 L J. Rook. 
This book Is composed of bright, cheery, and wholesome rael- 
MtloriB by the most popular authors. For children of twelve 
years. 

PRACTICAL RECITATIONS. By Amoa M. Kellogg. Up- 
ward of seventy recitations of exceptional merit, carefully ax- 
ranged for grammar grades and ungraded schools. Longfellow, 
Lewis Carroll, Bryant, Farrar, Heine, Saxe, are arnone the 
contributors. For children of thirteen years. 

YOUNG FOLKS' RECITATIONS. By Mrs. J. W. Shoeaeaker. 
An excellent collection of fresh and crisp recitations adapted 
to the various needs of young people's entertainments. For 
children of fourteen years. 

The Penn Publishing Company 

623 Arch Street. Philadelphia 



READ 



The best school journal published the South, the land 
of opportunity, and one of the best in the Union, 

THE EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE, 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 

Get in touch with the New South, learn something of 
its problems and how they are being solved, f 1.00 for 
twelve issues, or $1.45 with the Kindergarten Primary 
Magazine. 



* W ^* " ' — ^^— «— H IMI II ■■■! ■I IWIIIMB I W,*-Mi ll W III M 1 

A Vital Book for Every Parent I 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE TRUE RELA- 
TIONSHIP OF PARENT TO CHILD 

A father or mother yourself you wrestle with the hundred 
and one different problems which arise every day in your 
desire to bring your boy up to be a true man or your little 

girl a noble woman. 

x-\re you certain of each move you make in directing the 

conduct of your child? 

Our Children 

By Dr. PAUL DARUS 

offers a unique contribution to pedagogical literature. The little book deals 
with the rights of the child, the responsibilities of parenthood and with the first 
inculcation of fundamental ethics in the child mind and the true principles of 
correction and guidance. Each detail is forcefully illustrated by informal in- 
cidents from the author's experience with his own children, and his suggestions 
will prove of great value to young parents and kindergartners. 

If you cannot get this book at your bookstore, order it direct from us. Price 
$1.00. Send us the name of your bookdealer and we will see that he is supplied 
with our publications, 
very interesting catalogue of some very interesting books. Write today. 




We publish a 



THE OPEN COURT PUB. CO., Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 



Headquarters for Temperance Supplies 

Books 

Song Books 

Leaflets on Scientific Temperance Teaching 

Story Leaflets 

The Young Crusader— Temperance paper for boys and girls; profusely illustrated; and aside 
from stories it contains splendid ideas for entertainments and selections for recitation — help- 
ful alike*to teacher and pupil. Published monthly, 25 cents per year. 

Toots — An illustrated book of stories by Anna A. Gordon. Price 60 cents postpaid. Send for 
latest bulletin. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION 



Literature Building 



Evanston, Illinois 



FIRST STEPS TO A LITERARY CAREER 

A Primer for Writers. Tells How to Write; 
What to Write; How to Prepare Copy for the 
Printer and How to Turn Failure into Success. Do 
you want to learn? Subscribe for 

THE BOOKSELLER AND LATEST 
LITERATURE 

and read the series of articles of interest to every 
aspiring writer. All who are interested in current 
literature will find this magazine desirable. An 
epitome of Books, Authors and Magazines of the 
day. $1.00 a year. Sample copy free. Address, 

The Bookseller and Latest Literature 

208-10 Monroe Street, Chicago, Ills. 



CLASSICS FOR SHCOOL AND HOME 

We now offer more than 200 titles 
to the public in our 

Three and Five Cent Classics 

We have a catalogue showing the titles and contents of 

these classics. We will send samples and a copy of our 

graded catalogue. Best and Cheapest Supplementary 

Reading for any teacher or school superintendent. 

On account of the excellence, and low price of these 
classics they are making friends wherever they are 
known. 

D. H. Knowlton & Co., Farmington, Maine. 



International Kindergarten Union 

Nineteenth Annual Convention at Des Moines April 29th- 
May 3rd, 1912. See Advance Program, Page 194 



Br. _ 




MARCH, KI2 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 



Editorial Notes, 
Homely Kitchen Plays, 



Jenny B. Merrill, Pel. D., 



The Kindergarten as a Factor in Edu- 



Bertha M. MeConkey, 

Emma B. Colbert, 
Katherine D. Blake, 
Margaret E. Schallenberger, 
C. E. Rugh, 



Horace H. Cummin gs, 
J a mes T. Joj r n er, 
Nora Keogh, 



cation for Efficiency, 

The Application of Froebelian Princi- 
ples to Teaching in the Grades, 

Peace Heroes, - - - - 

Teaching Humor, . 

Moral Instruction of the Child, 

Imitation and Habit in Moral Edu- 
cation, .... 

The Altruistic Tendency, 

Kindergarten Daily Program 

Reed and Raffia Construction Work 

in Primary Schools, - - - - 

Toys in the Kindergarten, - Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D., 

Kindergarten Growth, - - .... 

19th Annual Meeting of the Interna- 
tional Kindergarten Union at Des 
Moines, _...-.-. 

Helpful Hints and Suggestions. - 

Ethical Culture, - - - 

Meeting of the Kraus Alumni Associ- 

tion, ._->- -- . .. 



171 

172 

175 

178 
179 
179 
180 

183 
184 

185 

188 
191 
192 



194 
196 
197 

198 



Volume XXIV, No, 7. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 



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RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



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ALICE N. PARKER, Superintendent. 

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catalogue address. 

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82 St. Stephen Street, Boston. 

Normal Course, two years. 

For circulars address 

Miss Lucy Harris Symonds 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

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For Information, address 

HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

the Training School and Supervisor of 

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Springfield Kindergarten 

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Two Years' Course. Terms, $100 per year. 

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Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 

For Information address 

MISS CAROLINE T. HAVEN, Principal, 

Central Park West and 63d St. 

NEW YORK. 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 

Two Years' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
639 Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, GA. 



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Credits applied on regular Primary 
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New York City. 

July 1 to Aug. 9,1912. 

Dr. James E. Lough, Director. 

KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENT 

Courses given for kindergarten train- 
ing school and university credit. 
For information, address, 

Miss H. H. Mills, Principal of Department. 

New York University, Washington Square, 

New York City. 



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Price 25c. 

With this book and a box of sticks any 
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The work is fully illustrated. 
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All limp cloth binding. Address, 

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CARNEGIE COLLEGE 

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apply at once to Dept. C. 

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ROGERS, OHIO 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

OF 

The Buffalo Kindergarten Association 

Two Years' Course. 
Vor particulars address 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER, 
8fi Delaware Avenue. - Buffalo. N. Y. 

GRAND RAPIDS KINLERGAR= 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Winter Term opens September 27th. 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 
MAY L. OGILBY. Registrar 

ihepard Building, - 23 Fountain St. 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



CLEVELAND KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with the 
CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

2050 East 96th Street 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Founded In 1894) 
Course of study under direction of Eliza- 
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land, leading to senior and normal courses 
in the Chicago Kindergarten College. 

MISS NETTA FARIS, Principal. 

MRS. W. R. WARNER,. Manager. 



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THE- 



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Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 
INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



Miss Hart's 



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For Kindergartners 



3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 

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dergartens. 

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MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 
The Pines. Rutledge. Pa. 



OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 

FEOBBEL KINDERGARTEN TRAIN- 
ING SCHOOL. 

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Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

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Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Tears' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
16 Washington St., East Orange, N. 3 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

509 S. Wabash Ave., Opposite Auditorium 

Mrs Bertha Hofer Hegner, Superintenden 
Mrs. Amelia Hofer Jerome, Principal. 

FIFTEENTH YEAR. 
Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A courss 
in Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar with the Social Settle- 
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equipment. For circulars and inrurmauoi 
write to 
MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 

West Chicago, 111. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number o' 

students. 

Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 

Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 

SARAH E. HANSON, Principal. 

Credit at the 

Northwestern and Chicago Universities 

For particulars address Eva B. Whit 

more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 

ave., Chicago. 



The Adams School 

Kindergarten Training Course 

(Two Years) 

Nine months' practice teaching dur- 
ing course. Address, 

The Misses Adams 

26 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 

Richmond, Va. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 

Two years' training in Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. Post- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 

MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

fiumraer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua— JVtoimtain Iifl-ire Park — ■ 
Garrett Co., Maryland. 



THE HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 

For information address 

MISS HARRIETTE M.MILLS, Principal 

New York University Building 

Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Courses given for credit at 

New York University Summer School 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

2119 Allston Way, Berkeley, Calif. 

Grace Everett Barnard, 
principal. 



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1. The Pennsylvania School Journal. 

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2. Songs of the /Million. "Flag of the 
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Four for $1.00. Send for Illustrated 
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4. "Good Memory] Wo*." 20 cents. 
The influence of Good Songs and 
Hymns. Good Pictures and Good Mem-- 
ory Workin the School Room and in the 
Home is felt, in blessing, through all 
our lives as men and women. 

Address J. P. McCASKEY, 
LANCASTER. PA. 




KINDERGARTEN 

SUPPLIES 

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flaterial for Kindergartners and 

Primary Teachers. Catalogue 

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no So. Wabash Ave., CHICAGO 



EDUCATIONAL SPECIALTIES. N ; e r I P S 

Game, 15c ; History Game, 15c ; 2750 Les- 
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Year's Subscription to N. J. School 
News, 40c. W. C, MOORE, PUB., New 
Egypt, N.J. 



Ol)e Ufindergarten ;p rimar Y ^tlaoja^tne 



VOL. XXIV— MARCH, 1912— NO. 7. 



The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 



Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

E. Eyell Earle, Ph. D., Editor, 

Business Office, 276-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 

J. H. SHULTS. Business Manager. 

MAMSTEE, MICHIGAN. 

All communications pertaining to subscriptions and adver- 
tising or other business relating to the Magazine should be 
addressed to the Michigan office, J. H. Shults, Business Man- 
ager, Manistee, Michigan. All other communications to E. 
Lyell Earle, Managing Editor. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is published on the 
first of each month, except July and August, from 278 River 
Street, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable in advance. 
Single copies, 15c. 

Postage is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions In 
the United States. Hawaiian Islands. Philippine Islands, 
Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, 
Cuba and Mexico. For Canada add 20c and for all other 
countries in the Postal Union add 30c for postage. 

Notice of Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a con- 
tinuance of the subscription is desired until notice of dis- 
continuance is received. When sending notice of change of 
address, both the old and new addresses must be given. 

Make all remittances to Manistee, Michigan. 



"Oh, the long and dreary winter." 



I. K. U. Des Moines, April 29-May 3. Plan 
to go. 



At the request of those in charge of the I. K. U. 
meeting at Des Moines we have held this issue 
awaiting arrival of advance program which will 
be found on page 194. 



Education for service, and to a knowledge 
of the joy of service should be the goal. Educa- 
tion for personal superiority or popularity is low 
aim in this year 1912. 



The people of Des Moines fully appreciate the 
advantages that will come to their city as the 
place for holding the next annual meeting of the 
I. K. U. and a most cordial reception may be 
anticipated. 

A Heart belief in the essential principles of 
Christianity is a well nigh essential qualification 
for the successful Kindergartner. The work is 
sacred; while joyfulness, humor and companion- 
ship should abound, irreverence and frivolity can 
have no rightful part in it. 



WE publish several excellent articles in this 
issue along the line of that most important sub- 
ject — moral training in the schools. 



Ella Flagg Young has been unanimously 
elected superintendent of Chicago public schools. 
Harriet L. Keeler was recently elected to a like 
position in Cleveland. Verily "the world do 



move. 



The officers and committees of the I. K. U. 
have prepared a most excellent program for the 
Des Moines meeting and now it is due them and 
they cause in general that each individual kin- 
dergartner should endeavor to be present. When 
this is not possible, at least send in your name 
and the name of a friend as associate members of 
the I. K. U. The fee is only $1.00 and each 
member will receive the year book free. 



Notwithstanding the progress that is being 
made in the establishment of public school kinder- 
gartens the fact remains that in this year 1912 
the kindergarten is an impossibility to nearly 80 
per cent, of the children of America. Verily this 
ought not so to be, and one way to help in the 
right direction is for each kindergartner to do 
her share toward securing the two thousand 
associate members of the I. K. .U See appeal 
published in our last issue. 



KindergartnERS are saying many helpful 
things at public meetings all over the country 
which should have the widest possible publicity. 
These addresses are not subject to copyright, and 
if they were sufficiently interesting and helpful 
to hold the attention of an audience for a half 
hour they undoubtedly would also interest 
and help the vastly larger audience which the 
press can reach. Then why not freely offer your 
address not only to the kindergarten and general 
educational press but to the publications of 
general circulation as well. If the value of the 
kindergarten were understood by even a majority 
of parents as it is by its followers there would be 
such a demand for it that the whole problem of 
public school kindergartners would soon be well 
along on the road toward solution. 



172 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



HOMELY KITCHEN PLAYS. 
II 

BY JENNY B. MERRILL, PD. D. 
(Late Supervisor Public Kindergartens, New York.) 

Aunt Charlotte was very wise in managing 
children. The most trivial thing she gave a 
child to play with was first invested wilh such 
a degree of importance that the imagination 
was aroused to make the most of it. 

There is a philosophy behind Aunt Char- 
lotte's method that I , heartily commend to 
mothers. A mother may, for example, make 
one pea and one toothpick amuse a child more 



begin to make them, or if not so early, certain- 
ly a year or two later, but mother may use 
them much earlier. One can play with words 
in the kitchen as well as with more material 
things ! 

To return to our dish of peas. "Can you 
push another pea half way up on the stick? Be 
careful. Do not push too hard." 

There, now, you have a better dolly. Break 
one toothpick into two short sticks. What 
will you do with them? O, I see, they make 
fine arms. Your dolly is like a little jumping 
Jack." 




DES MOINES— Kingman Boulevard. 



than a cupful of peas heedlessly handled, 
spilled everywhere and innocent fun shut off 
with a scolding. 

But it all depends upon the "Play Fairy" 
who sees possibly a hat pin, possibly a dolly 
when the one pea and the one stick are joined 
together! Another pea and another stick and 
you have two hat pins which may turn quickly 
into two drum sticks if brother is playing too. 
The kitchen table, or better yet a small tin 
dish turned upside down is the drum. "Rub- 
a-dub dub, Two men in a tub," or some other 
improvised couplet adds to the fun and socia- 
bility and helps develop a sense of rhythm. 

Nonsense couplets are invaluable for chil- 
dren. At five or six years of age children will 



"Here is a saucer with many peas and a box 
with many sticks — will you be very careful? 
I will let you play alone now for I am very 
busy." says mother. "You can make a whole 
family of dolls or jumping Jacks, or whatever 
you please. When I finish my work I will try 
to guess what you have made." 

These intervals of silence are good for both 
mother and child. If there are two children, 
the older one may be left in charge, playing 
she is mother, or whatever fancy dictates. Chil- 
dren need a suggestion now and then from an 
adult, but with this slight help, supervision 
should cease or at least appear to be withdrawn 
else children grow too dependent, and weary 



TliE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



*73 



an adult. Mother must not wait very long be- 
fore returning to inspect. 

If the little one has become interested in 
number and loves to count, a new interest may 
be aroused by asking, "How many peas have 
you used? Now see how many are left. See 
if you can put five on one stick." This will be 
quite a feat. Such a play as we have suggested 
may follow shelling fresh peas in the kitchen, 
but dried peas may be soaked until soft enough 
for use. Cranberries may be used in a similar 
way. If the dried peas are used the older chil- 
dren may make a chain. That means a journey 



material but recently a small round bag loosely 
filled with beans yet quite closely resembling 
a ball has been found very attractive and easier 
for a little child to catch than a real ball. 

After working hours mothers should allow 
the children to play ball or bean bag in the 
kitchen. It is the best room for such play. 
There is little furniture and there are no orna- 
ments to be endangered. 

Every child should be encouraged to throw 
and to catch at an early age even under two 
years. There are muscles that demand this 
exercise though good Fairy Play does not re- 




DES MOINES— Court House. 



to the sewing basket for thread and needle. 
When the chain is long enough for a necklace 
or for bracelets, the play has reached its cli- 
max. 

Chains of peas may be stained in different 
colors and are really very pretty for dolls to 
wear, though the children too may claim them 
to dress up ! 

How oats, peas, beans and barley grows. 
You nor I nor nobody knows," has long been a 
favorite ring game with children who rarely 
think of the words until "Open a ring, and 
choose one in," calls to action and choice. Per- 
haps there are plays for the kitchen in "oats 
and barley," but I am sure of "peas and beans." 

The bean bag is a great favorite with chil- 
dren. It is usually made square of some strong 



veal her purpose, but pleasantly accomplishes 
it every time. Watchful care is needed indoors 
for this exercise until baby learns to be careful. 

Even a two year old child may become quite 
skillful in throwing if not in catching, and the 
running and finding gives such pleasure. Noth- 
ing will arouse a child so thoroughly or make 
more merriment than the ball plays. Try it 
when the child is worrisome, very probably 
from lack of genuinely active exercise. 

The kitchen will furnish many a ball to be 
rolled though not thrown. An apple, a potato 
or an onion are the best vegetables for rolling. 

I have amused a baby of twenty-two months 
by such rolling plays. He developed skill in 
following quite a straight line on the kitchen 
floor. Eye and hand thus learn to work to- 



174 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



gether. Ball playing and building games are 
the best of all early plays for children. Moth- 
ers should not relegate them to the kindergar- 
ten. We must not leave our subject until we 
find a building play for the kitchen. Of course 
baby's blocks may be carried to the kitchen, 
but for a change, he will enjoy a bundle of 
kindling wood, or another day, a dozen or more 
clothes-pins, joining them together in various 
ways. The very effort to unite two pins gives 
the young child hand exercise as well as real 
pleasure. 

Older children may build a log cabin of 
clothes-pins at mother's suggestion. Construc- 
tiveness, putting things together is opposed to 
distructiveness. It is one of the best outlets 
for activity and creativeness. Putting together, 



who is permitted to wash dolly's clothes in 
company with mother or maid. 

All such miniature kitchen furnishings were 
included in the carefully selected toys exhibit- 
ed in the recent "Toy Exhibit" at Teachers' 
College, New York City, under the direction 
of the Kindergarten Department which is so 
ably supervised by Miss Patty S. Hill. 

The toy broom and dust pan with a midget 
sweeper were also in evidence at this exhibit, 
for "cleaning up" is an important part of play- 
hour, and may be full of the play spirit too, 
and does not the inclined plane present itself 
as a new mechanical power in the dust pan? 

Wise mothers wonder and ponder and learn 
from the little ones how best to play. Still 
mother leads while yet she follows. 




DES MOINES— Union Depot. 



taking apart, finding new relations and possi- 
bilities is the secret joy of many simple plays. 
Children are too often interrupted.in their sim- 
ple plays. 

It seems difficult for some grown folk, even 
good parents, to understand what really valu- 
able lessons in physics are being unconsciously 
learned in kitchen plays. 

The clothes-line pulley, the ropes of the 
dumb waiter fascinate the child who feels they 
have a mysterious power. 

There is the singing tea-kettle with its 
prophecy of steam's mighty power. To be sure 
the children cannot exactly play with it, but 
they can watch for the boiling point and the 
bubbles. 

Washing day brings the mysteries of soap- 
suds, blueing and starching. The toy stores 
furnish miniature washtubs, washboards and 
even wringing machines. Happy the child 



To live content with small means; to seek 
elegance rather than luxury, and refinement 
rather than fashion ; to be worthy, not respect- 
able; and wealthy, not rich; to study hard, 
think quietly, talk gently, act frankly; to listen 
to stars and birds, to babes and sages with 
open heart; to bear all cheerfully, do all brave- 
ly, await occasions, hurry never — in a word, to 
let the best, unbidden and unconscious, grow 
up through the common; this is to be my 
symphony. — William Henry Channing. 



The best way to keep a child from doing 
something bad is to set him to work doing 
something good. It is our duty to find the 
something good. It is our shame if the child 
chooses the something: bad. — Julia Richman. 



Little else is worth study than the devel- 
opment of a soul. — Browning. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



i75 



The Kindergarten as a Factor in Education 
for Efficiency. 

Bertha M. McConkey. 

Supervisor of Kindergartens and Primary Schools, Spring- 
field, Mass. 

During recent years the attention of edu- 
cators has been centered upon the more prac- 
tical phases of school instruction, and much 
thought has been expended upon the revision 
of courses of study in order to meet the popu- 
lar demand for a scholastic training that shall 
be at once broadly cultural and definitely prac- 
tical. 

With a view to the wisest ultimate expendi- 



early youth with a view to making them nar- 
rowly efficient in the vocational world, the loss 
would be vastly greater than the gain. That 
the man is greater than the artisan, the work- 
man than the work, is a fact that must be 
recognized in a democracy. 

A child should be given every possible ad- 
vantage by means of which to prepare himself 
for the great business of living before he is 
encouraged to concentrate his attention and 
effort upon preparation for a particular trade 
or occupation. The "short cut to the dollar" 
is not necessarily the best and happiest avenue 
to life. Education should "first render fit to 
live, and then assure a fit living." 




DES MOINES— 

ture of public funds every department of the 
public-school system is being called to account 
by practical men of affairs who are asking in- 
sistently, "How does this or that feature of 
school instruction contribute to the child's 
education for efficiency?'' The question would 
be easier to answer were there a universally 
accepted definition of the word "efficiency." 

If by efficiency we mean all-around capa- 
bility, adaptability, and potential power, and 
not merely mechanical skill along certain nar- 
row lines, the clamor for manual education 
does not constitute a menace to our broad and 
democratic system of public education. But 
if, on the other hand, the pressure of modern 
business conditions should tempt us to reor- 
ganize our schools so as to train children from 



Historical Building. 

Childhood is the formative period of life, 
when the perceptive powers, the social in- 
stincts, the emotions, and the will seek exer- 
cise, and expand in proportion to the opportu- 
nities afforded for their development. 

It is one of the functions of the school to 
prolong the period of childhood, and to de- 
velop in children the strength of body, mind, 
and spirit that is necessary to successful 
achievement in later years, by means of phys- 
ical and mental activities suited to each stage 
of growth. 

From this point of view the training of the 
kindergarten is as necessary in a child's de- 
velopment as the highly specialized training 
of the vocational school, which must be given 
much later in life. To the suggestion of 



176 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



would-be economists that the money now be- 
ing expended for kindergartens in this country 
had better be applied to trade schools, reply 
may be made that the general all-around train- 
ing of a young child's powers, afforded by a 
good kindergarten, may mean quite as much 
to his success and happiness in adult life as 
the acquirement of the rudiments of a specific 
trade or avocation. 

Why, in this case, should Peter be robbed to 
pay Paul ? Surely upon no other ground than 
that Peter is undeserving of the confidence of 
the public and has but poorly fulfilled his 
trust. That such a view of the case is unsup- 
ported by evidence is conclusively proved by 



powers, has made a unique place for itself in 
our system of education. 

The necessity for a kindergarten may pos- 
sibly be questioned where parents have the 
means and the will to supply an equivalent 
training, and where the importance to a child 
of early association with other children, under 
right conditions, is definitely provided for in 
the home. But when children are left to the 
care of servants, or when the mother of a 
family is too busy or too preoccupied to super- 
vise, personally, the work and play of its 
younger members, the school must supply the 
deficiency or the children will be defrauded. 

There are comparatively few mothers who 




DES MOINES— Drake University 



the fact that out of 92 cities in the United 
States, having a population of 40,000 or over, 
86 have kindergartens. And out of 72 cities 
that returned answers to the query, "Have 
kindergartens ever been abolished in your 
city?" only three cities made answer in the af- 
firmative, and in two of these three cities kin- 
dergartens have been re-established and are 
now in successful operation. 

The letters received from school superin- 
tendents, in response to a qestionnaire regard- 
ing the conduct of kindergartens in various 
cities, give evidence that this system of child 
training, providing as it does large opportu- 
nities for the exercise of self-control, kindness, 
generosity, and sympathetic understanding of 
the rights and needs of others, as well as for 
a harmonious development of all a child's 



find it possible under the pressure of home and 
social duties to maintain the sympathetic, self- 
controlled attitude toward children that is 
maintained by the kindergartner who has been 
trained for her task. And it is a difficult mat- 
ter for any home to provide children with such 
opportunities for progressive and educative 
activity as are afforded by a properly equipped 
kindergarten. 

The neglected child, the "only" child, the 
lonely, selfish, or wilful child, even when the 
latter is surrounded by every luxury and re- 
finement that wealth and culture can afford, 
all need to be brought under some strong so- 
cializing influence while they are in the plastic 
period, when habits are readily formed and 
conduct most easily influenced. In the case of 
children of alien peoples, who must be taught 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



177 



a new language and must be prepared for life 
under new conditions, there is no more potent 
or more effective educational agency than the 
kindergarten with its atmosphere of love and 
beauty and its opportunities for self-expres- 



sion. 



A further suggestion is offered by short- 
sighted economists to the effect that money 
may be saved for vocational schools by dele- 
gating to the primary school in well-to-do city 
districts many of the functions of the kinder- 
garten, and establishing day nurseries for the 
children of the poor. 

At best such a substitution would be merely 
a makeshift, for no primary school can per- 
form its own functions and those of the kin- 
dergarten. As well may the trade school at- 
tempt to give to its pupils the elementary in- 
struction in reading and writing that should 
have been given earlier in the grades. 

To provide day nurseries for the children of 
the poor, and substitute the primary school for 
the kindergarten in all districts where the 
people are well to do, would be to lose more 
than anyone who is not a close student of kin- 
dergarten methods and results can possibly 
apprehend. 

The kindergarten is not an experiment. It 
has come to stay, for it meets a need that no 
other agency can meet so well. It lays broad 
and deep foundations for virtuous and effec- 
tive living and cannot therefore be spared 
from any complete system of education. It is 
no nearer perfection than the college or the 
high school, but it is growing each year in effi- 
ciency, and already many practices to which its 
critics object have been abandoned by pro- 
gressive kindergartens. Occupations which 
have a tendency to strain the eyes or the 
nerves of children, such as cardboard sewing, 
fine weaving, the stringing of small beads, and 
construction with peas and sticks, have been 
replaced in a majority of the modern kinder- 
gartens by work with materials that are much 
larger and much more easily manipulated. 
For example, very soft, large-size crayons are 
used instead of pencils for drawing and color- 
ing; free paper cutting is taking the place of 
the old-time cutting to line, and much of the 
construction work is with blocks of large size 
with which stable and satisfactory structures 
may be reared, structures that when completed 
stand firmly in place upon the floor and the 
building of which brings into play all the 
larger muscles of a child's body. 

It is true that a primary teacher is now and 
then heard to complain that kindergarten chil- 



dren are restless and inclined, as one mother 
expressed it, "to dance the carpets off the 
floor;" but the majority of first-grade teachers 
testify that when given work that calls for the 
exercise of power the child who has had a year 
in a kindergarten gives practical evidence of 
the benefit derived from his training. Such a 
child is apt to be bored by work that is be- 
neath his ability, but he is more responsive, 
more ingenious, and more helpful in his hu- 
man relationships than the child who has en- 
tered the grades without this preliminary 
training. Whether he passes through the 
grades more rapidly than his neighbor is of 
less moment than how he passes through 
them, and what he is when he has finished his 
school course. How much does he get out 
of his educational work What does he con- 
tribute to life and to his school? What is the 
result in general efficiency? These are more 
important questions than, "Did he pass the 
examination and reach the high school in 
advance of his mates?" 

The friends of the schools, by suggestions 
based upon a sympathetic and intelligent 
study of conditions, and by constructive criti- 
cism, may do much to improve them. Open 
discussion of educational methods and pro- 
cesses is always to be welcomed, for nothing 
is of more vital interest to every home in 
the commonwealth than the question of public 
education. 

In the kindergarten is embodied an ideal- 
istic philosophy, which has already influenced 
greatly and beneficently all departments of 
our schools. But the books are not yet 
closed, the problems are not all solved, and 
kindergarten workers everywhere are calling 
for the co-operation of parents, physicians, 
and educators in perfecting a scheme of child- 
culture that is destined to meet a great need. 
Such faults as are apparent in individual 
kindergartens are not inherent in the sys- 
tem. The doctrines of Froebel are funda- 
mentally sound, and the kindergarten as it 
exists throughout our country today fully jus- 
tifies the refusal on the part of its patrons to 
rob Peter in order to finance Paul. 



The successful worker must have the spirit 
of play in his heart and the successful man is 
only the successful boy with a man's experi- 
ence. — Charles E. Hughes. 



There is no service like his that serves be- 
cause he loves. — Sir Philip Sidney. 



i 7 8 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



THE APPLICATION OF FROEBELIAN 

PRINCIPLES TO TEACHING 

IN THE GRADES. 

Emma B. Colbert. 

It is my conviction that few of our ele- 
mentary and upper grade teachers have a 
clear notion of that debt which they as teach- 
ers owe to the life and work of Friedrich 
Froebel. Froebel is, of course, in their minds 
associated with the kindergarten, although 
(let me whisper it) I have known a few 
teachers who have- asked: "Well, who is this 
Froebel, anyhow ; I never heard of him be- 
fore?" 

The term "kindergarten" usually calls up 
in the mind of the teacher who has not in- 
vestigated the problem a somewhat blurred 
and hazy picture of colored sticks and blocks, 
associated somehow with skipping, hopping 
children, who are allowed to play. 

Now, I am persuaded that there would be 
a general uplift in our schools if every grade 
teacher rightly comprehended and practically 
applied the underlying principles of teach- 
ing as set forth by Froebel, and because I 
think I have seen these principles "work" in 
many upper grade class rooms, I venture in 
this paper to set forth some of the ideas I 
have gained through trying to understand the 
Froebelian philosophy, in undertaking to ap- 
ply it in my own school room, in watching 
others apply it, and in endeavoring to make 
it clear to students of pedagogy. 

My investigations have led me into many 
fields. I have consulted many authorities 
and have listened to words of many gifted 
educators, but aside from the wisdom of the 
"Great Teacher" nowhere else have I found 
the sweet reasonableness, the comprehensive 
understanding, the far-seeing judgment, the 
sympathetic insight of the great Froebel. In 
his love for little children, his beautiful 
simplicity and his wonderful intuitions, surely 
he is close akin to the Master Himself. 

My purpose is, however, not to try to 
interpret his philosophy, but rather to make 
practical suggestions as to its working basis, 
and to interest teachers in studying his life, 
his work, and his educational theories that 
they may gain inspiration from his benign 
influence, and thus help to foster in the 
graded schools the ideas so patiently and 
earnestly wrought out by his genius. 

Recently much has been said concerning 
Miss Grace Strachan, of New York, who has 
at last beert successful irj securing for the 



women teachers of her city "equal pay with 
men." While much praise, applause and ad- 
miration should be given to this undeniable 
benefactor of women, let us not forget that 
it was Froebel who first advanced the notion 
that women were the proper educators of 
childhood. 

We need teachers who are comrades with 
their children, who allow them to discuss the 
many subjects which to little folks are so 
important and serious, yet which the rock- 
ribbed spartan of a teacher regards as trivial. 
Our graded schools need teachers who are 
not so much concerned in imparting informa- 
tion, in preserving discipline or trying to 
"catch up" a pupil who makes a mistake, but 
who are fairminded, patient, cheerful, warm- 
hearted, truly cultured women capable of 
forgiving the unlucky, stumbling culprit, if 
need be, in the measure of "seventy times 
seven." We need teachers who realize that 
they are dealing with immortal souls, each 
one a "peculiar thought of God." 

Froebel's philosophy has taught us to 
utilize the child's self-activity, to remember 
that play is the business of childhood, to 
bear in mind that the early training of the 
senses is necessary to all later development, 
and to study the child as one who is a repre- 
sentative of his race.— Educator-Journal, 



"The highest greatness — surviving time and 
stone — is that which proceeds from the soul 
of man. Monarchs and cabinets, generals 
and admirals, with the pomp of courts and 
circumstance of war, in the lapse of time dis- 
appear from sight ; but the pioneers of truth, 
though poor and lowly, especially those whose 
example elevates human nature, and teaches 
the rights of man so that a government of the 
people, by the people, for the people, may not 
perish from the earth — such a harbinger can 
never be forgotten, and their renown spreads 
co-extensive with the cause they served so 
well." — Charles Sumner. 



Wherefore seeing we also are compassed 
about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let 
us lay aside every weight, and the sin that 
doth so easily beset us, and let us run with 
patience the race that is set before us. — Heb. 
XII. I. 



Power is never good unless he be good who 
has it. — King Alfred. 

He who loves not his country can love nothing. — 
Johnson. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



* 



CURRENT EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT 

FROM SUCCESSFUL AMERICAN EDUCATORS 



ffi 



s 



3E 



Mr 



PEACE HEROES. 

Katheeine D. Blake, New York. 

(EXCERPT FROM ADDRESS AT N. E. A. MEETING) 

I hope to see organized all over this country 
an association as honorable as that of the Sons 
or Daughters of any war in the past, the or- 
ganization of the Sons and Daughters of the 
Peace Heroes, those who have conquered the 
forces of nature, who have worked to make 
life more endurable, who have stood for peace 
when there was a war spirit abroad; who have 
helped in the uplift of mankind in any way; 
a society whose duty it shall be to lift from 
obscurity the names of those benefactors of 
mankind ; to place, with pomp and ceremony, 
tablets upon their birthplaces, even as tablets 
have been scattered over this broad land, 
holding in the memory of the people the 
fighters of the past. I hope that this organiza- 
tion will spread from this country all over the 
world, so that the honor roll of peace may be- 
come as long and as glittering as that of war, 
including all the great leaders of thought, the 
great educators of the past, discoverers, scien- 
tists, or inventors, statesmen who held their 
country to the side of peace although it meant 
the scorn of their contemporaries. The roll of 
honor in our own land would be bright with 
the names of Roger Williams Eliot, the great 
preacher to the Indians ; Johnson of Connecti- 
cut; Henry Clay, John Jay, Harvard, Burr, 
Yale, and the other founders of great universi- 
ties, Eli Whitney, Elias Howe, Robert Fulton, 
Benjamin Franklin — the men who have made 
two grains of wheat grow where one grew 
before. It is pathetic to see how we have for- 
gotten those to whom we owe so much ; the 
story of the men who have gone hungry and 
cold and tattered in order to carry out some 
great scheme for the benefit of the human 
race, is forgotten. If we honor them, the 
honor comes too often when they are laid in 
their graves. Father Mendel, who gave us 
the law of inheritance which has made pos- 
sible all the modern scientific experiments in 
agriculture, died unknown, and with the morti- 
fication of knowing that his patient years of 



toil, ending in a scientific discovery of in- 
calculable value, were unheeded by the people 
of his day; and the story of Father Mendel is 
the story of a host of peace heroes. Hence- 
forth this sin of ingratitude, if it continues, 
will lie at our doors. There is enough work 
for us to do. If we will do it, we can have 
just as much fun as those military people; we 
can have bands, we can put on good clothes, 
and we can erect tablets, and we can have the 
fun of collecting money to buy'birthplaces and 
invite the Governor to help dedicate them. 



TEACHING HUMOR. 

Margaret E. Sciiallenberger, SanJ ose, Cal. 
(excerpt for address) 

The school as an educative institution has 
never taken seriously the education of a sense 
of humor. In fact, it has done a good deal to 
kill at birth any incipient tendency in this di- 
rection. I once heard Homer Davenport, the 
noted cartoonist, say that he had attained the 
ability which has made him somewhat famous, 
in spite of and not because of the American 
school system. Every funny picture he drew 
as a boy in school was sketched surreptitiously 
and he was subject to punishment according 
to the degree of mirth the picture was able to 
arouse. Every effort was made to induce him 
to stop such foolishness and to settle down to 
"real work." A small boy with a gentle, un- 
obtrusive, rather retiring disposition was sent 
from the classroom the other day, because, in 
observing the thousand-legged worm, he re- 
marked that he was glad he was no tailor to 
this particular species of legdom, as it would 
take a very long time to make so many pairs 
of trousers. The teacher had no sense of hu- 
mor. In all earnestness, is there a character- 
istic in any personality more attractive, more 
winning, more deserving of cultivation than 
a sense of humor? It is susceptible of culti- 
vation and is at least deserving of apprecia- 
tion, when it shoots into life all unexpectedly 
and innocently, bright and sparkling as a 
shining 1 star. 



i8o 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



MORAL INSTRUCTION OF THE CHILD 
By C. E. Rugh 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OP EDUCATION, 
UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY, CAL. 

Fortunately we need take no time discussing 
the importance of each kindergartner holding the 
ethical aim of education as the inspiring and 
guiding power of her life and teaching. The 
present perplexing problem is how to realize this 
aim in the midst of the present social order. 

Stated from the standpoint of means, the pres- 
ent problem is how to conceive the moral devel- 
opment of the child in terms of ways and means 
available and appropriate in present-day society. 
Probably the quickest and surest way of develop- 
ing the educational philosophy for the solution 
of this problem, is to make a searching examina- 
tion into, and comparison and contrast of, the 
life of pioneer parents and children and those of 
today. 

The pioneer social unit was domestic. In 
labor, in leisure, in joys, and in sorrows, parents 
and children were companions. Social heredity, 
social contagion, and imitation produced moral 
character suitable to this social group. 

The new social order is not well enough defined 
for us to name the unit of structure, if, indeed, it 
has one. Social psychologists keep naming "the 
crowd" as the unit. The name is not important. 
The fact is perfectly apparent that we are in a new 
social order. It is just as apparent that the child 
has been more affected by the changing social 
conditions than any other member of society. 
Most children are removed from first-hand con- 
tact with Mother Nature as the source of material 
comfort. Most children, except those forced in- 
to child labor, are removed from first-hand con- 
tact with the productive industries, Most child- 
ren are removed from most of the modern social 
life, for which we may be very thankful. The 
old-time home is broken up. Children have been 
removed from companionship of adults. They 
are now classified on the basis of age, not only in 
school but in church, in industries, and in society. 
Three effects of this rapid change need special 
notice: first, most children lack the sense experi- 
ence with many of the things that give concrete- 
ness and content to our language and literature; 
second, the new economic order makes it unneces- 
sary and in many cases impossible for the child to 
think thru from raw material to finished product 
— a most important kind of thinking; third, th.e 



gradation of children . the separation from pro- 
ductive labor, has greatly narrowed the child's 
social, and hence moral, vision. The child sees 
and uses moral standards and situations of his 
grade. 

These economic and social changes have put 
heavier burdens upon the kindergarten than upon 
any other branch of our educational structure, 
not only because the kindergarten deals with 
foundations, but more because these changes have 
removed the simpler means of a social sympathy. 
No social change will probably ever put the ' 'three 
R's" out of the curriculum. The multiplication 
table, for example, is a universal means of com- 
munication. It is a formula, and comes into the 
formula period of the child's development. The 
kindergarten, on the other hand, must use the 
means available for developing social sympathy, 
and at the same time be the first formal attempt 
at adjusting the child to the crowd; that is, to a 
group founded upon neither a natural nor insti- 
tutional base. Sympathy is the primary social 
process. The domestic order develops sympathy 
because there were examples for imitation and 
recurring situations demanding it. The phy- 
siological basis of sympathy is certain reactions 
of circulation, respiration, and the rest. The 
psychic basis is consciousness of kind and the 
recognition of a specific situation. To be able to 
sympathize with a person or a group, the child 
must be able somehow to reproduce some of the 
activities of the person or the group. In order 
to think and sympathize with a horseman, the 
child rides an imaginary horse. To think and 
sympathize with the wood-chopper, the child 
imitates the motions of the chopper. To think 
and sympathize with the mother, the little girl 
plays with the doll. To some these seem a far- 
away basis of social sympathy, but they are in- 
dispensable. The glory and power of the early 
kindergarten for moral education came from its 
following the principle. There have been few 
finer achievements in educational means than the 
songs, plays, and occupations of the early kinder- 
garten as a means of developing social response. 

Since sympathy in this early form demands 
imitation and reproduction of acts, the changed 
social order puts new and heavy demands upon the 
kindergarten and primary schools. Primitive 
occupations used primitive machinery and employ- 
ed the larger, more fundamental muscles in trans- 
forming raw material into finished products. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



i8i 



Present industrial processes use complex machin- 
ery, employ finer adjustments of accessory 
muscles to make a part or piece of the finished 
product. Again, these primitive occupations of 
the domestic order were daily recurrent, and 
suggestive, and also were associated with known 
and respected persons. Division of labor and the 
factory system have eliminated most of the per- 
sonal elements. The occupations of adults are so 
removed from the observation of children, and 
are so complex and piecemeal that they furnish 
little basis for social sympathy. The songs and 
games of the sower, mower, wood-chopper, even 
the shoemaker, have lost most of their significance 
as means of social sympathy. Whether differ- 
entiated factory labor or any present-day general 
form of industry can be made the basis of imitative 
songs, games, or occupations as means of develop- 
ing the physiological and psychic material for 
sympathy, is yet to be determined. Of course 
there is left concert singing. This is a social 
process par excellence independent of literary con- 
tent or dramatic motion. The singers must sing 
together, have the same rhythm, same movement, 
breathe similarly, have the same pitch. Individ- 
ual and social control might here be increased by 
individual and group responsive singing. For 
girls the play and game with dolls still remain as 
ways of practicing for adult processes. Many of 
the ways Froebel suggests for using nature as a 
means of developing insight and sympathy may 
still be used. 

But all in all, the child's present status in its 
relation to nature, to adults, and to industries, is 
so new, so different, and so complex that the 
kindergarten and primary school are forced to a 
reorganization of much of its material. Much of 
of the material used when the social unit was 
domestic still has educative value because of its 
historical suggestiveness. But no intelligent 
educator contends that it has the same social and 
moral significance. 

Moral education can no longer be incidental or 
indirect. Many customs and social standards are 
still passed on by contagion and imitation, but 
the insight and good judgment necessary to live 
a moral life in the present social situation require 
definite, direct instruction by parents and teach- 
ers who know what they are doing and do the 
best they know. 

Formal education may be described as grafting 
social achievements upon instinctive roots. The 



moral life is the response a person, that is, a self- 
acting, choosing agent, makes to the social order. 
Moral education aims to make the child able and 
willing to make right responses. The realization 
of this aim demands of the teacher: first, a work- 
ing knowledge of the child's native tendencies; 
second, a clear insight into the meaning and use 
of good social standards and customs — an insight 
gained only by right thinking and right living; 
and third, such a knowledge of teaching as~a fine 
art as to be able to graft these good standards 
upon the child's instincts. 

The situations demanding moral responses are 
of two types: first, the formal, recurring ones — 
for these, habits of right action must be develop- 
ed by drill prompted and directed by moral 
motives; second, new and often perplexing situa- 
tions—for these, the child needs the development 
of insight and moral judgment, the ability and 
disposition to think before acting. In addition 
to the disposition to think around and thru anew 
situation, children need formulas for analyzing 
difficult problems. 

Moral instruction is accomplished only by a 
teacher who aims at a moral result. Let this not 
be misunderstood. A child acquires many habits 
of right and wrong reactions by the mere example 
of the teacher, and there is no stage of a child's 
development in which the teacher's personality 
is more important, unless, perchance, it is in the 
child's second or social infancy, from twelve to 
fifteen. But the moral development of the child 
of today requires, in addition to these indirect 
ways, the formal, direct instruction in thinking 
thru moral situations, and instruction and guid- 
ance in acting according to ideas rather than 
following habits. In short, for many present-day 
problems a child has no trustworthy instinctive 
basis, and the ability and disposition for right 
reaction must be developed thru instruction. 
The limitations of time make it impossible to 
train by example and imitation for all kinds of 
acts. Again, children are thrown upon their own 
resources earlier and oftener than in pioneer 
times. The supreme problem of moral educa- 
tion is the development of self-control. This can 
only be accomplished thru moral motives. A 
moral motive identifies an impulse with a good 
end that is the natural result of the act which it 
prompts and directs. Rewards, prizes, and 
immunities interfere with moral instruction. 
From the standpoint of intelligence, the problem 



l82 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



of moral education is to teach a child to think 
straight when thinking about acts and con- 
sequences. Artificial incentives interfere with 
clear thinking upon causes and effects. The in- 
vention of artificial means and devices of motiva- 
tion have been brought about by the inability of 
teachers to develop motives appropriate to the 
stage of intellectual development of the child. 
The use of artificial incentives with healthy child- 
ren is due either to laziness, indifference, or 
ignorance. A normal child is a veritable maga- 
zine of energy, and is one of the most easily direct- 
ed organisms in the world. The problem is to 
develop the power and disposition of self-direc- 
tion. In the last analysis, the spiritual life of a 
child is determined by the number and kind of 
persons with whom he has fellowship, and the 
quantity and quality of that fellowship. Now 
the primitive companionship is with those who 
feed, clothe and care for the child. We are just 
coming to understand how sensitive a child is to 
persons. There are abundant cases of a child's 
discriminating between mother and nurse, and 
between father and mother in the early months 
of its life. It is not too much to say that many 
a child has the physiological basis of a good or 
bad disposition laid in the first two or three 
months of its life. Regular habits of eating, 
sleeping, bathing, can be established during the 
first days of life. Sticklers for nomenclature 
insist on calling this training, but from the stand- 
point of the mother and nurse who purposes and 
plans the ways and means of accomplishing this 
result, it is instruction. Because of the infant's 
sensitiveness to persons in these early days, a 
child's disposition is much dependent upon the 
disposition and habits of the one who cares for it 
in this first stage. A fussy, nervous, jerky 
nurse gets from an infant quite different responses 
from those of a steady, graceful one. In this first 
stage of response to the natural and social order 
an infant's standards of right and wrong are 
what he wants. The transformation of these 
standards is caused by wanting what a kind per- 
son wants him to want. The second stage of 
moral development, demanding a new means of 
instruction and training, is that in which the 
wants are not for satisfaction of bodily appetites, 
but wants of the mind, at least in the sense of 
wanting tools or means to accomplish ends. In 
this stage all the essential moral elements bud 
forth, but we must remember that they are buds 
—the sense of being a cause, the foundation . of 



conscience, of responsibilities, the sense of values, 
the sense of ends and means, the sense of social 
use, that is, of using and being used by persons. 
In this stage formal social instructions must 
begin. Fortunately we are not left to devise the 
formal means of instruction. The instinct for 
self-impression and imitation along with the 
examples and occasions for co-operation develops 
language to such an extent that social intercourse 
is not only possible but enjoyable. 

If, now, we analyze the social life into which 
the child is thrown, we discover here as in the 
former stage the two types of reactions. There 
are the recurrent ones, and the new ones. The 
new, complex social habits require both instruc- 
tion and training. Language is the instrument 
of instruction, and repetition, or drill under moral 
motives, the instrument of training. In either 
case the process must be rational in this stage. 

It is claimed that you cannot reason with a child 
before ten or twelve years of age. If we cannot 
and do not reason with a child before this age, 
we cannot reason very much with him at any age. 
No one has a right to use the plural personal 
pronoun "you" in this statement. There are 
parents and teachers who might with some degree 
of truthfulness say, "I cannot reason with child- 
ren tenor twelve years of age," but this is be- 
cause of incapacity or disinclination on the part 
of the parent or teacher, and not due to the irra- 
tionality of the child. There are parents and 
teachers who could with perfect truthfulness say, 
"I don't want to reason with boys and girls be- 
fore the age of twelve. I want them to do what 
I say." Such persons refuse to give moral in- 
struction. They would rather give commands. 

We have somehow drifted into the bad habit of 
putting training and instruction over against 
each other as alternatives. It is a vestigial rem- 
nant of the old controversy concerning the rela- 
tion of the theoretical and practical aspect of con- 
sciousness. In a self -active, complex agent like 
a child, there is no training worthy the name 
that is not inspired and guided by instruction. 
Instruction is the ingoing informational aspect 
as training is the outgoing expressional aspect 
of judgment. It is true that with our present 
system of education there seems to be something 
akin to information stored in memory that in no 
appreciable way influences conduct. There seem 
to be cases of skill that cannot be referred to any 
articulate body of knowledge; but these are either 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



183 



only seeming or are pathological rather than 
normal. 

There is no moral education worthy the name 
without moral instruction. This instruction 
may be nothing more formal than a good example, 
but an example as a means of moral education 
is not good, not so good as it can and ought to 
be, unless it is deliberately and tactfully set up 
as a stimulus and guide to action. 

Instruction involves consciously directed 
fellowship between two minds. Moral instruc- 
tion aims to produce moral conduct. Moral con- 
duct is produced by moral intention. A moral 
intention is a good end consciously and intelli- 
gently chosen . Moral instruction in these two 
early stages of development is accomplished by 
providing occasions for choosing, occasions for 
judging, and acting according to judgment. In 
the first stage these occasions must be accompani- 
ed by good examples and all stages require social 
approval and disapproval. 

The confusion in this field arises out of wrong 
notions of the function of knowledge and lan- 
guage and wrong notions of the relations between 
them. Language has come to be almost the sole 
instrument of social co-operation in education. 
When we speak of information, we almost always 
think of it as formulated in language . When 
we speak of instruction, we almost always think 
of it only as couched in language formulas. This 
would not be so bad if we all understood the 
right method of developing formulas and their 
right use. Formulas have three functions: (1) 
to organize and store learning; (2) to analyze 
complex presentations; and (3) to guide action. 
The controversy concerning direct moral instruc- 
tion grows out of a misconception of the use of 
formulated knowledge, and an attempt to reverse 
the process of teaching a formula. The language 
aspect of a formula may be run thru the language 
machinery of a child without affecting conduct, 
and without any power to guide action. A form- 
ula comes at the end of the primary learning pro- 
cess. It is the refined product of re-examined 
experience. Such an articulated experience can 
then be used as a powerful instrument of analysis; 
and when a formula can be used as an instrument 
of analysis, it can also be used as a guide to 
action, i. e., as a guide to life synthesis or social 
self-adjustment. 

All good and great men have left us maxims 
of conduct. Careless thinkers have often con- 



cluded that the goodness is the result of having 
followed these formulas, whereas it is nearer the 
truth to say that these formulas are the result of 
good living. While these formulas are the pro- 
ducts of right living, they are also the instru- 
ment of prompt and accurate action. Life 
maxims are as useful to a man of action in the 
moral world as formulas concerning matter are 
useful to the natural scientist. Moral instruction, 
as the etymology of the word suggests, consists 
in building into the child's life, as it were, the 
formulas for right responses. For common 
situations, this means organizing the physiological 
and psychic constitution into good habits. For 
complex and new situations, this means construct- 
ing the formulas for their analysis, and the cor- 
relative formulas for choice and action. 

This is the age of science. The mind is a real 
cause, and the objective world is a real and orderly 
world , In such a world the danger of producing 
intolerable prigs by teaching children to reflect 
upon conduct, are infinitesimal in comparison to 
the danger of allowing children to grow up into 
coarse, disrespectful boors, because they do not 
care or do not think of consequences of action. 
This prig problem arises out of another false 
assumption. This false assumption is that reflect 
upon conduct is thinking about past and bad con- 
duct. Moral instruction is constructive, and 
consists in getting that good thinking and acting 
that insures right living in the future . In a 
complex and progressive social order like the 
present, direct moral instruction is a necessity. 

Imitation and Habit in Moral Education. 

An Except for Address 
Horace H. Cummings, Salt Lake City. 

In the field of habit the psychological law is very 
definite. Frequent repetitions of an act create a ten- 
dency to its automatic recurrence. Advantage should 
be taken of every opportunity to get the pupil to per- 
form moral acts and form moral conclusions and determ- 
inations. Here also "we learn to do by doing." The 
good and true in history, literature, and current events 
should be discovered by the pupils and applied as far as 
possible in their lives. Their attitude and conduct to- 
ward lessons, teachers, and classmates should conform 
to correct principles. Study their habits outside of 
school. Gain their confidence and they will confide in 
you their secrets. Much sin is due to ignorance, and 
many a boy's life has been changed for the better by a 
heart-to-heart talk with a wise, earnest teacher. * * * 

Imitation is perhaps the most important of the 
instincts. How many thousand things a child learns by 
imitation which he never would learn if he had to wait 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



until they were taught him! This faculty does not wait 
on judgment. The child does what he sees others do 
with little or no conception of what it means to him. 
Hence only persons of the highest moral attributes 
should be engaged as teachers. We should be in truth 
what we want our pupils to become. We must exclude 
teachers who are insincere, irreverent, or untruthful, if 
we would not have our children become like unto them. 
Surround the children with the purest atmosphere 
possible. Demonstrate in your lives that you love good 
and hate evil. Enter enthusiastically into the study o/ 
ideal characters; impress the ideal and seek opportunity 
to apply it in the school, on the campus, in the home, 
and in the social circle. Chiefly thru this instinct does 
the child become "the product of his environment." 



The Altruistic Tendency. 
By Jambs T. Joynee, Raleigh, N. C. 

Selfishness and separateness will eat out the heart of 
any civilization and sow seeds of decay in any system 
of education. The spirit of all true democracy is essen- 
tially altruistic. There is much cause for rejoicing, 
therefore, in the growth of the altruistic spirit in Amer- 
ican civilization and American education. In the busi- 
ness world where competition is sharpest and selfishness 
most to be expected, there is manifest evidence of a 
constantly growing sense of obligation by the rich to 
hold their wealth in trust for the advancement of society 
and to use it for the benefit of humanity. Perhaps no 
other century in the annals of time has to its everlasting 
credit so much of princely philanthropy. Is it too 
much to hope that even before the close of this twen- 
tieth century we shall witness the adoption by the rich 
everywhere of the high creed of one of the century's 
princeliests philanthropists, that to die rich should be 
counted a crime? 

The true scholar no longer seeks scholarship solely 
for personal enjoyment and individual superiority, but 
rather for social service and the happiness of humanity. 
Consecration of individual talent and power, of intellect- 
ual, moral, and spiritual wealth of every sort to the up- 
lift of all shall at last become the dominant doctrine in 
every American school. 

Every child born into the world in a democracy is not 
only the parents' child, but also the community's 
child, the state's child, the nation's child, and human- 
ity's child. Out of every one of those relations grows 
a duty and an obligation from every one of us to every 
one of these American children, which we neglect at 
peril to the family, the community, the state, the 
nation, society, and all civilization. The school-less 
child is a menace to the best in all. If the child be not 
so educated_as to lay upon him a reciprocal duty and 
obligation to render in return when he reaches man- 
hood's estate a service to all, commensurate with that 
which he has received from all, then education is a 
failure and the vast expenditure for it a criminal waste. 

The fundamental basis of all public education in a 
democracy must be social and the fundamental aim of 
it must be altruistic. The individual is educated at the 
expense of the public, that he may be able to render to 
the public the best service of which he is capable; and 



he should be so educated as to desire and to determine 
to consecrate his education to such service. There can 
be no other justification of public.education by general 
taxation. The old education was individualistic; the 
new education must be altruistic. 

This altruistic spirit is but a recognition and an 
application of democracy's fundamental principles of 
universal brotherhood, individual responsibility, and 
social obligation. 



PRIZE ESSAY CONTEST 

The National Kindergarten Association has been form- 
ed for the purpose of promoting interest in the Kinder- 
garten subject and of harmonizing the methods of 
educating children younger than six years of age, and 
it purposes to investigate all methods and to cull from 
each whatever may be of benefit to or calculated to 
improve the Kindergarten system. 

In order to discover the opinions of those persons 
who are now engaged in teaching the children, the 
Board of Directors has decided to offer three prizes for 
Essays on the "Benefits of the Kindergarten," and 
suggests that competitors should include such inform- 
ation as they may have obtained upon the following 
subjects: 

1st. Why should all our schools have Kindergartens? 

2d. What the Kindergarten does for the child. 

3d. The influence of the Kindergarten on the home. 

4th. The Kindergarten as an uplifting influence in 
the community. 

The prizes are: first, $100; second, $50; and third, $25; 
and the contest is open to all Kindergartners and 
Primary Teachers. 

The Association reserves the right to publish such of 
the articles as it may select, and will pay $5 for such of 
them as may be used other than those for which prizes 
are given. 

Essays should not contain more than fifteen hundred 
words, written on one side of the paper only, and should 
be received by the Association not later than April 15th, 
1912. They will not be returned. 

The decision of the Examining Committee will be 
announced on June 1st, 1912. 

Address communciations to "Prize Essay Department." 
National Kindergarten Association, 

1 Madison Ave., New York. 



No man believes his creed who is afraid to hear 
it attacked. — Wendell Philips. 



Just being happy 

Is a fine thing to do; 
Looking on the bright side 

Rather than the blue; 
Sad or sunny musing 

Is largely in the choosing 
And just being happy 

Ib brave work and true. 

— Selected. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



i*5 




KINDERGARTEN DAILY PROGRAM 

NOEA KEOGH 

[NOTE— Owing to the delay necessary to reach our sub- 
scribers in foreign countries we adopted the plan of print- 
ing this program one month ahead. Some of our Amer- 
ican subscribers, however, prefer the program in the issue 
for the current month. We have theiefore decided to re- 
publish the program for March and subsequent months, 
followed by the program for the succeeding month, be- 
lieving this the best plan for the accommodation of all.] 

MARCH. 

Monday — 'Circle — The trees of the forest. The 
winter here, now. Trees are bare. How 
used instead of coal. 

Rhythm — Dramatization of Circle talk. 
Chopping falling trees. 

Table 1st — Panel pictures of bare trees done 
on white with brown crayons mounted 
on brown. 

Table 2nd — 'Sixth gift play. Trees of pil- 
lars. Houses of bricks. 

Games — Snow-man. Marching through 
Georgia." 
Tuesday — Circle — The hauling of trees to 
river, and how they float down the stream 
to the mill. 

Rhythm — Begin teaching See Saw from 
Gaynor I. 

Table 1st — 'Free-cutting of group of trees 
from folded paper. Mount. 

Table 2nd — Red, white, and blue weaving. 
The two-strip weaving to bring out the 
idea of over and under. 

Games — Dramatization of "Billy Goat 
Gruff." 
Wednesday — Circle — What happens at the 
mill. Recalling of story of Pine Tree. 

Rhythm — As above. 

Table 1st— -Make mill with 5th gift. 

Table 2nd — Making screens — folding, cut- 
ting, and border of parquetry. 

Games — As above. 
Thursday — Circle — Putting week's subject to- 
gether in form of a story. 



Rhythm — As before with actual see-saw on 

circle. 
Table 1st — Make sequence story of lumber 

work with 6th gift. 
Table 2nd — Two-strip weaving. 
Games — Same. 
Friday — Circle — Review. 
Rhythm — Review. 
Table 1st — 'Weaving. 
Table 2nd — Free choice. 

SECOND WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Trees of the forest ; the 

maple trees. 
Rhythm — See saw continued. 
Table 1st — Weaving. 
Table 2nd — Sugar camp with 5th gift. 
Games — "Little Mice Are Creeping," from 

Jenks & Walker. 
Tuesday — Circle — Story of the sugar-camp. 
Rhythm — Same. 
Table 1st — Weaving. 
Table 2nd — Clay-modelling of pail to catch 

the maple sap. 
Games — Same. And competition bean bag 

game. 
Wednesday — Circle — All we know of making 

syrup and sugar of the maple sap. 
Rhythm — See-saw. 
Table 1st — Sand-table sugar camp. Twigs 

for trees. Clay pails, tent, and fireplace. 
Table 2nd — Free drawing of sugar camp. 
Thursday — Circle — All about our camp in the 

woods re-told. The story of "The Man's 

Boot in the Woods," by Gertrude Sellon. 
Rhythm — Same. 

Table 1st — Free cutting of sugar camp. 
Table 2nd — Sew circle. 
Games — Dramatization of week's circle 

talks. 
Friday — Circle — Review. 
Rhvthm — Review. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Table 1st — Weaving. 
Table 2nd — Free choice. 
Games — Free choice. 

THIRD WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — The coming of spring. Free 
discussion. Teach "Good Morning Merry 
Sunshine." Plant seeds in sponge. 

Rhythm — The waking of the flowers. 

Table 1st — Fold kites and mount. 

Table 2nd — Make gate of slats for gift 
work. 

Games — Bean bags and Loobly Loo. 
Tuesday — Circle — More about the Coming of 
Spring. Begin teaching "Finger Folk" 
from March, 1907, Kg. Rev. 

Rhythm — Flying kites. 

Table 1st — Drawing pussy willows with 
black crayons, mounted on gray mats. 
Real pussy heads pasted on. 

Table 2nd — Make fence, group work, all 
around edge of table with long sticks and 
Hailmann cubes. 

Games — The Little Mice are Creeping and 
Loobly Loo. 
Wednesday — Circle — Story of Mother Earth's 
House Cleaning, from Kg. Rev. March, 
'07. 

Rhythm — Same. 

Table 1st — Fold and mount cup and saucer. 

Table 2nd — Make designs with parquetry. 
Draw it with colored pencils. 

Games — Loobly Loo and Billy Goat Gruff. 
Thursday — Circle — Re-telling of story. 

Rhythm — Same. 

Table 1st — The border idea of yesterday re- 
peated. 

Table 2nd — Poster of fence with pussy sit- 
ting on the rails. Draw tail and ears 
with black. 

Games— The Tournament and Loobly Loo. 
Friday — Circle — Review and talk of Easter. 

Rhythm — Review. 

Table 1st — Weaving. 

Table 2nd — Finish border work. 

Games — Free choice. 

FOURTH WEEK. 

Monday — Circle— Easter experiences. Free 
discussion with children. 

Rhythm— High stepping horses and butter- 
flies. 

Table 1st — Free drawing of Easter thoughts. 

Table 2nd — Free cutting of rabbit from 
black paper, mounted in poster effect. 

Games — Telling and dramatizing the story 
of the "Hare and the Tortoise." 



Tuesday — Circle — Re-telling of story and 
teach "Little Yellow-Head" from Neid- 
linger. 

Rhythm — Ten little Indians, rabbits. 

Table 1st — Cut chickens free hand from 
yellow paper. Mother hen from black. 

Table 2nd — Make barn with clothes-pins. 

Games — Dramatize story. 
Wednesday — Circle — Begin telling Soap-Bub- 
ble Story. 

Rhythm — Marching by twos. 

Table 1st — Cut egg free hand until you get 
a good pattern both as to size and shape. 
Then use it to trace around. 

Table 2nd — Paint egg and cut. 

Games — Dramatize today's story. 
Thursday — Circle— Tell Soap-Bubble story all 
over again. 

Rhythm — As yesterday. 

Table 1st — From given pattern, cut an egg 
broken in middle with chicken's head 
sticking out. This is cut from egg-shell 
paper and the two parts are fastened to- 
gether with paper fastener. Head of 
chicken colored yellow. 

Table 2nd — Build barn with Hennessey 
blocks. 

Games — Drop the handkerchief. 
Friday— Circle — Tell Soap-Bubble story. Chil- 
dren re-telling it. Then dramatize story 
and at the appropriate time bring in 
bowls of soap water and new clay pipes. 
The rest of time is spent in soap bubble 
party. 

APRIL. 

FIRST WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Vacation experiences. 

Rhythm — Review. 

Table 1st — Free representation of anything 
done in vacation. 

Table 2nd — Fold umbrellas from circular 
paper. Mount them and add handle and 
end of handle with black crayon. 

Games — Free choice. 
Tuesday — Circle — More about vacation and 
the changes it brought; new month, new 
leaves, etc. 

Rhythm — Wheel-barrow rhythm — Ander- 
son. 

Table 1st — Make wheel-barrow — card-board 
modelling. 

Table 2nd — Finish first table work. 

Games — Review. 
Wednesday — Circle — Review chosen stories. 

Rhythm — Wheel-barrow. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



•87 



Table 1st — Make log house of clothes pins. 

Table 2nd — Make fence of slats and put 
around house. 

Games — Sense games. 
Thursday — Bring up subjects talked of dur- 
ing year and let children discuss them. 

Rhythm — Same. 

Table 1st — 'Cut fence free-hand from folded 
paper. 

Table 2nd — Make bird houses of Q par- 
quetry. 

Games — Same. 
Friday — Circle — General review. 

Rhythm — General review. 

Table 1st — Unfinished work. 

Table 2nd — Choose something done before 
to be done again. 

Games — -Free choice. 

SECOND WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — The flowers that have come. 
Name and describe them. 

Rhythm — Sunbeam game from Mari Hofer. 

Table 1st — Colored pencil drawing of tulip. 

Table 2nd — Stringing beads by color. 

Games — Out-door games. Take children 

out in yard to play tag, hide and seek, etc. 

Tuesday — Circle — If possible, give this time 

to visiting one or two other grades to 

see the hand-work there. 

Rhythm — Use this time for re-calling and 
describing things seen. Let children 
choose what they wish to make and give 
their own directions as to making it. 

Table 1st — Work chosen as above. 

Table 2nd — Make border of tablets. 

Games — sense-feeling. 
Wednesday — Circle — Use this time to tell 
more of yesterday's sights ; to fully de- 
scribe the table-work to be done, today. 

Rhythm — Sun beam game. 

Table 1st — Work as chosen. 

Table 2nd — Continue border work with pen- 
cil and paper with help of tablets. 

Games — Sense games, feeling, taste. 
Thursday and Friday can well be given up to 
this same work. It brings out the child's 
independence in thought and adopts it to 
the material in hand. 

THIRD WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — All the birds we have seen. 
The story of the shoe in tree used as a 
bird's nest. The story of the man's boot 
recalled. 
Rhythm and Table 1st — Time used for a 
walk to watch the birds. 



Table 2nd — Sand table play. 

Games — Used for rest time after walk to 
talk over what we have seen. 
Tuesday — Circle — Yesterday's talk renewed. 

Rhythm — "Three Blue Birdies" from Drap- 
er's Self Culture, Sec. I. 

Table 1st — Free cutting of flying birds from 
black paper. Mount these on the wall in 
group fashion. Very pretty effect. 

Table 2nd — Bird's house made of sticks and 
tablets. 

Games — Flying birds, hopping birds, etc. 

Wednesday — Circle — Re-telling of stories and 
the story of bird's nest in scare-crow's 
pocket. 

Rhythm — Same as yesterday. 

Table 1st — Water-color wash of blue and 
bird's flying of black water-color. 

Table 2nd — Clay modelling of nest and 
eggs. 

Games— Pigeon-house from Jenks & Wal- 
ker. 

Thursday — Circle — Telling of bird observa- 
tions, bird stories re-told. Teach "The 
Swallow," from Merry Songs and Games, 
C. B. Hubbard. 

Rhythm— Three blue birdies. 

Table 1st — Finish poster of sky and birds 
begun yesterday. 

Table 2nd — Use 5th and 6th boxes to make 
bird-houses. Group work. 

Games — Pigeon house. 
Friday — Week's talk and stories. 

Rhythm — Flying birds; Three Crows from 
Mother Goose, and other rhymes of week. 

Table 1st — Play with slats — children's own 
idea of things to be made. 

Table 2nd — Free choice. 

Games — Free choice. 

FOURTH WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — Flower week. Free discus- 
sion of flowers loved and their planting. 

Rhythm and Table 1st time used to go pick- 
ing flowers. 

Table 2nd — Draw bunch of violets with vio- 
let and green crayons. 

Games — Sense games of touch ; partners 
face each other, take hands, clap hands, 
change partners, dance. 
Tuesday — Circle — Discussion and describing 
of familiar flowers. Poems — Growing and 
Who Likes the Rain, by Clara Doty Bates. 
Re-telling of the Wind and the Sun. 

Rhythm — Sun and wind and rain-drops. 

Table 1st — Making dandelions of yellow par- 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



quetry with yellow crayon stems growing 

up from green grass. 
Table 2nd — Pegs and boards, rows of flow- 
ers, yellow dandelions, etc. 
Games — As yesterday. 
Wednesday — Circle — Re-telling of Wind and 

Sun by children. Read poems again. 
Rhythm — Same. 
Table 1st — Free cutting of sprinkler from 

green paper. Mount it. 
Table 2nd — Use sticks, rings, and broken 

rings for flower forms. 
Games — As yesterday. In sense of touch 

game, draw object after feeling of it. 
Thursday — Circle — Story of the Rainbow Fair- 
ies, taken from May number of the Month, 

by Month Books. 
Rhythm — Jumping rope. 
Table 1st — Boat scene on dark blue paper 

with charcoal and chalk. 
Table 2nd — Designs with kernels of corn. 
Games — Sense of hearing; voice, knocking 

articles of different material against one 

another. 
Friday — Circle — Review of stories and talk of 

flowers we will bring for Monday — May 

Day. 
Rhythm — Review. 
Table 1st — Unfinished work. 
Table 2nd — Free choice. 
Games — Free choice. 



"I maintain that it is not an advisable thing 
so much as a positive duty for teachers to con- 
trive some intellectual life for themselves ; to 
live in the company of good books and big 
ideas. Everyone cannot be interested in every- 
thing, but everyone is capable of being inter- 
ested in something; and I do not very much 
care what the subject is provided only that 
there is a little glow, a little enthusiasm about 
it."— A. C. Benson. 



We must educate the people to the point 
where it will be content to leave some things 
to the specialists. In business or in education, 
or in diplomacy the expert knows certain 
things which the public does not and cannot 
know ; and the sooner the general public recog- 
nizes this fact, the better for the conduct of 
all our various lines of national activity. — Dr. 
Arthur Twining Hadley. 

Just do a thing? Don't talk about it! This 
is the great secret of success in all enterprises. 



REED AND RAFFIA CONSTRUCTION 

WORK IN PIRMARY SCHOOLS 

II 

NOTK— With slight modification the instructions given 
will be found suitable for the younger children of the 
kindergarten. 

SQUARE PICTURE FRAME. 

Take eight splints, each five inches long, 
place two together, ends even and insert the 
end of a third one between, holding so as to 
form a right angle. Sew through the three 
together with needle threaded with a slender 
strip of raffia. Wind once around, place 
fourth strip under third and take another 
stitch through the four and then wind a few 
times around the corner and tie and tuck 
ends of knot between the splints. This 
forms one corner of frame ; make the other 
three corners the same way. Thread the 
needle with long strand of raffia, sew through 
between the splints ; hold frame towards the 




2H 



Fig. 12. Showing Square Picture Frame. 

body and the' outer edge to be worked away 
or up and buttonhole stitch across, pushing 
stitches close together and holding each 
stitch between to a uniform width of three- 
quarter inch. 

After making this a child would be able to 
make a buttonhole in a garment. 

Another frame is made by cutting a five inch 




F > ig. 13. Showing Square Cardboard Picture Frame Cov- 
ered by Using the Button hole Stitch. 

square from pasteboard and out of it cutting a 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



189 



four inch square, leaving a frame of pasteboard 
one inch in width and five inches in length. Pro- 
ceed to buttonhole it in the same way as the 
other square picture frame only have the stitches 
closer together. 

The teacher can doubtless invent other 
ways of winding the raffia to produce decor- 
ative work, and we will next consider articles 
made from braided raffia and begin with les- 
sons in braiding, commencing with the sim- 
plest work, which consists of three-strand 
braiding, each strand a single blade of raffia. 

Select three strands of uniform size so far 
as possible, tie the larger or butt end of the 
raffia with a loop knot, slip this over the 
screw-hook above referred to. For first les- 




Showing manner of braiding with 3, 4 and 5 strands of 
Raffia, 

sons the pupils may not be able to handle 
the raffia in full length, and in such case it 
should be cut in two. Braid as shown by 
Fig. 3. 

This exercise can be continued at short 
intervals for several days. At first the work 
will appear rough and uneven, and much of 
it should be unbraided and done over again. 

After the pupils can braid evenly with 
three single strands, the work of construct- 
ing the mat may be commenced in accord- 
ance with the instructions given below, or the 
pupils may be taught to braid with three 
strands, each of which consists of two blades 
of raffia (Fig. 4), or they may be taught 
four or five-strand braiding (Figs. 5 and 6). 

RAFFIA WHIP. 

Probably the simplest work that can be 
done with braided raffia will be the making 



of a whip. Take two pieces of braided 
raffia, one fifteen inches in length and the 
other eight inches. Fold the shorter piece in 
the center and place the larger end of the 
longer piece between the two ends of the 
shorter far enough up to leave a loop about 
one inch in length. Fasten all together by 
winding the entire length (except the loop) 
of the short piece, thus forming the handle 
and a loop by which to hang the whip. Be- 
gin at the foot of the loop and with a smooth 
flat blade of raffia wind tightly and smoothly, 




Fig. 15. Showing Whip made of braided Raffia. 

overlapping the blades, until within five 
inches of the end ; tie very securely and un- 
braid the remaining five inches and leave 
loose. If desired, wind again with contrast- 
ing colors same as for picture cord previously 
described. 

Directions for making other articles of 
braided raffia in such a way as to develop 
the children, physically and mentally, are 
given below : 

MAT OF SEWED BRAIDED RAFFIA. 

Beginning the work of constructing this 
mat for the first lesson, we will select the 
five-strand braid, or, if it is desired to com- 
mence the work of construction before the 
pupils have learned the five-strand braiding, 
let them braid together three braids of three 
single-blade braiding of sufficient length to 
complete the mat. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Take a No. 19 tapestry needle, select a 
small blade of raffia and thread the needle 
with same. Pass the end of the threaded 
raffia two or three times around the looped 
end of the braided raffia and tie if necessary 
to make it secure. Then cut off the loop 
and begin winding the braid round and 
round, face to face, not edge to edge, as can 
be noticed by the illustration (Fig. 8). When 
three or four times around, i. e., when three 
or four layers have been wound on evenly, 
insert the needle in the top of the first layer 
and pass it slantingly down through each of 
the other layers leftward, bringing the needle 
out at bottom of last layer. Reinsert the 
needle at point of last divergence, passing it 
upward so as to come out on the upper edge 
of the first layer, but about one-half inch 




Fig-. 15. Showing thick Mat made of Braided Raffia'. 

leftward, thus forming a V-shaped stitch 
through the layers. Reinsert the needle again 
from the point where brought out, and thus 
continue until the sewing is completed en- 
tirely around. Then wind on three or four 
additional layers of the braided raffia and 
sew as before. Thus continue until the mat 
is of the desired size. An oval mat can be 
constructed in the same manner, except when 
starting from the center an oblong instead 
of a circular form should be maintained. 
These mats will be quite thick, but after the 
children have become more accustomed to 
the work they can sew the three-blade braid- 
ing, thus making a thinner and perhaps more 
satisfactory mat. 

If the work of sewing is found too hard 
for first grade pupils it should be done by 
the older ones. The work can be accom- 
panied by a talk from the teacher relative to 
the various purposes for which braiding is 
used, the different methods of sewing, as by 



machines and otherwise, the importance of 
the art of sewing, etc. 

A mat much like this one, but thinner can be 
made by sewing the braid edge to edge instead 
of face to face. This kind of a mat is begun in 
the sane way but care must be taken to keep the 
Strands flat-while doing the sewing. These mats 
can be made after the children are more accus- 
thmed to the sewing. 




Fig- 16. Showing Mat made by sewing braided Raffia edge 
to edge. 

The children will be interested in making 
things of braided raffia for their dolls. Such as 
shoes, Japanese slippers, bags for carrying books, 
hats, etc., Ere always of interest. 




Fig. 17. Showing School Bag made of braided Raffis 




Fig. 18. Showing Shoe made of braided Raffia. 




Fig. 19. Showing Hat made of braided Raffia. 




Fig. 20. Showing manner of Weaving Braided Raffia. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



191 



WOVEN RAFFIA 

In the woven raffia work, children must have 
a purpose to work for The interest is very great 
if it is found that they are to make rugs or ham- 
mocks for the doll house or perhaps weave two 
pieces large enough to make a bag that they, 
themselves may use to carry books in. 

TABLE MAT. 

Take eight hardwood slats and place to- 
gether in the form of a square, or an oblong 
the size desired for the mat, using the slats 
double to secure sufficient strength. Fasten 
the corners very securely or they will slip. 
Wind the entire surface closely with three- 
strand braided raffia, the longer way if in 
the form of an oblong. Weave with braided 
raffia, winding the weaving end with a small 
thread of raffia which will give sufficient 
stiffness to use without needle. Weave same 
as for a paperweaving mat, but pass around 
the slats and weave back on the reverse side, 
instructing the children to be careful not to 
take in the lower strand with the other. The 
inconvenience of handling a braid of suffic- 
ient length to complete the work can be overcome 
by using a shorter strand and afterwards splic- 
ing tightly with a small thread of dampened 
raffia. If preferred the braiding can be done 
as needed. When the weaving is completed 
fasten the end strands securely, slip out the 
slats and in their place run a couple of braids 
of raffia and finish the edge with one of the 
stitches as previously described. 

TABLET RECEPTACLE. 

A convenient holder for the tablets of the 
Seventh Gift can be made by weaving braided 
raffia as described for the table mat, but of 
such size that an ordinary tin fruit can or an 
oblong paper box, open at the end, will slip 
in between the folds, the braid reaching when 
flat about one inch above the top. When the 
braiding is completed dampen one end of the 
work and cut the lengthwise strands across 
the end, and, taking off the first cross strand, 
fold each cut end back against itself, sewing 
neatly, and when all have been thus secured 
dampen the work, and slipping in the can 
or box, fit the covering around it. Sew a 
five-strand braid of colored raffia flatwise 
around the top, or form in loops or points for 
a neat finish. If a cover is desired it can be 
made from a piece of cardboard, cut to fit 
and covered as for picture frames, and fas- 
tened at one side. A braid may be attached 
to hang them by, and the bottom may be 
finished with a small braid and tassels. 

(To be continued.) 



TOYS IN THE KINDERGARTEN 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, Pd, D, — The Famous Educator 
of .Children, and Former Supervisor of Kinder- 
gartens. Boroughs of Manhattan. Bronx 
and Richmond — Gives Her Impress- 
ions of the Teachers' College Toy 
Exhibit. 
From "Playthings," New York, Copyrighted 1911. 

TEACHERS' COLLEGE, of Columbia University, 
has placed an exhibit of toys in its Educational 
Museum to assist parents and teachers in making- wise 
selections for children's gifts at Christmas, and we may 
add for birthdays or any days. 

The exhibit was arranged under the auspices of the 
Kindergarten-Primary Association of the Horace Mann 
School in co-operation with the Department of Kinder- 
garten Education of Teachers' College. Miss Patty S. 
Hill, head of this department, is a kindergartner of the 
progressive type who believes in the use of toys in the 
kindergarten as well as in the home. 

Miss Hill prepared and presided over the toy exhibit 
in the Child's Welfare Congress last year. She writes 
that "the primary purpose of the present exhibit is to 
consider the welfare of the child, and that an attempt 
has been made to set a higher standard and to provoke a 
more thoughtful consideration of the question by show- 
ing a carefully selected collection of books, pictures and 
toys, together with a model play-room." 

The explanatory circular of the exhibit further states 
that "No effort has been made to secure the latest and 
most ingenious products of the market, but it has been 
the purpose to select the best examples of what has 
been tested and tried in child-life." 

The exhibit stands for well-made toys rather than 
many; yet it contains an interesting showcase filled with 
well selected toys at a very low price as a result of an 
investigation to discover the best that may be procured 
at a cost not to exceed ten cents. In this very interest- 
ing case we noted the delight of a little girl's heart, a 
toy broom, a toy dust-pan and brush, a midget sweep- 
er, toy dishes, a ball, a wagon, a set of building blocks, 
a drum, reins, a trumpet, and, of course, a doll. 

These simple housekeeping toys make any little child 
happy because the instincts of imitation and of activity 
can be gratified. 

The exhibit of which we are writing presented a full 
line of housekeeping toys, well made, a few unusually 
expensive ones, including a set of Colonial furniture 
made by craftsmen. The set of mahogany furniture in 
the play-room is of the finest workmanship and design. 

There was a time in the history of toys when it was 
more common for. craftsmen to reproduce in miniature 
objects of their craft. Even gold and silversmiths did 
so at times. This was before the day of toy factories. 

One very pleasing and suggestive case in the exhibit 
contained musical instruments for children of varying 



A number of these, as the pianos, xylophones, tube- 
phones and metallaphones, are said to be accurately 
tuned and of permanent musical value, giving children 
correct tone impressions. Playings has called attention 



192 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



to the value of toys appealing to the sense of 
hearing. 

The remarkable progress in dolldom is fully recognized 
in the exhibit. The reproduction of American children 
by American artists is noted. Such artistic dolls are 
recommended for older children, while the stockinet 
and other unbreakable dolls, those that are durable 
and as far as possible hygienic, are suggested for 
younger children. 

Games are exhibited which encourage play in the open 
air. They are arranged "in schemes and sets in which 
each holds a relation to the other." For instance, such 
material as makes possible the re-living, under make- 
believe conditions, of the domestic, social and industrial 
life of society, and again sleds, wagons, velocipedes and 
doll carriages, which also encourage out-of-door sport, 
good tools, purchased possibly one at a time, are suggest- 
ed. Animals are represented in the now famous "Do- 
With Toys." 

We must not forget to mention "The Child's Wel- 
fare Table," which provides in a compact form materials 
and tools for several fundamental activities of childhood, 
as sand-modeling and drawing. A decorated screen, 
representing an entrance to a house, with a real door, 
would please a child and help preserve order. 

Such a screen would prove a blessing in city apart- 
ments, where a large doll's house is out of the question. 

Clubs and parents' associations throughout the country 
may well consider the occasional presentation of such 
exhibits to set standards to toy dealers, who gladly study 
the needs of children, being parents themselves. 



QUICK-WITTED. 

Dr. P. S. Henson once delivered his lecture on 
"Fools" at the New York Chautauqua. In intro- 
ducing him, Bishop Vincent said: 

"Ladies and gentlemen, we are now to listen to 
a lecture on 'Fools,' by one — (the audience broke 
into a roar of laughter, and, after it had died away, 
Bishop Vincent added) — of the most brilliant men 
in America." 

Dr. Henson rose, and, with a genial smile, said: 
"Ladies and gentlemen, I am not so great a fool 
as Bishop Vincent — (another roar of laughter, 
after which the speaker added) — would have you 
believe." — Selected. 



Los Angeles, Calif. — Not only is the kindergarten 
an integral part of the public school system of this 
city, but in the slums a social work is carried on 
in connection with the kindergarten. Two trained 
nurses are employed in each of the slum districts 
and free baths are given with the consent of the 
parents. 

Osceola, Iowa. — The Iowa State Teachers' Asso- 
ciation has elected a woman for president in the 
person of Miss Alice Dilly, a high school principal 
of this city. 



KINDERGARTEN GROWTH 

[NOTE:— Under this heading we shall give from time to 
time such items as come to our notice relative to the estab- 
lishment of new kindergartens as well as articles or state- 
ments in the public press or from noted educators favor- 
able to the kindergarten cause,] 



North Carolina Kindergarten Association 
Organized 

During the recent meeting of the Teachers' Assembly 
in Raleigh a number of the kindergartners of the State 
got together and organized a North Carolina Kinder- 
garten Association. This marks quite a step forward 
in that department of education. The kindergarten 
has had a struggle to get a foothold here, for the major- 
ity of the school men of the State seemed to have taken 
the attitude that when the kindergarten makes good 
in the North we will adopt it. They have not seemed to 
realize that they, by a study of kindergarten principles 
and a recognition of their value, could do more than 
any other power in the State to keep our little North 
Carolina children from missing this early training, which 
has been so universally recognized as the right of all 
children, that in many places it has become compulsory. 

The charter membership of the Association numbers 
twenty-two, and so much interest was manifested by 
several mothers of children in kindergarten and by 
primary teachers, that six associate members were en- 
rolled at this first meeting. 

The officers are as follows: 

President, Miss Mary E. Wright, of Washington, N. C. 

Vice-President, Miss Hattie Scott, of Asheville, N. C. 

Secretary, Miss Louise Busbee, of Raleigh, N. C. 

Treasurer, Mrs. Harvey MacNair, of Wilson, N. C. 

The Executive Committee consists of the officers of 
the Association, and Miss Meta Eloise Beall, of Greens- 
boro, N. C, State Secretary of the Southern Kinder- 
garten Association. 



Cowards die many times before their deaths; 
The valiant never taste of death but once. 

— ^Shakespeare. 



' 'The beginning of real university work is in the Kinder- 
garten, thereby two or three years' work being saved to 
the student." — President Harper, of the Chicago 
University. 

"The motive of the Kindergarten, 'joy in doing,' 
should be the motive of all education, and the inspir- 
ing happy motive at every stage of human life." — Dr. 
Eliot, President of Harvard University. 

Friedrich Froebel started the first kindergarten in 
1840 in Germany. Today we see the Kindergarten 
established as part of the educational outfit of every 
progressive country of the world; scores of schools and 
colleges filled with young women of the best ability and 
finest culture, receiving special professional preparation 
for their work with the little ones; thousands of mothers 
with loving hearts hearing gladly the words of this great 
constructive philosopher and friend of children, and 
striving to apply his teachings in the government of 
their own households; philanthropists delighting to 
give a portion of their wealth to found, equip and sup- 
port Kindergarten schools ...... and forward- 
ing this movement which already has brought blessings 
and happiness to millions of children. — P. P. Claxton. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



'93 



Relation of the Kindergarten to the School. 

What the prelude is to the organist and the tuning 
up to the orchestra the kindergarten is to the school. 

Plunge fifty or more little children from the free life 
of the home and the play yard into a typical primary 
school, and it dazes many of them socially and mentally 
so that they are not at their ease for many weeks. 

A few over-ambitious children monopolize the centre 
of the stage, making the dazed ones appear and feel 
stupid. 

About one-half of all the retarded children are re- 
tarded in the first two years of school life. Most of 
these are retarded because they are made self-conscious 
of their slowness, dullness, stupidity. They make no 
effort to get in tune, no attempt to get the pace. 

The retarded pupils cost the taxpayers upwards of 
$25,000,000 a year. They cause four-fifths of the 
nervous strain of the teachers. They rob the rest of 
the pupils of much of the teachers' attention that 
belongs to them. 

To save the $25,000,000 of waste, the teachers' nervous 
strain, the time and effort that belongs to all the child- 
ren, would be a vast achievement. 

The kindergarten can do all of this and more if the 
primary grades will accept their share of responsibility 
for the adjustment. 

In the kindergarten there is no magnifying of the 
immature, the shy, the timid, the slow, or the blunder- 
ing. 

The children are taken from the home and the play 
yard, and are brought into tune, time, and action 
gradually and harmoniously. They are sent forward 
with no emphasis upon their differences. 

If the primary school accepts its responsibility, a 
kindergarten promoted class may keep itself very near 
a unit for the entire eight grades. 

Who can estimate the significance of this unification 
by the elimination of the self-consciousness of the 
immature, the shy, the timid, and the slow? 

The kindergarten may save to the taxpayers many 
times the cost, may postpone the teachers' retirement 
several years, and impart to the work with the other 
children an inexpressible impulse. — Am. Primary 
Teacher. 



Progress of Kindergarten Children in the 
Grades 

The National Kindergarten Association publishes the 
following extracts from replies by Boston teachers to 
inquiries as to progress made by kindergarten children 
in school grades : 

"The only entire class that I ever promoted at the 
end of a school year were children from the kinder- 
garten." 

"The habits of obedience, promptness, carefulness, 
ure more firmly established in the kindergarten child." 

"The fact that the kindergarten, by the numerous 
opportunities that it gives for comparison and decision, 
affords the earliest well-regulated method of educating 
the judgment, is enough in itself to prove that children 
from the kindergarten are better prepared for work." 



"The thing I value most in kindergarten training is 
the ethical benefit to the child. (Kindness, politeness, 
consideration of the rights of other people, thoughtful- 
ness, and gratitude to their Maker are all taught in 
kindergarten.)" 

"In my experience the kindergarten children take 
hold of the work more rapidly and progress more rapidly 
than home children." 

"Of all my special promotions made during the five 
years I have been teaching, three-fourths of them were 
pupils who started in the kindergarten. No city or town 
should be without kindergartens." 



"The true Kindergarten and the true university are 
the two types of educational institutions on which the 
uplifting of our entire educational system mustdepend." 
— Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, President of Columbia 
University. 

"The Kindergarten rightly understood contains all 
the germs of modern education as the acorn contains 
the oak. In proinoting,the~kindergarten idea you are 
promoting the higher, the broader, the more natural 
and more spiritual education." — Dr. Lyman Abbott. 



Dr. Jenny B. Merrill announces that she is open 
to engagements to lecture upon "The Montessori 
Method of Infant Education and its relation to the 
Kindergarten." Dr. Merrill has been studying the new 
system since 1909 when her attention was directed to it 
by the Baroness Franchetti to whom Dr. Montessori ded- 
icated her book of method. Address for particulars, 
The Scudder School, 59 W. 96th Street, New York City. 



The oldest and best school agency in the South is the 
Dewberry School Agency of Birmingham, Ala., of which 
R. A. Clayton is manager. This agency places teachers 
over the entire South and Southwest at all times of the 
year. 

My little pupils delight in colored tooth picks, pegs, 
etc., in their seat work and I found by boiling scraps of 
crepe'paper I would secure coloring material sufficient 
for the purpose. Red and green give the best results. 



The Bureau of University Travel, which had charge 
of the International Kindergarten Tour last summer, 
has a unique method of travel and study in Greece. 
The company own a yacht, the ATHENA, which is 
fitted up, as they say, "like a camp at sea." You eat 
and even sleep out-of-doors, under the most delightful 
picnic conditions imaginable. There are cruises vary- 
ing from twelve days to two months in length, always 
accompanied by such men as Dr. Willard or Professor 
Clark, whose work aroused so much enthusiasm last 
summer. They are doing much to foster and increase 
a real interest in Greek culture. 



The surest road to health, say what they will, 
Is never to suppose we shall be ill. 

— Churchill. 



194 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



International Kindergarten Union 

Nineteenth Annual Meeting to be held in 
Des Moines, Iowa, April 30— May 3. 1912. 



Headquarters: The Savery Hotel, Fourth and Locust Sts. 

OFFICERS. 

President Miss Mabel A. MacKinney 

Brooklyn, New York. 

First Vice-President , Miss Alice Temple 

Chicago, 111. 

Second Vice-President Miss Hortense M. Orcutt 

Savannah, Georgia. 

Recording Secretary Miss Netta Faris 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Corresponding Secretary 

and Treasurer Miss Luella A. Palmer 

New York City. 

Auditor Miss Julia S. Bothwell 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Never in the history of the International Kindergarten 
Union has a city as far west as Des Moines been selected 
as a place of meeting. This is a significant fact in itself. 
Des Moines has been eager to entertain the Union and ex- 
tends to its members a more than cordial welcome. 

The International Kindergarten Union goes to Des 
Moines upon the invitation of the Des Moines Freebel As- 
sociation, the Mayor of Des Moines, the Superintendent 
of the Public Schools, the Commercial Club, the Des 
Moines Federation of Women's Clubs, the Women's Club, 
the Principals' Club, Drake University, the Superinten- 
dent of Polk County Public Schools, the Iowa Congress of 
Mothers, the Iowa State Teachers' College and the Iowa 
State Kindergarten Union co operate with the Association 
in this invitation. 

The Executive Board has endeavored to arrange a pro- 
gram that will prove attractive and profitable. 

Tuesday morning every opportunity will be given to 
visit the Kindergartens of Des Moines. Automobiles will 
be in readiness to take the guests to them, and also for 
drives about the city. Many will wish to avail themselves 
of the privilege of seeing the many fine buildings and 
various places of interest in this thriving Western city. 

Tuesday Afternoon the Conference on Training an<t Su- 
pervision will be held. This is a closed meeting, admis- 
sion by card to training teachers atid supervisors only. 
It is hoped that all eligible will make every effort to reach 
the meeting in time for this. The Conference is in charge 
of the Committee on Training and Supervision, of which 
Miss Alice O'Grady is the Chairman, and it has been the 
desire of the Committee to bring before the meeting some 
of the many new problems of adjustment which have 
arisen in the last few years and which must be considered 
and organized. In order to make the discussion as profit- 
able as possible, the committee has aimed to arrange the 
meeting so that many members may be called upon and a 
wide expression of opinion obtained. For this reason the 
plan of arrangement is; the opening speaker will outline 
the situation and will close her paper of fifteen minutes 
with a statement of several fundamental questions invol- 
ved. Each one of the speakers will speak to one of these 
and general discussion will follow, in which it is hoped 
that as many as possible will join. In this way, several 
points of view will be given, and a slight summary can be 
obtained as a ground work for future progress. 

Tuesday evening the convention formally opens. Dr. M- 
V, O'Shea. of the Department of Education of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, will give an address upon "The Endur 
ing Verities in Education." Dr. O'Shea's work as an edu- 
cator is thoroughly known the country over and his ad- 
dress will be one of deep and popular interest. 

The reports of the committees and branches give the 
scope of the various lines of effort covered by the Union 
and of the activities of the organization and clubs affiliat- 
ed with it. 

The Union last year merged its Parents' Committee into 
one in affiliation with the National Congress of Mothers. 
The splendid work of that body of women has grown with 
marvelous rapidity the last few years and the Iowa Branch 
is one of its strongest. It is very fitting to devote an after- 
noon to a consideration of the many common interests of 
the Congress and the Union. The program will be in 
charge of the Committee on Affiliation, of which Miss Eliz- 
abeth Harrison is the Chairman. Mrs. O. T. Bright of 
Chicago, Vice President of the National Congress is to be 
one of the speakers and others prominent in the Iowa 
Branch are hoped for. 

One session will be devoted to the Kindergarten in its 
broader and more inclusive social aspects. Miss Annie 
Laws of Cincinnati, whose years of efficient efforts not 



only in kindergarten circles but along many lines of public 
service, peculiarly equip her to speak with authority, will 
give an address upon "The Kindergarten in Social bife." 
This will be followed by a paper, possibly illustrated with 
stereoptican slides by Mr. Guy L. Shipps of Chicago whose 
Playground work has been attracting nruch attention. He 
will tell us of "Municipal Recreation Canters." 

Mrs. Susan T. Harriman of Boston, a member of the band 
of Froebel Pilgrims, who made the very delightful tour last 
summer, will give us an account of the interesting ex- 
periences of the party. This will be followed by a paper by 
Dr. Herbert Martin of the Chair of Philosophy of Drake 
University of Des Moines upon "Problems in Philosophy 
which Affects present Educational Ideals." 

The Business Meeting has been given a place in an 
afternoon session in the hope that with no kindergartens 
to be visited, there may be a large attendance. It is urged 
that each Branch instruct its delegates to be present at this 
meeting. For here the branches learn of the policies of the 
Union which affect them as well — here the younger kinder- 
gartners, through their knowledge of the inner workings 
of the organization, prepare themselves to assume its 
duties later. 

After the business meeting there will be an opportunity 
to listen to short talks from well known kindergarten 
leaders— as many as possible— from whom we are always 
glad to hear. 

Dr. Irving King, of the Department of Education of the 
State University of Iowa, known as one of the most 
reliable authorities on Child Study and Psychology, will 
read an able paper on "Kindergarten Principles and Recent 
Developments in Educational Theory." This will be dis- 
cussed by different kindergartners and later the discussion 
opened to the floor if time permits. 

We anticipate a musical treat. Miss Eleanor M. Smith of 
Chicago, whose name is known wherever kindergarten 
songs are sung, will talk to us of "Kindergarten Music: 
Its Relation to Music in the Grades." This will be followed 
by short talks by other musicians and we hope illustrated 
with songs. 

The Board feels the program offers a variety of good 
things that will prove most helpful and inspirational. 

The Local Committee is making every effort to arrange 
an attractive week for its guests. The delegates and 
officers will be served luncheon at the Hotel Chamberlain, 
Wednesday noon. A reception is to be given by the 
Woman's Club at the Club House to all visitors, Thursday 
evening and other informal entertainments are being 
planned. 

ADVANCE PROGAM 

Monday, April 29, 2:30 p. m. 
Board meeting. 

Monday, April 29, ', :30 p. m. 

Meeting of Committee of Nineteen. 

Tuesday, April 30, 9:00 a. m. to 12:00 
Visits to Kindergartens. 

Tuesday, April 30, 2:00 p. m. 
Conference of TrainingTeachersand Supervisors. Closed 
Meeting. 
MISS ALICE O'GRADY, Chairman. 
General Topic: The Next Forward Movement. 

1. The Kindergarten and the Educational World. 

Miss Stella Wood of Minneapolis will open the discussion 
with a short paper, followed by: 
Miss Elizabeth Harrison, Chicago. 
Miss Nina Vandewalker, Milwaukee. 
Mrs. Ada M. Hughes, Toronto. 
Mrs. Mary B. Page, Chicago. 
Miss Jeanette Ezekiels, Des Moines. 
Followed by general discussion. 

2. The Kindergarten and Supervision. 
Leader to be supplied. 

Miss Olive Russell, Chicago. 

Miss Catherine R. Watkins, Washington. 

Miss Cora English, Kansas City. 

Miss Alice Parker, Pittsburgh. 

Mrs. Mary C. McCulloch, St. Louis. 

Other members will be asked to respond from the floor. 
Tuesday, April 30, 8 p. m. 

Invocation. 

Address of Welcome. 

Response. 

Address— "Enduring Verities in Education." Dr. M. V. 
O'Shea, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. 
Wednesday, May 1, 9:30 a. m. 

Report of Recording Secretary, Miss Netta Faris. 

Report of Corresponding Secretary and Treasurer, Miss 
Luella A. Palmer, 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



195 



Report of Auditor, Miss Julia S. Bothwell. 

Report of Committee on Foreign Correspondence, Mrs. 
Susan T. Harriman, Chairman. 

Report of Committee on Foreign Relations, Miss Annie 
Laws, Chairman. 

Report of Committee on Investigation, Miss Nina Vande- 
walker, Chairman. 

Report of Committee on Propagation, Miss Myra M. Win- 
chester, Chairman. 

Report of Committee on Literature, Miss Annie E. Moore, 
Chairman. 

Report of Committee on Affiliation with National Cong- 
ress of Mothers, Miss Elizabeth Harrison, Chairman. 

Report of Friedrich Froebel Museum Committee, Miss 
Alice E. Fitts, Chairman. 

Report of Committee on Nominations, Miss Ella C. Elder, 
Chairman. 

Appointment of Committee on Time and Place. 

Reports of Delegates from Branches in the East and 
South. 

Luncheon at Hotel Chamberlain for Delegates and Offi- 
cers. 

Wednesday, May 1, 2:30 p. m. 

Meeting in charge of the Committee on Affiliation with 
the National Congress or Mothers. 

Speakers, Mrs. Orville T. Bright of Chicago, Vice Presi- 
dent'National Congress of Mothers and others. 
Wednesday, May 1, 8 p. m. 

Address: The Kindergarten in Social Life. Miss Annie 
Laws, Cincinnati. 

Address: Municipal Recreation Centers, Mr. Guy L. 
Shipps. Field House Director, Davis Square, South Parks, 
Chicago. 

Thursday, May 2, 9:30 a. m. 

Reports of Delegates from Branches in the West. 

Report of the Froebel Pilgrimage, Mrs. Susan T. Harri- 
man. 

Address: Problems in Philosophy which affect Present 
Educational Ideals, Dr. Herbert Martin, Drake University, 
Des Moines. 

Thursday, May 2, 2:00 p. m. 

Business Meeting. 

Short Addresses. 

Mrs. Ada Mareau Hughes. 

Mrs. Mary Boomer Page. 

Miss Nina Vandewalker. 

Miss Mary C. McCulloch and others. 

Thursday, May 2, 8:00 p. m. 

Reception by Des Moines Women's Club, Club House, to 
all visitors. 

Friday, May 3, 9:30 a. m. 

Address: Kindergarten Principles and Recent Develop- 
ments in Educational Theory. Dr. Irving King, University 
of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. Followed by Discussion. Speak- 
ers to be announced . 

Friday, May 3, 2:30 p. m. 

Address: Kindergarten Music in its Relation to Music in 
the Grades, Miss Eleanor M. Smith. Chicago. 

Other Speakers to be announced. 
Exhibits 

There will be an exhibit of kindergarten hand work from 
various cities and Training Schools in the country, in the 
Auditorium, where the meetings are held. 

There will also be an exhibit of books and pictures suit- 
able for young children, along the lines of that held at 
Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York City, 
in December. This is to be in the Des Moines City Library. 
Miss Patty S. Hill will speak informally of the very sug- 
gestive Teachers' College Exhibit. 

Places of Meeting 

The Conference on Training and Supervision will be held 
at Drake University, Twenty-fourth Street and L T niversity 
Avenue. 

All other meetings will be held in the'^Auditorium, 
Fourth Street and Grand Avenue, a short walk from Head- 
quarters, 



Local Organization 

Officers of the Des Moines Froebel Association : 

President Miss Caroline S. Murphy 

Vice President Miss Belle McConnell 

Recording Secretary Miss Florence True 

Corresponding Secretary Miss Agnes Jennings 

Treasurer Miss Naomi H. Smith 

Chairman of Local Committee Miss Bessie M. Park 

Committees 

Headquarters— Miss Mitjnie E. Hopper, Miss Elizabeth J. 
Culbertson. 

Accommodations — Miss Marie Preston. 

Places of Meeting and Program— Miss Bessie M. Park, 
Miss Minnie Hyland. 

Hospitality- Miss Mary Dunkle. 

Badges and Decorations— Miss Henrietta Blessin, Miss 
Addie J. Maulsby. 

Transportation— Mr. Z. C. Thornburg. 

Music— Miss Elizabeth Piatt, Mrs. Harris H. Coggeshall. 

Finance— Miss Carolines. Murphy, Mrs. Lizbeth V. Grif- 
fiths. 

Exhibit— Miss Jessica St. John. 

Press— Miss Alice T. Lowry, Miss Nellie Warren, Miss 
Minnie Rozelle. 

Entertainments— Mrs. Alexander Fitzhugh. 

Credentials and Elections— Miss Louisa Huntington, Miss 
EUa M. Malone. 

Advisory— Superintendent, M. O. Riddell, Prof. Wm. F. 
Barr, Drake University. 

Accommodations 

The Savery— Headquarters — Fourth and Locust Streets. 
European plan. Rates: Single room without bath, $1.50 to 
$2.00; s ; ngle room with bath, $2.00 to $3.50; doub'e rooms 
without bath, $2.50; double rooms with bath $3.00 and up. 

Chamberlain, European plan, Seventh and Locust Sts. 
Rales: Single room, $1.50 to $3."0; double rooms, $2.50 to $5.00. 

The Elliott Hotel, European, Fourth and Walnut Streets. 
Rates: Single rooms without bath, $1.00 and up; double 
rooms with bath, $1.50 and up. 

Hotel Randolph. European, Fourth and Court Avenue. 
Rates: Rooms \\ ithout bath, $1.00 and up; rooms with bath 
$1.50 and up. 

Wellington Hotel, European, 417 Fifth S<. Rates: Single 
rooms without bath, $ .75 to $1.25; single rooms with bath, 
$1.50 to $3.00; double rooms without bath, $1.50 to $2.00; dou- 
ble rooms with bath, $2.50 to $3 00. 

For information regarding boarding places in private 
houses, please write Miss Marie Preston, 1225 East Ninth St., 
Des Moines, Please make all hotel reservations with hotel 
management as early as possible. 

The following railroads come into Des Moines: 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific ; The North-Western ; The 
Great Western ; Burlington; Wabash; Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul. 



CHICAGO 



Prof. Walter F. Sargent of Chicago University is giv- 
ing a University credit course to the students of the 
Chicago Free Kindergarten Association, on Tuesday 
mornings at 11 o'clock at the school rooms in the Fine 
Art's Building. The subject is a very practical one 
"Art in the Kindergarten." 

Miss Patty Hill gave a course of three lectures Wed- 
nesday, Thursday and Friday, Jan. 31st., Feb. 1st. and 
Feb. 2nd. on "Democracy in the Kindergarten" to th e 
Alumnae and students of the Chicago Free Kindergarten 
Association. The Anna"_E. Bryan Memorial Fund of 
the Alumnae Club makes it possible for the members 
to enjoy from time to time such helpful lectures as Miss 
Hill and other prominent educators can give. 



196 



HELPFUL HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS 

For Kinder gartners, Rural ana Primary Teachers 



Transfering Pictures 

The method of transfering- with carbon paper is 
doubtless familiar to all. 

Two sheets of this paper can be purchased at any 
store book for five cents, and one sheet may be used 
repeatedly. 

If the picture to be reproduced is one we would not 
care to have defaced it should be traced on transparent 
paper and the copy used in transfering-. 

Though this method mav be employed to an advan- 
tage by the teacher in her private work it is not practi- 
cal for the class room. 

Often we would have our pupils work out a design 
first on practice paper and later transfer it to a book 
cover, or card but we can not afford to supply an entire 
class with carbon paper. 

I have found the following- device a convenient sub- 
stitute. 

Rub a soft lead pencil or black crayola over the back 
of the design. Place it face up with the black surface 
in contact with the material upon which the copy is to 
be made. 

Trace with a hard pencil working on a hard surface. 

Easter greetings, and designs worked out first on 
practice paper, or cut from newspapers, magazines, etc., 
may in this way be transferred to card or booklet by 
the smallest children. — Selected. 



Paper Pulp for Modeling. 

1. Collect all the old newspapers, etc. 

2. Tear into bits. 

3 Boil for several hours in plenty of water. 

4. Work with a potato masher or hands until well 
mixed and soft, 

5. Add one cupful of carpenters' glue to a half gal- 
lon of water and boil a few minutes. 

6. When you desire to use the pulp, squeeze out 
most of the water from the handfuls of pulp and mix 
in to each handful a very little of the glue thus pre- 
pared. 

7. This pulp can be preserved in Mason glass jars 
and used when needed. Add a few drops of oil of 
cloves to help preserve the pulp and prevent disagree- 
able odor. 

8. This is fine for maps. 



Number Game 

I paste small pieces of coated paper on the square 
and round tablets, then placing two or three dozen as- 
sorted colors on my desk, I tell Mary or John he can 
draw out three red tablets, etc. If he gets the right 
number and color he can keep the tablets. If not he 
must put them back and wait his turn again. My pu- 
pils quickly learn the six principal colors and how to 
count in that way. 



Bulletin Board 

I have what I call a bulletin board, 4x4 feet, made of 
soft wood and painted green. It stands about 18 inches 
from the floor and can be easily moved about. On this 
are thumb-tacked the pictures which illustrate our sub- 
ject for the week or month, and sometimes those illus- 
trating the story work. These pictures are first talked 
about and placed in the hands of the children an the 
circle, or at the tables — then they are put on the board 
where frequent references are made to them, and where 
the children may observe them again and again and 
talk over them in little groups, as I have often seen 
them do, during their free play periods. All of this I 
hope, helps them in this image making period of their 
lives. These pictures are changed frequently, while 
those hanging on the walls are permanent. — Elizabeth 
G. Heyward, in North Carolina Education. 



Device for Map Drawing. 

Draw a map and cut it out. Mix 2 tablespoonfuls 
of Hour with one tablespoonful of salt and a little water. 
Put this mixture upon the map, piling it high for moun- 
tains, and scooping it out for valleys. If a few drops 
of blueing or a bit of egg dye or water color paint is 
added, the tint will be pleasing. Care should be taken 
not to put in too much color. Before the map begins 
to dry, place upon it some production for each section. 
Thus: a bit of raw cotton for the cotton section; a few 
grains; a little sugar. For the manufacturing section, a 
bit of cloth, a picture of a shoe. For the prairie sec- 
tion, pictures of cattle, hogs, etc.; also a few grains of 
corn, wheat, oats. For the plateau section, a cent, a 
bit of tin foil for silver, etc. — School Education, 



After the children become familiar with a song that 
gives clear pictures to the mind, like Clap, Clap the 
Hands, or All for Baby from Emilie Poulsson's Finger 
Plays, give the children paper and scissors or paper and 
crayons, and ask them to make pictures of the song the 
piano tells us. Have the song played over and over 
during the period. The music keeps the children quiet, 
but not suppressed— the interest keen . Or, if preferred, 
the song may be sang during the period. This keeps the 
picture, in order, before the childs mind. — Maybell 
Thomas, in North Carolina Education. 

How I Made a Peg Board 

A dry goods dealer gave me a board, such as is used 
to hold braid, and I made a peg board out of it by 
marking it of in half inch squares, making nail holes 
in each corner. I then painted the board and it an- 
swers very well. The time spent was really worth more 
than the board would have cost at a kindergarten sup- 
ply house but I wanted to use one at once and it proved 
convenient. 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



197 



ETHICAL CULTURE 

Moral Education 

The Committee appointed by the National Education- 
al Association to consider the matter of Moral Educa- 
tion in schools and to recommend a course of study, in 
their report, suggest the following for the kindergarten 
and first-grade: 

KINDERGARTEN 

1. Obedience. — (Training) In following directions 
relative to conduct; also relative to games, marches, 
and other exercises. 

2. Co-operation. — (Training) Songs, games, marches, 
etc. 

3. Helpfulness. — (Training) Passing materials, put- 
ting on wraps, helping to serve luncheons, etc. 

4. Attention. — (Training) To stories told, directions 
given, work to be done, part in games, etc. 

5. Motor control. — (Training) Games, marches, 
paper folding, paper cutting, standing, sitting, motion 
songs, and free play. 

6. Kindness. — (Instruction) Kindness to parents, 
teacher, and to each other. (Training) By being kind 
to each other and to pets. 

7. Cheerfulness. — (Training) Singing, games, marches, 
other school exercises, and free play. 

8. Sociability. — (Training) Luncheons, games, free 
play. 

9. Manners. — (Instruction) How to act in their 
games and other exercises; how to answer persons; table 
manners. (Training) Luncheons, regular school exer- 
cises, free play. 

Notes. — A. Instruction given chiefly by means of 
storie's, memory gems, and by explanations and direc- 
tions given by the teachers. Teachers should remember 
that showing is more effective than telling. 

B. The marches, songs, games, luncheons, free 
play, and much of the constructive work furnish ex- 
cellent means for social training and should be fully 
utilized. 

FIRST GRADE 

1. Follow directions. — (Training) Marching; passing 
to and from seats, into and out of the room; removing 
and putting on wraps; passing and collecting materials; 
use of busy work, etc. 

Note. — From the very first children should be taught 
how to follow directions and then trained in doing so 
until it becomes habit. 

2. Obedience. — (Instruction) Obedience to parents 
and teachers. (Training) Obeying directions given in 
reference to conduct and school worR. 

3. Cleanliness. — (Instruction) Relative to cleanliness 
of body and clo+hing. (Training) Keep hands, face, 
and clothing clean. 

4. Kindness. — (Instruction) To parents, brothers 
and sisters, teachers, playmates. (Training) Kindness 
to schoolmates and teacher. 

5. Unselfishness. — (Training) Sharing things which 
belong to the children with each other; giving way for 
others to take part in games and sports. 

6. Helpfulness. — (Instruction) How pupils may 



help at home and at school. (Training) Help in lead- 
ing lines; in games and sports; passing and collecting 
materials; erasing boards; help each otherputon wraps- 

7. Self-control. — (Training) Keeping quiet, busy 
work, standing in lines, sitting, marching. 

S. Motor control. — (Training) Writing, talking, read- 
ing, phonics, gymnastics, free play. 

9. Cheerfulness. — (Training) Stories, singing, march- 
ing, free play. The aim should be for teachers and 
pupils alike to be cheerful in all their work as well as 
playr 

10. Love of parents. — (Instruction.) 

11. Good manners. { Instruction) Relative to school 
manners; manners at table; use of good language. (Train- 
ing) School manners, reciting, speaking to the teacher, 
treatment of each other in the schoolroom and on play- 
ground. 

Notes. — A. Instruction to be given chiefly by ex- 
planations, directions, stories, memory gems. Showing 
pupils what to do and how to act is more effective than 
telling. Train leaders among the pupils themselves. 
Much greater emphasis should be put on moral training 
than on moral instruction. 

B. While the opportunities are not so great for 
social training as in the kindergarten, yet teachers 
should avail themselves of every means to give pupils 
social training. Songs, marches, games, constructive 
work (make things for parents or friends) . the festivals, 
parents' day, special celebrations, and luncheons should 
be utilized for social training. 

C. The teacher should make a careful selection of 
stories, incidents, and quotations a propos of the topic 
presented. 

The committee in its report sets forth that "The 
great need of the times is not so much for men with 
brains and money, but for men who posses common 
morality. Systematic Moral Education has proven 
highly beneficial in France, Japan and other Countries 
where it has been definately undertaken. 



Memory Gems 

The hand that gives, gathers. 

He gives double who gives unasked. 

A contented mind is a continual feast. 

No tent so good to live in as content. 

A good cause makes a strong arm. — Shakespeare. 

Thrice happy they who have an occupation. — 
Byron. 

What makes life dreary is the want of motive. — 
George Eliot. 

That which is good to be done, cannot be done 
too soon. — Bishop Mant. 

A brave man is sometimes a desperado; a bully 
is always a coward. — Haliburion. 

He who receives a good turn should never for- 
get it; he who does one should never remember it 

He'll seldom need aid 
Who has a good trade. 



198 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




Mrs. Maria Kraus-Boelte 

Meeting of Kraus Alumni Association 

The recent meeting of the Kraus Alumni Association 
at the Hotel San Remo proved a most interesting 1 as 
well as a most highly enjoyable event. Mothers' 
meetings in connection with kindergartners were dis- 
cussed by prominent kindergarten leaders who present- 
ed the most important feature of the kindergarten 
work from both the educational and sociological point 
ofview. 

Mrs. Kraus-Boelte spoke of Froebel's play with child- 
ren and of his lectures to young girls and mothers in 
which he endeavored to make plain the principles 
underlying his play, and thus raise the plays from those 
of the instructive to those of the educative type. The 
education of little children was a "royal work" and the 
assistance rendered to mothers aided the children and 
homes of the community. Miss Mabel MacKinney, 
supervisor of the Free Kindergarten Association of 
Brooklyn, suggested the three classes of mothers with 
whom the kindergartner had to deal — namely, the 
cultured, intelligent women who were willing to co- 
operate in the education of not only their own but 
other children, the uneducated but interested women 
in whom motherhood had awakened a desire for 
knowledge, and the uneducated, careless women who 
because of environment and poverty could not under- 
stand how to help the child or the kindergartner. 

The kindergarten, therefore, has a triple mission, but 
should strive also to include the fathers by inviting 
them to parents' meetings held in the evening at the 
schools. The kindergarten may be said to have ad- 
vanced the child study and child welfare movements, 
to have increased the interest of parents in the school 
and its work, and made of the school a social centre. 

Miss Mary Reid of the Mother Craft School, 566 West 
End Avenue, spoke of the classes in child hygiene, die- 
tetics, biology, and sociology by which the health and 
proper treatment of children were furthered. The 
laboratory work in connection with the kindergarten 
and nursery of the school, as well as;. the Mibrary and 
permanent exhibit of nursery equipment were most 
encouraging reports. Mrs. Johnson of Sesame House, 
London,' is assisting in^the development of some phases 
of this work. 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill spoke of "Mothers' Meetings"from 
the mothers' point of view. The kindergartner must 
render respect to and ask for the help of the mothers 
who are the best fitted by heredity and motherhood t 
know their children, but they may have their attention 
called to the librarv, park, playground, and other help. 



ful institutions for their children in their own locality. 
Mrs. C. E. Meleney spoke of the beauty and value of 
the word "co-operation." 

The mother was best fitted from both physical and 
spiritual sense to help her child, and if in some in- 
stances unconscious of her ability must be roused and 
aided to her responsiblities. The mother whose in- 
dividual problem was that of poverty, grief, or many 
cares, as well as those mothers whose general problem 
presents itself as unconsciousness of any love or inter- 
est for children outside of their own families prove to 
be in need of help. The kindergartner enlists the 
service of the latter in some general movement of value 
to the school community, while to the other she gives 
the word of cheer or real practical help. 

Among the interesting subjects for discussion in 
these meetings current topics in regard to children, 
their needs, and the means to satisfy them, will not 
only create an interest but bring about a social or 
community life. The home, the kindergarten, the 
elementary and higher school, and even college life are 
but steps which should be so linked and bound that the 
child gains the idea of unity from the feeling, thought, 
and action of parents and teachers. Miss Theodora 
Hay of the Public School Kindergartens spoke of the 
value to a community of a "motherly mothers' club" 
and Miss Adriana Dorman, the president of the Associ- 
ation, thanked the speakers who had so willingly given 
their time for the help of children and those associated 
with them. 



New York City. The Board of Education have 
appointed as assistant directors of kindergartens in 
the local schools, Miss Luella A. Palmer and Miss 
Margaret M. Simmons, Miss Palmer graduated 
from a four years' course at Normal College in 1886, 
from the two years' kindergarten course at Teachers' 
College in 1896, and a post graduate course in 1897. 
She pursued special courses at New York University 
from 1901 to 1905, and received the bachelor's degree 
and diploma in kindergarten supervision at the Teach- 
ers' College in 1906. From 1897 to 1905 she was a kinder- 
gartner in P. S. 94 Manhattan; from 1906 to 1909 she 
was director of the Speyer Kindergarten, a school for 
observation and training by students at Teachers' 
College, and from 1909 to the present time she has been 
in charge of a kindergarten in P. S. 63 Manhattan. She 
did summer school work at the New York University 
in 1905 and 1906, and gave extension courses under the 
auspices of the Teachers' College in 1909-1910 at Newark 
and Brooklyn, thirty hours each. 

* Miss Palmer was president of the Public School 
Kindergarten Association, Manhattan and the Bronx, 
from 1904 to 1905, and of the kindergarten department 
of the N. E. A. from 1909 to 1910. She has written 
articles on kindergarten topics for various journals. She 
is now secretary of the I. K. U. Miss Palmer is author 
of "Play in the first eight years." This year Miss 
Palmer is a member of The Faculty of "The Scudder 
School" and is giving the course on Program Making. 
fy Miss Margaret M. Simmons is a graduate of the Girls' 
High School, Brooklyn. 1900, and of Pratt Institute, 
kindergarten normal course, in 1902. She holds a 
diploma in kindergarten supervision frqm Teachers' 
College, '06, and a e degree of bachelor of sciences from 
Columbia University, '10. She served as kindergartner 
in P. S. 137, Brooklyn, from 1902 to February, 1911; in 
P. S. 3 from February to September, 1911, and is now a 
kindergartner in the Brooklyn Model School. In the 
summer of 1903 she was principal of a summer play- 
ground, and in 1908 she was selected to visit the kinder- 
gartens in England. 

Schenectady, N. Y. — Dr. Jenny B. Merrill of New 
York spoke here a short time since on Montessori 
Methods, and also gave an outline for a spring pro- 
gram. She also spoke on the gifts. The address 
proved a rare treat for the kindergartners of this city. 



Teacher's Agencies 



-THE 



NORTHWESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

310-3U Providence Building 
DULUTH. MINN. 



The TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teaches, Tutois and 
Schools. No. 120 Boylston street. 



THE PRATT TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Recomends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, and other teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 
70 Fifth Avenue New York 



MIDLAND SPECIALISTS AGENCY 

Station A. Spokane, Wash. 
We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of Primary and Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 



REGISTER WITH US. 

We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt., 
Principals, Teachers of Science, Math- 
ematics and Language. 

OHIO VALLEY TEACHERS' AGENCY 



A, J. JOELY.Mgr. 



MENTOR., KY. 



WESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY SfcSKS 

We want Kindergarten. Primary, Rural 
and otherteachers for regularor special 
work. Highest salaries. Send for lit- 
erature and enroll for the coming year. 

P. Wendell Murray, Manag-er. 



Unemployed Teachers 

IF FOR ANY REASON YOU HAVE 
NOT ACCEPTED WORK FOR THE 
SESSION OF 1911-1912 WRITE ME. 
MANY UNEXPECTED VACANCIES 
OCCUR ALL DURING THE FALL 
AND WINTER. THERE ARE ALSO 
MANY SCHOOLS WHICH DO NOT 
OPE\ UNTIL LATE IN THE FALL. 
OVERFLOW TEACHERS ARE CON- 
STANTLY NEEDED SOMEWHERE; 
WE CAN GENERALLY TELL YOU 
WHERE. IF OPEN, WRITE FOR 
INFORMATION ABOUT THE 
SOUTH'S NUMEROUS OPPOR- 
TUNITIES. 

W. H. JONES, Mgr. and Prop. 
COLU BIA, S. C. 



POSITIONS 

Our Facilities Unsurpassed.] 

The Bowen 

Teachers'i 

Agency 

""^ ' 333-4-5 Hood Building, " 
BIRMINGHAM, - ALABAMA. 




DESIGN FOR A SEWING CARD-FROG. 

Place cardboard underneath and perforate through, thus forminj 
other cards. 



pattern for 



Birming-ham, Ala. — Patty S. Hill, 
the well known New York kinder- 
gartner, will deliver an address at the 
Alabama Educational Association 
Meeting here, April 6. Subject "The 
New Education." Dr. J. H. Phillips, 
Superintendent Birmingham Schools, 
Prof. S. S. Murphy, Superintendent 
Mobile Schools, and Prof. N. R. 
Baker, Supervisor of Rural Schools, 
Alabama, will talk on "The Kinder- 
garten in the Public School." 



Am A II a forty-page booklet 
K I aU and Our Workshop, an 
I Lnil in us t r ated folder, will 

give the enterprising teacher a world 
of information about the demand for 
teachers in the South, the field of the 
greatest promise in America to-day. 
Get them for the asking. 

W. H. JONES. Mgr., 

Southern Teachers' Agency, 

Columbia, South Carolina. 



OWN A FARM 



Save while you earn. Invest your sav- 
ings in 

NUECES VALLEY 
GARDEN 

Lands in Sunny South Texas 

10 acres will make you independent. Pav 
by the month or in easy installments 
Land will be sold to white persons only' 
A postal card will bring you particulars 
by addressing: 

W.R. EUBANK REALTY Co. 

303-3 Merrick Lodge.Bldg., 
Lexington, Ky. 



Durham, N. C. — As an illustrative 
of the wonderful progress education- 
ally that is being made in the south, 
we wish to cite the fact that with a 
population of 35,000 Durham County 
has by a careful estimate not over 
500 people white and black included 
who can not read or write. 

Charleston, S. C. — The date of 
the Annual Meeting of the State 
Teachers' Association has been ex- 
tended to April 25, 26 and 27. 



for KINDERGARTEN and 
PRIMARY TEACHERS 

Spool Knitting. By Mary A. Mc- 
Cormack. Directions are clear and ex- 
plicit, accompanied by photographs. 
Price, 75 cents to teachers. 

Practical and Artistic Basketry. 

By Laura A. Pinsley. Illustrated. 
Price $1.00 to teachers. Stitches are 
taken up in the order of their difficul- 
ty. Cord work is given a place. Care- 
fully graded. 

Outlines for Kindergarten and 
Primary Classes, in the study of 
Nature and Related subjects. By E. 
Maud Cannell and Margaret E Wise. 
Price 75 cents to teachers. 

Memory Gems. For school and 
home. By W. H. Williams. Price 
50 cents to teachers. Contains more 
than 300 carefully chosen selections. 
Send for Catalogue 

The A. S. BARNES CO. 

381 Fourth Aye., New York 



WILL CARLETON'S 

MAGAZINE 

EVERY WHERE 

Contains each month the latest Poems, Sketches, 
Editorials, and Literary Talks of Will Carleton, author 
of "Farm Ballads", "Farm Legions", "City Festivals", 
"Over the Hill to the Poorhouse", etc. Each one brim 
full of the same qualities that have made him world- 
famous. 

Contains each month poems by the greatest woman- 
poet Margaret E. Sangster. Also some of the best work 
of other distinguished poets, 

Contains best of additional literature by popular 
authors. 

Contains ten complete Departments, each ably and 
interestingly edited. Handsomely Illustrated, and fine- 
ly printed in clear type on super-calandered paper. 

Prlce^SLOO per Year. 10 cents a copy. 
SPECIAL — To any one mentioning in his or her 
letter this advertisement, we will send Will 
Carleton's Magazine for Six Months, on receipt 
of Twenty-Five Cents. Address, 

EVERYWHERE PUBLISHING CO. 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Cheap and Excellent Books 

SONG KNAPSACK, 142 songs for schools, 10c; $1 
dozen. 

"PAT'S P T '-.., 124 pp. All the music to the KNAP- 
SACK songs. Sweetest, sanest, jolliest song 
book made. Cloth, 50c. 

PRIMER OF PEDAGOGY, by Prof. D. Putnam. 
Just what the times demand. Cloth 122 pp. 25c. 

MANUAL OF ORTHOGRAPHY AND ELEMEN- 
TARY SOUNDS, by Henry R. Pattengill. Up-to- 
date. 104 pp., 25c. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF U. S., by W. C. Hewitt. 

118 pp., complete, new, cloth, 25c; ?2.40 per doz. 
MEMORY GEMS, 1000 GRADED SELECTIONS, by 

H. R. Pattengill. 143 pp., linen morocco finish, 

25c. 

MORNING EXERCISES AND SCHOOL RECREA- 
TIONS, by C. W. Mickens. New, 267 pp., 50c. 

PRIMARY SPEAKER FOR FIRST AND SECOND 
GRADES, by Mary L. Davenport. Fresh, 
elegant. 132 pp., 25c. 

OLD GLORY SPEAKER, containing 80 of the 
choicest patriotic pieces written. 126 pp., 25c. 

HINTS FROM SQUINTS, 144 pp. Hints comical, 
hints quizzical, hints pedagogical, hints ethical, 
hints miscellaneous. Cloth, 50c. 

SPECIAL DAY EXERCISES, 165 pp., 25c. 

Best medicine ever to cure that "tired fteling" 
in school. 

HENRY R. PATTENGILL, Lansing, Mich. 



The most charming scenery intheworldis to be found in 

Beautiful New England 

Every foot is historic ground, rich in literary associa- 
tions, and hallowed by the struggle for American In 
dependence. As a teacher you need the 

New England Magazine 

with its wealth of local pictures illustrating these very 
scenes. Children become interested and gain a clearer idea 
of this historic section of our land and the events which 
have made it world-famous. Each number contains 
six full page engravings that are alone worth the price 
of the periodical. 

Our SPECIAL OFFER to 
TEACHERS 

To all readers of The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 
we will send the New England Magazine for one year at 
331-3 per cent, reduction from the regular price of $1.75. 
Send us $1.30 between now and the first of January and 

we will credit you with one full year's subscription. 

The New England Magazine 

Old South Building, Boston 

REMARKABLE CLUB OFFERS 



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American Primar y Teacher 

Edited by A. E. WINSHIP 

Published Monthly Except July and August 



An up-to-date, wide awake paper for the grades. Illustrated 
articles on Industrial Geography. New Work la the Grades, 
Drawing, Fables In Silhouette and other school room work. 

Send for specimen copy. 

Subscription, $1.09 a Year 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING CO. 

6 BEACON STREET, BOSTON 



Books Tor Kindergartners 

Kindergarten in the Home 

By V. M. Hillyer, Headmaster Calvert 
School, Baltimore, Md. Based on exper- 
ience; admirably concise. This will make an 
invaluable aid to Kindergartners and mo- 
thers. Fully illustrated with diagrams and 
line drawings. 8vo. $1.25 net. 

Tales Come True 

By Margaret Coulson Walker, author of 
Lady Hollyhock and her Friends, Bird Le- 
gend, etc. A book designed as an aid to 
mothers and kindergartners. A delight also 
to the child itself. Fully illustrated in col- 
or and black and white. Square, 8vo. $1.25 
net. 

Lady Hollyhock and Her 
Friends 

By Margaret Coulson Walker. An estab- 
lished favorite; on many library lists and 
in many school libraries. Lavishly illustra- 
color and black and white. Square; Svo., 
$1.25 net. 

Portrait catalogue, containing 33 
portraits of authors, will be sent free 
on request. 

THE BAKER & 1AYL0R CO. 



Some Great Subscription Offers 



33 East 17th St. 



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THE TEACHERS HELPERS 



The Teachers' Helpers are without question the finest 
PLAN BOOKS for teachers published. They are 
edited by some of the ablest and most practical teach- 
ers in the country. They give programs, methods, 
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KLWm 



International Kindergarten Union 

Nineteenth Annual Convention at Des Moines April 29th- 
May 3rd, 1912. See Advance Program, Page 224 




APRIL, 1912 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 



Editorial Notes, 

A Visit in Miss Luella A. Palmer's 

Kindergarten 
The Home and School Life, 
Characteristic Phases in the Personal- 



Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 
James M. Greenwood, 



199 

200 
202 



ity of Children, 


Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 


203 


Growth of Personality in the Child, 


Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 


204 


Kindergarten Daily Program 


Norn Keogh, 


207 


Friedrich Froebel, 


Grace Dow, 


211 


Des Moines Kindergartens, 


- . . . 


213 


Grandma's Luncheon, 


Margaret D. Plympton, 


215 


Willie's Rabbit, 


Grace Dow, 


216 


Moral Education, - - 


J a mesj. Jo yn er, 


216 


The Present Status of Education in 






The Elementary Schools, 


Ella Flagg Young, 


217 


Unity of Ideals and Purposes in 






Teachers as Gained from 






Professional Training, 


Alfred C. Thompson, 


218 


To Exercise the Heroic Impulses; A 






Substitute for Military Drill, 


Bertha Johnston, 


220 


Book Notes, - 


. 


223 


Annual Meeting I. K. U. at Des Moines, April 29-May 3 


224 


Current Events, ... 


. 


225 


Sewing Card Design, 


. 


227 



Volume XXIV, No. 8. 



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For circulars address 

Miss Lucy Harris Symonds 
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MRS. W. W. ARCHER. Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON I>. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

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THE HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
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For information address 

MISS HARRIETTE M.MILLS. Principal 

New York University Building 

Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Courses given for credit at 

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Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

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Grace Everett Barnard^ 

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EDITORIAL NOTES. 

I. K. U. at Des Moines, April 29-May 3. 



Annual Meeting N. E. A. Chicago, July 6-12. 

The new Chinese republic has decided to in- 
corporate the kindergarten in its national schools. 

Plan to go to Des Moines for the annual meet- 
ing of the I. K. U., April 29-May 3. If you have 
never visited the Middle West the trip alone 
will be well worth the time and expense. 

Do not forget the appeal ol the executive 
board of the I. K. U. for two thousand associate 
members on or before the Des Moines meeting. 
Why not send in your subscription at once and 
then make a vigorous effort to secure others. If 
you live in a small city why not undertake the 
work of getting every kindergartner to become an 
associate member of the Union. A little earnest 
effort on the part of each kindergartner will 
greatly encourage the faithful ones who are 
devoting so much of their time and substance to 
the endeavor to make the Des Moines meeting 
the greatest in the history of the Union. 



The selection of Chicago as the place of holding 
the next annual meeting of the N. E. A. will 
meet the hearty approval of educators every- 
where. Under present rail restrictions a city 
possessing the water transportation facilities of 
Chicago has many advantages over inland towns. 
Excursions from all points on the great lakes at 
low rates frequently prevail at this season render- 
ing it possible for a far larger number to attend 
than would have been the case had an all rail 
point been selected. Then the accommodations 
afforded are scarcely unsurpassed and the prevail- 
ing lake breezes render it more comfortable in 
summer than other cities, less favorably situated. 



Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, late supervisor of 
kindergartens in New York City, has consented 
to write a series of twenty articles relating to gift 
and occupation methods as applied to village and 
rural schools. The first article will appear in the 
September number entitled "Out of Door Life — 
Walks and Excursions," followed by "The 
Kindergarten Building Blocks." Every gift and 
occupation will be taken up and its educational 
possibilities outlined for the special benefit of 
those engaged in the work in small cities, villages 
and rural schools. Dr. Merrill has had a wide 
and successful experience, beginning with work in 
the rural schools and extending to the super- 
vision of probably the greatest public kinder- 
garten system in America. Her articles will be 
fully illustrated and will constitute a prominent 
feature of the magazine for the coming two years. 

We are pleased to announce a rich treat for our 
readers in the way of a series of eleven articles by 
Dr. W. N. Hailmann, the well known kindergarten 
author and training school supervisor, of Cleve- 
land , Ohio, which will appear from time to time in 
future issues of the Kindergarten-Primary Maga- 
zine. The first article entitled "The Mission of 
Childhood" will be published in the May 
number. Other articles to follow are. "Our 
Responsibility," "The Martyrdom of the Child," 
"Head, Heart and Hand," "Schoolishness in the 
Kindergarten," "The Culture Epoch Theory," 
"The Ethical Gamut," "Socializing the Child," 
"Culture and Efficiency," "Vital Education," 
"The Montessori Method." Dr. Hailmann's 
works have been standard in the kindergarten 
world for many years and every thing coming 
from his pen is so distinctly fundamental, clear 
cut and helpful, that we are certain they will 
prove a most interesting feature of the magazine 
during their continuance. 



200 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



A VISIT IN MISS LUELLA A. PALMER'S 
KINDERGARTEN. 

Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

Hearing of the unanimous nomination of 
our Board of Superintendents and the election 
of Miss Palmer for the assistant diectorship of 
our public kindergartens, I determined to en- 
joy one more morning- with her in the kinder- 
garten room, where she has worked out so 
many interesting problems of child life and 
thereby proved her superior qualifications for 
the work of helping other kindergartners. 

My visit was on a morning in early Febru- 
ary, only a few days after the semi-annual pro- 
motions. About half of the children had been 
entered within a week. The register is low 
at this season of the year, but increases day 
by day. On this morning there were present 
thirty-six children. (The register, may reach 
fifty.) 

Miss Palmer was alone until 9 :30, when her 
able assistant, Miss Berry, arrived. (In the 
New York kindergartens the assistant now 
helps about half of the session, taking a new 
class of her own in the afternoon). 

Before nine o'clock, "Before the circle," 
has always been an important time in Miss 
Palmer's kindergartens. The children have 
free use of the kindergarten room and assist in 
its care. They have access to the common 
toys children love, including a doll-carriage, 
which, Miss Palmer tells me, she secured over 
ten years ago. It is still in good condition, 
tho 1 hundreds of little mothers have wheeled 
dollies in it. 

At the sound' of just one note upon the 
piano the little ones grew quiet and carefully 
put away the toys. They then stepped to 
their places at the tab'es, standing each be- 
hind his own chair. "That's good," was the 
strong and simple word of approval. 

Miss Palmer meanwhile had simply waited, 
standing quietly by the piano. 
- One-half of the children were told to take 
their chairs to the ring. They walked, without 
music, and placed them on the ring. Then fol- 
lowed the second half. This division of a 
kindergarten is very helpful during the early 
days of the term, as it only creates confusion 
to attempt to move thirty to fifty children at 
once. Even four "details" may be necessary 
if fifty are present until the routine is pretty 
well established. 

AVhen the line is short each child moves 
briskly and feels his individuality. The kin- 
dergartner, too, can observe .individuals, 



whereas if an attempt is made at once to move 
a long line of little children, a slow, snail-like 
movement is necessary, children press against 
each other, confusion may ensue and time is 
really wasted, not saved. Remember, young 
kindergartner, this simple plan of detach- 
ments and groups all thru the day, and you 
will best learn to discipline as well as to know 
the children even in a large kindergarten. 

Miss Palmer advises kindergartners not to. 
attempt to form morning ring during the first 
few days of the term, but rather to let the 
children become familiar with their seats at 
the tables, thus establishing one fixed point 
in the room that is their very own. It is 
found that the little chair is a peculiar object 
of interest to each newcomer, and to. go to it 
quickly and quietly when the piano "speaks" 
is a pleasure. To draw the chair out from 
the table, to stand behind it, to learn just 
where to take hold to lift it up, are all inter- 
esting little details that help later when it is 
decided to carry the chairs to the ring and sit 
together. The little ones should not be hur- 
ried in any movement, but should be given 
plenty of time at first, or they will lose their 
sweet childish grace. 

If we hurry them, we will succeed only in 
teaching- them to be awkward and jerky in 
moving. 

Caesar's good motto, "Make haste slowly," 
is the needed watchword. These every-day 
little acts will soon become habitual, but at 
first they are most interesting to the child, and 
each move absorbs all the little one's attention. 

Let one movement be well over before a 
second is suggested. The kindergartner is to 
"follow the child," we remember, as well as to 
lead. She silently observes the children taking 
a clue here and there. It may be necessary 
to touch some children at first, for all do not 
understand quickly a general direction. It is 
better not to touch but to wait and secure re- 
sults by imitation, if possible, of an older child. 
"See how your little friend holds his chair. 
Can you do it that way?" may be all that is 
needed. Nervous children and those who 
have been accustomed to harsh words at every 
mistake in the home, may be confused. Notice 
such children as little as possible until they 
gain composure. 

The day of my visit the children walked to 
the circle in two detachments and without 
music. Especially when there is but one kin- 
dergartner in the rocm it is better that she 
should be near the children when they are 
changing places from tables to ring or vice 



THE IttNDEfcGA&TEN-P&lMAftY MAGAZINE 



2Ql 



versa. Later music will help ; now it is super- 
fluous and distracting. 

After the little ones were all standing quietly 
behind their chairs in the circle, Miss Palmer 
said, "Hands up!" "Hands out!" "Hands 
down !" This gave the children a short ex- 
perience in listening to directions and follow- 
ing them promptly; assisted by imitation, for 
the teacher suited her own movements to her 
words. To give these three movements assists 
in securing the final one, which was the one 
desired before singing "Good Morning" and a 
very simple hymn. 

The children now were directed to walk in- 
side the circle of chairs and were seated. 
Miss Palmer then played a selection upon the 
piano. I noticed some of the little ones imi- 
tated by "playing piano" in their laps. One 
child even crossed his hands in playing, which 
indicated to me that he had heard and seen 
more of the piano than I would have supposed 
had I not observed this movement. We study 
children thru their movements. A few chil- 
dren chatted a little. No one was corrected 
for so doing. It was as a whole a very quiet, 
orderly little band, happy and not consciously 
repressed. 

Miss Palmer next said, "I have a little song 
to sing to you about a kitty and a dog. 
Listen. The children on this side may play 
they are kittens, and on the other side, dogg- 
ies." Each side simply imitated the sounds. 
A short talk on a phase of cleanliness fol- 
lowed. The kinderg-artner walked around the 
ring and observed the rows of little white 
teeth. One spoke of tooth powder. There 
was a pretty picture passed showing this val- 
uable toilet article. The children sang, "This 
Is the Way We Brush Our Teeth." Indeed 
they played out all the desirable morning 
preparation in the home, as : — 

"This is the way we wash 
Our faces so nice and clean." 

"Not very poetical," one may say, but it is 
all essential during the first days in many sec- 
tions of town, and indeed, in our best homes 
it is appreciated. We are grateful to Miss 
Poulsson for the poetic versions in Father 
Play of these homely scenes. 

Next a few words about breakfast, and a 
make-believe tasting of bread and milk. 

One boy ventured, "It's fine." Hands were 
again washed to be ready for school, outer 
garments fastened (all in pantomine), and 
then began a most pleasing dramatic scene of 
little ones coming to kindergarten, two by two. 
One child was selected at a time to choose a 



partner. Together they walked around the 
ring several times, finally reaching the kinder- 
gartner, who shook hands and gave them a 
pleasant welcome Then two more, and two 
more. "It is getting pretty late," said Miss 
Palmer, "perhaps the next two better walk 
faster." The last couples ran. Thus a very 
simple game was inaugurated, dramatic repre- 
sentation started and a correct image formed 
of what constitutes "Getting ready for kinder- 
garten." Polite greeting and salutation was 
incidentally taught. 

Several really choice pictures of children de- 
picting these very home scenes were placed 
in a row on the blackboard ledge to quietly 
impress the children with the poetry of the 
"wash-bowl." The last picture was one show- 
ing the kindergarten ring. 

A very happy ending of the morning circle 
followed. A box was opened containing two 
new dolls, a boy doll and a girl doll. These 
were passed by two children so that all could 
see them. Two other children brought a doll's 
table to the center of the ring, two others 
placed a few dishes and two chairs, and the 
new dolls were seated for breakfast. No one 
spoke a word. All were eagerly attentive. 
Miss Palmer then said quietly, "These dolls 
are for you to play with when you come early 
in the morning. Tomorrow morning you will 
find them in the closet." 

"Can we take off their shoes?" 

"I don't know, but we will see tomorrow 
morning." 

"What would you like to name our dolls?" 

Finally the names Philip and Mildred were 
chosen. 

At one note on the piano all rose and, with- 
out music, carried chairs back to the tables. 

It was now 9 :35 ! 

How was it possible to do all this in a half 
hour? Because there had been careful pre- 
arrangement, and secondly, because there was 
just enough conversation to keep up the spirit, 
but no unnecessary talking. 

To recapitulate, the main features were 
deeds, viz. : — 

1. Preparing for kindergarten. 

2. Going to kindergarten. 

3. Greeting the teacher. 

4. Showing pictures. 

5. Setting the table. 

6. Finding and naming the dolls. 

The general topic for the week had been, 
"The Family," with just a suggestion of pets 
in the song. The succeeding topic will be 
"Pets," and will introduce animal life. 



202 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



THE HOME AND SCHOOL LIFE. 

James M. Greenwood 
Superintendent of Schools, Kansas City, Mo. 

Each exact science is based on certain ele- 
mentary or primary principles. It is thru the 
mastery of a few definite fundamental truths 
that the learner comes to a clear and unques- 
tioning recognition of the abstract principles 
which constitute the foundation of the math- 
ematical, physical, biological, and other exact 
sciences, and these principles are applicable 
to all spheres of mental activity among civil- 
ized peoples. In the special sciences of physics, 
chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy, 
by the observation of individual facts, general 
laws were discovered and universal conclu- 
sions established as the groundwork of these 
sciences, and what is true of these sciences is 
equally true of all other departments of exact 
human knowledge. Observed at first as facts, 
grouped and classified according to principles 
in which uniformities and dissimilarities can 
be detected, sciences are created, and the laws 
governing them as such are formulated. 

In the moral sphere, the child at first has 
no intuitions of the abstract principles of right 
and wrong, but as he grows in stature and 
knowledge, the time is reached that when he 
witnesses an act he feels it to be one of love, 
kindness, faithfulness, or of gratitude, or its 
opposite, and he further decides that it is a 
good or a bad act, and it is then that the moral 
idea is gaining a foothold in his mind. Thus 
by degrees he arrives at the conclusion that 
one act is good and another is bad. It is from 
this norm, branching out in two different di- 
rections, that the child makes his first crude 
generalizations on moral questions. By com- 
paring an act with the standard that is being 
built up in his own mind, whether this par- 
ticular act concerns himself or others, is the 
method of moral development. As a result 
of this kind of mental thinking, a philosophy 
of conduct is established that is as valid to 
him as are the axioms of mathematics or the 
verities of philosophy to the analyst or the 
logician. With such mental conceptions firmly 
fixed in the learner's mind concerning his 
thoughts, feelings, and actions, the basic prin- 
ciples of morality are as valid to him in his 
modes of thinking as any other group of no- 
tions he can possibly have. 

Behind 1 every act there should be clear 
knowledge and a definite purpose, and the 
more complete the knowledge, the stronger is 
the tendency to act up to the fullest measure 
of light one has. A constant repetition of 



virtuous acts grows into habit, habit develops 
into character, character makes conduct, and 
conduct is the greatest part of active life in 
conformity to one's nature. 

The real problem of moral training from its 
theoretical aspect is to investigate the laws or 
forces which control people in groups, and to 
teach them how to live together in complex 
societies so that each will be guided by right- 
eousness and justice in his relations with 
others. 

As a practical science moral education, or 
ethics, relates to all kinds of deeds and habits 
of doing which concern one in relation to 
others, whether in small or large groups. One 
may conduct himself in such a manner as to 
obstruct the wishes and actions of his fellows, 
or render their efforts void, according to his 
power and skill in setting his will over against 
theirs, or by dividing or nullifying their coun- 
sel ; on the other hand, one may think and act 
in such a manner as to assist and reinforce 
their efforts and bring comfort and satisfaction 
to large masses of people. 



Give Carlyle's advice — "Let each become 
all that he was created capable of becoming," 
and encourage the children by the exercise of 
reason to expand to their full growth, like a 
sound and healthy plant, and to be careful to 
cast off the fungi ot bad habits. Although 
we do expect a child's reasoning power to 
compel his acceptance of right and his rejec- 
tion of wrong, still we do not expect that 
child to become perfection. What we do ex- 
pect is that he will select the best models for 
his imitation, and set up as high a standard 
of excellence as he can possibly attain to. 



One of the most significant comments I 
have heard on nature-study work came from 
a country teacher, who said that because she 
had taught it, her pupils were no longer 
ashamed of oeing farmers' children. If only 
that much can be accomplished for each coun- 
try child, the result will be enough for one 
generation. What can be done for the coun- 
try child can be done in a different sphere for 
the city child. Fifty years hence the result 
will be seen. — L. H. Bailey in "The Nature 
Study Idea." 



Labor is man's great function. He is noth- 
ing, he can be nothing, he can achieve noth- 
ing, he can build nothing without labor. — 
Orville Dewey. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



203 



CHARACTERISTIC PHASES IN THE 
PERSONALITY OF CHILDREN. 

By Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 



The Age of Approbation. 

The child is chameleon-like to a remarkable 
degree. He takes on one phase of his environ- 
ment and/ then another. 

While this characteristic commonly known 
as imitation is proverbial, there are marked 
tendencies in the development of the child-per- 
sonality not at all dependent upon the instinct 
of imitation. There is growth from within, in- 
dicated by well-defined stages or periods of 
development as the years come and go, inde- 
pendent of environment. One of these early 
periods or stages of growth is marked by a de- 
sire to be noticed by adults and a growing 
fondness for praise. An English writer has 
dubbed this period, "The age of approbation." 
The little one watches for sympathy and ap- 
proval. He longs for a smile, a nod, a word, or 
a pat on the head when he has pleased you. 
We are all quite dependent upon judicious 
praise throughout our lifetime, but as this par- 
ticular age advances the child feeds upon 
praise, forms his ideals by means of it, starves 
spiritually without it. 

There are dangers in all good things, poisons 
even in sweets. It is ever difficult to see and to 
find Aristotle's "golden mean." Excessive 
praise may unduly develop self-consciousness 
in children and lead to vanity. It may lower 
the child's motives in the end. The far-seeing 
Froebel warns the mother in one of his 
"Mother Play" commentaries: "When your 
child begins to be attentive to the judgment of 
others concerning himself, you must solve a 
double problem. First, you must clearly dis- 
criminate what he is from what he may be- 
come, and through your conduct toward him 
you must make him aware of this distinction. 
Second, you must clearly discriminate between 
his visible actions and their motives, otherwise 
you will foster in him a false conception of his 
own individuality." 

Notwithstanding these two difficulties, those 
interested in the care of children must never 
forget that a love for praise marks a distinct 
era in the young child's life. It is both a 
natural and a healthy longing. If used judic- 
iously, praise will strengthen and encourage 
good motives and right action. I have found 
it a good rule to praise the act rather than the 
child directly. For example: "Where are all 
those toys I saw on the floor? Did a little fairy 



come and put them away? No? I must look 
in the closet. Well, well, here they are, all 
packed away where we can find them to-mor- 
row." This is praise enough. It is indirect 
and leads to the higher ideal of preparation for 
the future. Or, at the supper-table, mother re- 
marks to father: "I could not find a single 
crumb under Bennie's chair to-day after lunch. 
Will you look to-night and see if he is as care- 
ful again? It helps us so much to have careful 
children." 

The kindergartner does not rebuke little 
ones who are tardy. 

She tells a story about children who come 
to kindergarten early and cites the good times 
they have helping her get the room in order, 
feeding the fishes, and watering the plants. 
"Mary helped me this morning. I don't re- 
member that she was ever early enough to 
help so much before," she says in praise of 
Mary's promptness. 

If a child has done a piece of work well in 
school, it is very crude for a teacher to praise 
the child too directly, as "What a smart boy; 
you will soon be as clever as your father." 
There is a suggestion of satire in such extreme 
praise that fails to satisfy a child though he 
may not fully realize the reason. 

In school, praise the work as, "This is a 
good drawing, or your books are nicely cov- 
ered. This is a fine map; who drew it? Per- 
haps some one can do better next time." 
Endeavor thus to lead on to a higher level than 
that of mere praise. This less-direct method 
of approving leads the child to think of his 
work rather than of himself. If a child begins 
to show a tendency to expect too much admir- 
ation, direct him to greater effort, or call at- 
tention to another's work. Raise the standard. 
"Yes, this is good, but I think you can do 
better." 

While working along the line of natural de- 
velopment, which certainly demands a full 
measure of praise, give heed to Froebel's warn- 
ing to think of the future, to "discriminate be- 
tween what the child is and what he is to 
become," but do not forget that "the age of 
approbation" is a round in the ladder by which 
the child climbs. It is wise even to watch for 
opportunities to praise rather than to find 
fault. A mother exclaims, "Don't slam the 
door, you noisy child !" Let her rather watch 
for a moment when the door happens to close 
gently and then remark, "How quietly you 
closed the door ! You are growing more care- 
ful, are you not?" 

Praise and good cheer are invigorating. Oc- 



204 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



casionally express disapproval, for there is 
value in contrasts. Praise with no opposite 
would lose part of its virtue. "I am disap- 
pointed to-day. I expected better results. 
What shall we do to get them?" may arouse a 
greater desire for approbation and : lead to 
higher results in the end. 

It is an exceedingly delicate matter to pry 
into children's motives. If we seem to distrust 
children, they may lose confidence in them- 
selves, or they may become deceitful and try 
to hide their motives. Greater prudence must 
be exercised in praising motives than in prais- 
ing results. When, however, a child has tried 
and failed, the effort may be praised, and grad- 
ually the child will learn that the motive lies 
back of the final result. If a kind act appears 
to be prompted merely by a desire for praise 
or for any other wrong motive, pass it in 
silence. Consider whether you have been 
praising too frequently. Treat the act as a 
matter of course that does not call for notice. 
It does not do to pry too closely into a child's 
motives, nor to expect too high a standard. 
To praise when the motive is decidedly low 
would foster a low ideal. Silence is the best 
remedy. The child will feel your unexpected 
silence as sufficient reproof. He will miss the 
looked-for praise and become thoughtful. 
There is no child more disagreeable than one 
who strives constantly to court attention 
through officious acts. Do not minister to 
vanity and self-conceit. As the child advances 
in years, limit your praise, but make it hearty 
and strong betimes. — Baptist Teacher. 

New York City. 



GROWTH OF PERSONALITY IN 
THE CHILD. 

By Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

The point is this : The child's personality 
grows ; growth is always by action ; the child 
clothes upon himself the scenes of the parents' 
life and acts them out. — J. Mark Baldwin. 

Professor Baldwin has traced 1 very carefully 
for us in his little book, "The Story of the 
Mind," how the child gradually becomes con- 
scious of himself as a "self." His main thought 
is that by observing those who minister to his 
wants, the child first becomes conscious of the 
difference between things and persons. Even 
at two months the child knows the difference 
in the way he is handled if the accustomed 
touch is missing. "I think," says Professor 
Baldwin, "this distinction between persons and 
things, between agencies and objects, is the 



child's very first step toward a sense of per- 
sonality." An increasing recognition of per- 
sons centers mainly in the movements of 
adults and in their voices and their faces. 
There is an irregularity, an uncertainty, as per- 
sons move and speak that does not inhere in 
things, and the child learns to recognize these 
differences of mood and method. Professor 
Baldwin notes that these irregularities lead the 
child to become watchful and hesitating even 
as early as the second half of the first year. 

All through the second year the child puz- 
zles over these differences or irregularities in 
persons about him. He is drinking in their 
personalities while gradually becoming con- 
scious of his own. Observing these differences 
and irregularities, the child himself becomes 
more or less capricious or "contrary." He is 
growing in his own sense of personality. He, 
too, can act — sometimes this way, sometimes 
that. He acts differently toward father, 
mother, and nurse. He obeys one person 
quickly ; another he refuses to obey. If left 
alone with children his behavior is very differ- 
ent from that, when an adult is presei.t. I 
once was present when a little girl about five 
years old had been very disrespectful to her 
mother, who was a poor disciplinarian. Soon 
after her father came home. To my surprise, 
when he said to his little daughter quietly, 
'Your mother is calling you," she answered in 
the sweetest tone, "All right, I am coming, 
mother dear." The father created a new at- 
mosphere for the child, making it eager to 
respond graciously. 

It is only gradually that the child learns to 
know himself "from the inside," as it were. 
This is the beginning of subjective life. To feed 
and foster this growing personality is the most 
delicate task of the parent. "The 'child clothes 
upon himself the scenes of the parents' life and 
acts them out." 

The pretty little dramas between children, 
as one assumes the role of mamma and the 
other remains a child, or the latter "playing 
horse," "playing doctor," "playing driver," 
"playing fireman," all these little dramas cre- 
ated by the child through his inborn tendency 
to imitate, help in the growth of personality. 
Occasionally a child's fancy is so lively that he 
assumes a character for days and even weeks. 
One little girl of four is so intense that she 
says: "I am not playing I am Bo Peep; I am 
Bo Peep!" Another little girl would not an- 
swer to her own name, but insisted upon being 
called by her assumed name, "Cinderella." A 
little girl of five visited her sick grandmother. 



THE KtNDEkGARYEN-PklMARY MAGAZINE 



2o<5 



The following day she was found in bed play- 
ing she was her own grandmother. She even 
tried to imitate her grandmother's voice. 

I was once reciting to a boy two years and 
a half old the Mother Goose rhymes of "Little 
Boy Blue." Again and again I repeated it in 
dramatic tones, looking about as if searching 
when I reached the line, "Where is the little 
boy who looks after the sheep?" After having 
heard with increasing interest the story over 
and over, perhaps twenty times, suddenly to 
my surprise, without a suggestion on my part, 
the dear little fellow threw himself down upon 
the floor pretending to be "Little Boy Blue," 
fast asleep. I tooted a make-believe horn, he 
jumped up, found the sheep, seizing the wash- 
basket to bring to me for a sheep. 

It is not difficult to realize that the child's 
own personality grows by assuming the char- 
acters which surround him in life and which 
are presented to him in stories. The intelli- 
gent parent begins to- realize through careful 
observation of these many little dramatic 
scenes of the nursery that the child is truly 
"clothing upon himself," the very tones and 
gestures of father and mother, and other mem- 
bers of the household with whom he is in daily 
contact. 

Professor Sully, in "Studies of Childhood," 
relates an interesting scene of self-mastery 
through imitation of the father as follows : 

"The father says he had got into the way, 
when the child was inclined to be impatient 
and teasing, of putting up his finger, lowering 
his brow, and saying with emphasis, 'Cliffy, be 
good !' After this, when inclined to be 
naughty, Cliffy would suddenly and quite 
spontaneously pull himself up, hold up his own 
little finger, and lower his brow as if repri- 
manding himself." 

Yet one often hears a parent say: "I don't 
know why my little girl or boy acts in this 
way," when an outsider can trace the act 
easily to a household habit. 

It is not difficult to understand with these 
facts in mind that the child's personality grows 
in the main by what it feeds upon in the en- 
vironment. An only child copies adult ways 
and assumes adult attitudes to an unfortunate 
extent. "The child needs the child." The im- 
portance of brothers, sisters, cousins, play- 
mates in helping to form and feed personality 
is great. While it is true that the child imi- 
tates adults, their actions are often too com- 
plex for him to understand, and he mistakes 
blindly. A childish example, indeed several, 



are essential for the best development of per- 
sonality. 

Even taken in school life, especially in 
boarding-schools, mates should be frequently 
changed. In an excellent home-school, the 
principal told me that she changed seats at 
table, and roommates also, every month. This 
might also be done in the home with advant- 
age. An experienced teacher in a normal class 
lately explained to her pupils that if they 
wished to broaden their own personality, they 
must not seek one companion to the exclusion 
of others, but rather, change seats frequently 
and cultivate as many of their classmates as 
possible. In fact she insists that this shall be 
done. Some one may think that this is op- 
posed to the formation of true friendships, and 
doubtless it could be carried too far, but I am 
convinced that it is the wise course for the 
growing personality. It also prevents copying 
the peculiarities of one person. 

Above all things, fathers, mothers, teachers, 
elders, give the children room. They need all 
they can get and their personalities will grow 
to fill it. Give them plenty of companions, fill 
their lives with variety. Variety is the soul 
of originality, and its only source of supply. 
The ethical life itself, the boy's, the girl's con- 
science, is born in the stress of the conflicts of 
suggestion, born right out of his imitative hesi- 
tations. 

Another force which goes to make up per- 
sonality is the natural endowment and tem- 
perament of the individual. The response of 
different children in similar conditions of 
course varies widely. 

The child is not a mere camera to reflect, else 
there would be no differences in personality, 
no individuality. Nevertheless, the point of 
view to which Professor Baldwin has led us 
is the one which indicates what we can do to 
influence growth in personality, whatever the 
original heredity' may be. 

No one can doubt that Helen Keller must 
have come into the world with an unusual in- 
heritance of mentality, but it is quite as certain 
that her remarkable personality could not have 
been developed, could not have advanced to its 
present breadth of view if so much had not 
been done to feed it with varying experiences 
and from contact with many persons. 

The full growth of personality in the child 
and youth demands home influences, the kin- 
dergarten, the school, society, the church, 
visits to places of interest in his environment, 
as parks, museums, exhibitions, points of his- 
toric interest, and later, if possible, travel. 



206 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



I know one father, a busy physician in the 
city who yet saves a half holiday for his chil- 
dren every week, when he acts as their guide 
and friend upon many educational excursions. 
Their knowledge of the city, the state, and its 
institutions has developed a political person- 
ality, so to speak, in the children. 

There are distinctive periods in the growth 
of personality in the child and the youth which 
sometimes puzzle the parent and teacher who 
has not considered them. These we hope to 
present in another article. At present we are 
urging a closer consideration of the possibili- 
ties of growth in personality, through imitation 
and the absorption of external influences. — ■ 
Baptist Teacher. 

"Beauty of achievement, whether in over- 
coming a hasty temper, a habit or exaggera- 
tion, in exploring a continent with Stanley, or 
guiding well the ship of state with Gladstone, 
is always fascinating; and whether known in 
a circle large as the equator, or only in a fam- 
ily circle at home, those who are in this 
fashion beautiful are never desolate, and some 
one always loves them. Beauty of reputa- 
tion is a mantle of spotless ermine in which, 
if you are but enwrapped, you shall receive 
the homage of those about you, as real, as 
ready, and as spontaneous as any ever paid to 
personal beauty in its most powerful hour." — 
Frances E. Willard. 



A man's country is not a certain area of 
land, of mountains, river and woods, — but it. is 
a principle ; and patriotism is loyalty to that 
principle. — G. W. Curtis. 



It is a good and safe rule to sojourn in 
every place as if you meant to spend your life 
there, never omitting an opportunity of doing 
a kindness, or speaking -a true word, or mak- 
ing a friend. — Ruskin. 



Trace the beneficent influences in our cor- 
porate life back to their source, and you will 
find that Jesus Christ confronts you with the 
golden rule in His hand and the law of love 
upon His lips. — Selected. 



There are three great virtues to which 
every one should be dedicated — the virtue of 
civilization, which is politeness ; the virtue 
of morality, which is conscientiousness ; the 
virtue of religion, which is humility. — Martin 
G. Brumbaugh. 



The series of three articles on "A Visit to 
Miss Luella A. Palmer's Kindergarten," which 
Dr. Merrill begins in this number of the Kin- 
dergarten Magazine, will be of timely interest 
to many kindergartners, not only in New York 
City, where Miss Palmer's work has recently 
been recognized by her appointment as Assist- 
ant Director of Kindergartens, but also to 
kindergartens all over the United States, who 
will meet her this year as Secretary of the I. 
K. U. at Des Moines. 

Miss Palmer's work as a kindergartner has 
been marked by several distinct features. Her 
father and brother being well known phy- 
sicians in New York, she has acquired natur- 
ally by association with them a peculiar inter- 
est and ability in studying the child's physical 
needs. The first article which appeared from 
her pen related to child study in this direction. 
Miss Palmer also led in the instructive study 
on "Children's Ideals," undertaken by The N. 
Y. Public School Kindergarten Association 
and published in this magazine October, 1903. 

Her address as president of the Kindergar- 
ten Department of N. E. A. (1910) on "The 
Principle of Development As the Basis of 
Kindergarten Method," is now being used in 
many training classes as a text. It is an un- 
usually thoughtful paper and requires careful 
study. Those who first heard it in Boston be- 
fore the department, moved to have it printed 
in full for distribution. Miss Palmer's style 
in writing is condensed hence one is repaid for 
carefully and repeatedly re-reading her papers. 
Her last paper before the Training Teachers' 
Conference of the I. K. U. upon "The Princi- 
ples Underlying the Kindergarten Program," 
also repays study, and is being recommended 
in training classes as a text. 

Many of Miss Palmer's associates are look- 
ing forward to the publication of a book she 
has recently completed on "Play in the First 
Eight Years of a Child's Life," The very title 
suggests her broad outlook and her application 
of the principle of continuity. 

Miss Palmer has made a close study of art 
in its relation to kindergarten occupations, 
games and festivals. 

We congratulate New York City and the. 
cause at large upon her appointment and 
through it of the extension of her influence. 



Of the St. Nicholas departments, that "For Very- 
Little Folk" is especially delightful this month, with 
pictures and jingles all about finger and toe plav by 
Arthur Guiterman, Fredric B. Hodgins, Alice Tur- 
ner Curtis, Florence E. Storer, Emilie Poulsson and 
other child play experts. 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



207 




KINDERGARTEN DAILY PROGRAM 

NOEA KEOGH 

[NOTE— Owing to tlie delay necessary to reach our sub- 
scribers in foreign countries we adopted the plan of punt- 
ing this program one month ahead. Some of our Amer- 
ican subscribers, however, prefer the program in the issue 
ior the current month. We have theiefore decided to re- 
publish the program for April and subsequent months, 
followed by trie program for the succeeding month, be- 
lieving this the best plan for the accommodation of all.] 



APRIL. 



FIRST WEEK. 

•Monday — Circle — Vacation experiences. 

Rhythm — Review. 

Table 1st — Free representation of anything 
done in vacation. 

Table 2nd — Fold umbrellas from circular 
paper. Mount them and add handle and 
end of handle with black crayon. 

Games — Free choice. 
Tuesday — Circle — More about vacation and 
the changes it brought; new month, new 
leaves, etc. 

Rhythm — Wheel-barrow rhythm — Ander- 
son. 

Table 1st — Make wheel-barrow — card-board 
modelling. 

Table 2nd — Finish first table work. 

Games — Review. 
Wednesday — Circle — Review chosen stories. 

Rhythm — Wheel-barrow. 

Table 1st — Make log house of clothes pins. 

Table 2nd — Make fence of slats and put 
around house. 

Games — Sense games. 
Thursday — Bring up subjects talked of dur- 
ing year and let children discuss them. 

Rhythm — Same. 

Table 1st — 'Cut fence free-hand from folded 
paper. 

Table 2nd — Make bird houses of fj par- 
quetry. 

Games — Same. 



Friday — Circle — General review. 
Rhythm — General review. 
Table 1st — Unfinished work. 
Table 2nd — Choose something done before 

to be done again. 
Games — Free choice. 

SECOND WEEK. 

Monday — Circle— The flowers that have come. 
Name and describe them. 

Rhythm — Sunbeam game from Mari Hofer. 

Table 1st — Colored pencil drawing of tulip. 

Table 2nd — Stringing beads by color. 

Games — Out-door games. Take children 

out in yard to play tag, hide and seek, etc. 

Tuesday — Circle — If possible, give this time 

to visiting one or two other grades to 

see the hand-work there. 

Rhythm — Use this time for re-calling and 
describing things seen. Let children 
choose what they wish to make and give 
their own directions as to making it. 

Table 1st — Work chosen as above. 

Table 2nd — Make border of tablets. 

Games— sense-feeling. 
Wednesday — Circle — Use this time to tell 
more of yesterday's sights ; to fully de- 
scribe the table-work to be done, today. 

Rhythm — Sun beam game. 

Table 1st — Work as chosen. 

Table 2nd — Continue border work with pen- 
cil and paper with help of tablets. 

Games — Sense games, feeling, taste. 
Thursday and Friday can well be given up to 
this same work. It brings out the child's 
independence in thought and adopts it to 
the material in hand. 

THIRD WEEK. 

Monday — Circle — All the birds we have seen. 
The story of the shoe in tree used as a 
bird's nest. The story of the man's boot 
recalled. 



208 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Rhythm and Table 1st — Time used for a 
walk to watch the birds. 

Table 2nd — Sand table play. 

Games — Used for rest time after walk to 
talk over what we have seen. 
Tuesday — Circle — Yesterday's talk renewed. 

Rhythm — "Three Blue Birdies" from Drap- 
er's Self Culture, Sec. I. 

Table 1st — Free cutting of flying birds from 
black paper. Mount these on the wall in 
group fashion. Very pretty effect. 

Table 2nd — Bird's house made of sticks and 
tablet